Nellie Johnstone No. 1
Nellie Johnstone No. 1 was the first commercially productive oil well in Oklahoma. Completed on April 15, 1897, the well was drilled in the Bartlesville Sand near Bartlesville, opening an era of oil exploration and development in Oklahoma, it was abandoned as a well in 1964. The site was donated to the city of Bartlesville and is now a park, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, featuring a restored drilling rig; the well was backed by George B. Keeler and William Johnstone, Keeler had been adopted into the Osage Nation and Johnstone had been adopted into the Delaware Nation after marrying Native American women. Keeler and Johnstone left Bartles to open their own store near the Osage Indian Agency on the Caney River, was named for Johnstone's daughter. Keeler and Johnstone, together with partner Frank Overlees and their Native American wives, leased 200,000 acres from the Cherokee Nation on an area of oil seep and engaged the Cudahy Oil Company to finance the actual drilling operation.
The firm of McBride and Bloom, headquartered in Independence, had been drilling in the Red Fork field. The original drilling rig had been used at a dry hole near Sapulpa, it took two weeks to move it by oxcart 70 miles overland to the Bartlesville site. The well went to 1,320 feet, was completed using a then-usual technique of placing a "torpedo" into the well to fracture the bore and release the oil. Keeler's stepdaughter, Jennie Cass, dropped the "go devil" charge, causing the explosive to detonate on impact, in front of fifty spectators; the ensuing gusher produced between 50 and 75 barrels a day, had to be capped for two years until means could be found to move the oil to a more distant market. According to Kenny Franks' article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture, the Nellie Johnstone well had not been properly sealed before it was capped. Oil continued seeping into the sump while the well was blocked overflowing into the nearby Caney River. During the unusually cold winter that followed, a group of children ice skating on the frozen river, built a bonfire to keep themselves warm.
Somehow the fire spread close to the oil seep. The fire spread to the Nellie Johnstone, causing major damage to the facility; the well was uncapped in 1900, after the Kansas, Oklahoma Central and Southwestern Railway acquired by Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad, came to Bartlesville, stimulating the development of the Bartlesville field by offering to transport crude to market in Neodesha, Kansas. Nellie Johnstone Cannon, six years old at the time the well was drilled and named for her, was granted the land on which the well was drilled by allotment through her Native American ancestry, she sold the land to Bartlesville in 1917. The area is now Johnstone Park. A replica drilling rig was built over the well in 1948. After the Johnstone No. 1 well was abandoned in 1963, interest in maintaining the site as a historical monument had begun to grow, the rig scene was reconstructed, using redwood timbers for the derrick. The derrick was rebuilt in 2008; the well site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
Nellie Johnstone Number One at the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture
The Osage Plains are a physiographic section of the larger Central Lowland province, which in turn is part of the larger Interior Plains physiographic division. The area is sometimes called North Central Plains, or Rolling Plains; the Osage Plains, covering west-central Missouri, the southeastern third of Kansas, most of central Oklahoma, extending into north-central Texas, is the southernmost of three tallgrass prairie physiographic areas. It grades into savanna and woodland to the east and south, into shorter, mixed-grass prairie to the west; the Osage Plains consist of three subregions. The Osage Plains proper occupy the northeast segment. Although demarcated from the Ozark uplift, the plains are nonetheless a transitional area across which the boundary between prairie and woodland has shifted over time. In the central portion of the physiographic area lies the second subregion, the Flint Hills called "the Osage" in Oklahoma; this large remnant core of native tallgrass prairie is a rocky rolling terrain that runs from north to south across Kansas and extends into Oklahoma.
To the west and south of these hills are the Blackland Prairies and Cross Timbers. This vegetatively complex region of intermixed prairie and scrubby juniper-mesquite woodland extends into north-central Texas. Bluestem prairies and oak-dominated savannas and woodlands characterize the natural vegetation in the Cross Timbers. Much of the area has been converted to agriculture, although expanses of oak forest and woodland are still scattered throughout the eastern portion of the subregion. Birds in the Osage Plains include the threatened greater prairie-chicken, Henslow's sparrow, loggerhead shrike, field sparrow, scissor-tailed flycatcher, Bell's vireo, painted bunting, Harris's sparrow. Wildfire suppression and the spread of exotic plants are the factors most negatively affecting priority bird habitat; the area now is managed exclusively for beef production with annual burns and intensive grazing practices that provide little of the habitat structure required to support many priority bird species.
Fire and plains bison were dominant ecological forces and had great influences on the vegetation from local to landscape scales. The Osage Plains and Flint Hills were dominated by tallgrass prairie with scattered groves of blackjack oak in the uplands and along drainages. A variety of wetland types, including wet prairie and northern floodplain forests occurred along larger rivers. Today, much of the land in the Osage Plains is planted to corn and soybeans, or has been converted to non-native grasses for pasture and hay. Large expanses of tallgrass prairie remain in the Flint Hills, where relief is greater than in the Osage Plains subregion and the land less suitable for cropping; the Osage Plains are underlain by soft shales with interbedded sandstones and limestones of late Mississippian to Pennsylvanian ages. Some of the rocks prevalent in the Osage Plains are Mississippian limestone, limestone shale, Ordovician dolomite, coal. Clay and shale are within the Pennsylvanian bedrock; the area contained two major mining areas.
The biggest was the Tri-State zinc region, consisting of nearly 2,000 sq mi. This was the largest concentration of zinc deposits anywhere in the world. Most mining sites have closed due to health and other environmental issues. More than $1 billion worth of lead and zinc were extracted from the area during the active mining days; the other major mining was for bituminous coal. Due to air quality standards, this region's coal is in low demand due to its high sulfur content; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Osage Plains, Bureau of Land Management"
The term Cross Timbers known as Ecoregion 29, Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains, is used to describe a strip of land in the United States that runs from southeastern Kansas across Central Oklahoma to Central Texas. Made up of a mix of prairie and woodland, it forms part of the boundary between the more forested eastern country and the treeless Great Plains, marks the western habitat limit of many mammals and insects. No major metropolitan areas lie wholly within the Cross Timbers, although the western half of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex does, including the cities of Fort Worth, Denton and Weatherford; the western suburbs of the Tulsa metropolitan area and the northeastern suburbs of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area lie within this area. The main highways that cross the region are I-35 and I-35W going north to south and I-40 going east to west. Numerous U. S. Highways cross the area; the Cross Timbers are defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as Ecoregion 29, a Level III ecoregion.
Some organizations and maps refer to the Cross Timbers ecoregion as the Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains. The Cross Timbers are contained within the WWF Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion; the woodland and savanna portions of the Cross Timbers are post oak and blackjack oak on coarse, sandy soils. The short, stout oaks that grow in the Cross Timbers were not usable as timber and those that were not cleared for farmland constitute one of the least disturbed forest types in the eastern United States, with some 890,000 acres of old-growth forest scattered throughout the region; these old-growth forests contain millions of post oak from 200 to 400 years old and red cedar over 500 years old. The prairie portions are chiefly tallgrass on dry soils. Today, land use is a mixture of rangeland and farmland; the area has been an important site of oil extraction for over 80 years. Geologically speaking, the Cross Timbers are underlain by Pennsylvanian and Cretaceous-era sandstone and limestone, moderately dissected, giving the region a to moderately rolling topography, including some cuestas.
Although local relief is low, it is greater than that in the surrounding ecoregions, although this is not the case with the Flint Hills in Kansas. Ecologically, the EPA includes the Cross Timbers as part of the vast Great Plains, which comprise Level I Ecoregion 9.0, stretching from central Alberta in Canada to northern Mexico. More the Cross Timbers fall into Level II Ecoregion 9.4, the smaller South Central Semi-Arid Plains. In southern Oklahoma, the Cross Timbers are located on the edge of the Great Plains, as they border directly onto parts of Level I Ecoregion 8.0, the Eastern Temperate Forests. In turn, the Cross Timbers are themselves subdivided into nine Level IV Ecoregions: A wide belt of land stretching from south-central Oklahoma into southeastern Kansas, this is the only part of the Cross Timbers that extends into Kansas. In that state, it covers eastern Chautauqua and Elk counties and smaller portions of Greenwood, Woodson and Montgomery counties, while in Oklahoma, this region covers all of Seminole and Okfuskee counties, large parts of Osage, Creek, Cleveland, Hughes, McIntosh, Okmulgee counties, smaller parts of Logan, Murray, Tulsa and Washington counties.
The towns of Sand Springs, Sapulpa and Shawnee, Oklahoma fall within this large area. In Oklahoma, this belt of woodland covers all of Marshall County and parts of Love, Carter and Bryan counties, but in Texas, this region exists as a long narrow strip of dense forest stretching from the Red River to just north of Waco, Texas, it passes through northwestern Grayson County, eastern Cooke and Tarrant counties, central Johnson County, western Hill County, northern McClennan County. The city of Arlington, Texas lies within this zone, Denton and Cleburne are on its western edge. A much wider band than the Eastern Cross Timbers, the Western Cross Timbers band extends from far southern Oklahoma, including parts of Love and Carter counties, into central Texas, where it covers large parts of Montague, Jack, Stephens, Palo Pinto, Eastland, Brown, San Saba, Mills counties, as well as smaller parts of Clay, Callahan, Coleman, McCulloch counties. In Texas, this area includes the towns of Mineral Wells; the part of this region north of I-20 is sometimes colloquially referred to as the Palo Pinto Mountains.
Coal mining has been an important activity, as bituminous coal deposits are found throughout the region. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Comanche Indians occupied this area, it became a flash point for conflict between various groups of white settlers, the Comanche, the U. S. Cavalry. Numerous roads cross this region, includi
The Tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem native to central North America. Natural and anthropogenic fire, as well as grazing by large mammals, were agents of periodic disturbance, which regulates tree encroachment, recycles nutrients to the soil, catalyzes some seed dispersal and germination processes. Prior to widespread use of the steel plow, which enabled conversion to agricultural land use, tallgrass prairies expanded throughout the American Midwest and smaller portions of southern central Canada, from the transitional ecotones out of eastern North American forests, west to a climatic threshold based on precipitation and soils, to the southern reaches of the Flint Hills in Oklahoma, to a transition into forest in Manitoba, they were characteristically found in the central forest-grasslands transition, the central tall grasslands, the upper Midwest forest-savanna transition, the northern tall grasslands ecoregions. They flourished in areas with moderate rainfall around 30-35 inches per year.
To the east were the fire-maintained eastern savannas. In the northeast, where fire was infrequent and periodic windthrow represented the main source of disturbance, beech-maple forests dominated. In contrast, shortgrass prairie was typical in the western Great Plains, where rainfall is less frequent and soils are less fertile. Due to expansive agricultural land use little tallgrass prairie remains. Retreating glaciers deposited the parent material for soil in the form of till, i.e. unsorted sediment, about 10,000 years ago. Wind-dropped loess and organic matter accumulated. Animals such as bison, elk and rabbits added nitrogen to the soil through urine and feces. Prairie dogs, a ground squirrel-like rodent considered to be a keystone species, dug tunnels that "aerated the soil and channeled water several feet below the surface." For 5,000 to 8,000 years, more than 240 million acres of prairie grasslands were a major feature of the landscape. Between 1800 and 1930, the vast majority was destroyed.
Settlers transformed. Major reasons for the prairie's demise were the confined grazing pattern of European cattle versus bison, the near-extermination of prairie dogs, the plowing and cultivation of the land, which breached tallgrass root systems and interrupted reproduction. Further, extensive tile drainage has changed the soil's water content and hydrodynamics, ongoing soil erosion results in its increasing loss. Estimates differ of how much original tallgrass prairie survives, ranging from less than 1% in "scattered remnants found in pioneer cemeteries, restoration projects, along highways and railroad rights-of-way, on steep bluffs high above rivers" to 4%. Tallgrass prairie is capable of supporting significant biodiversity. Parts of the ecoregion among the "top ten ecoregions for reptiles, birds and tree species. Tallgrass species are found in the understory layer." Oak and hickory tree species occur in some areas, but in moderate densities. Bison were a dominant species; the tallgrass prairie biome depends on prairie fires, a form of wildfire, for its survival and renewal.
Tree seedlings and intrusive alien species without fire tolerance are eliminated by periodic fires. Such fires may either be set by humans or started by lightning; as its name suggests, the most obvious features of the tallgrass prairie are tall grasses, such as indiangrass, big bluestem, little bluestem, switchgrass, which average between 4.9 and 6.6 ft tall, with occasional stalks as high as 8.2 to 9.8 ft. Prairies include a large percentage of forbs, such as lead plant, prairie rosinweed, sunflowers, asters and many other species. Technically, prairies have less than 5–11% tree cover. A grass-dominated plant community with 10–49% tree cover is a savanna. After the steel plow was invented by John Deere, this fertile soil became one of America's most important resources. Over 95% of the original tallgrass prairie is now farmland; the tallgrass prairie survives in areas unsuited to plowing: the rocky hill country of the Flint Hills, which runs north to south through east-central Kansas. In Oklahoma, the tallgrass prairie has been maintained by ranchers, who saw the hat-high grass as prime grazing area for cattle.
The 39,000-acre Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County and the somewhat smaller 10,900-acre Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve in Kansas, attempt to maintain this ecosystem in its natural form. They have reintroduced plains bison to the vast expanses of grass. Other U. S. preserves include Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in Illinois, Broken Kettle Preserve and Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa, Konza Prairie in Kansas, Prairie State Park in Missouri. In eastern North Dakota is Sheyenne National Grassland, the only national grassland on the tallgrass prairie. Several small tallgrass prairie reservations are in Cook County, including the National Natural Landmark, Gensburg-Markham Prairie; the original exte
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Osage Indian murders
The Osage Indian murders was a series of murders of Osage people in Osage County, Oklahoma in the early 1920s. Estimates are that 60 or more wealthy, full-blood Osage native Americans were killed from 1921 to 1925; the murders appear to have been committed by people intent on taking over the great wealth of the Osage, whose land was producing valuable oil, who each had headrights that earned lucrative annual royalties. Investigation by law enforcement, including the predecessor to the FBI revealed extensive corruption among local officials involved in the Osage guardian program. Most of the murders were never prosecuted. Congress changed the law to prohibit non-Osage from inheriting headrights from Osage with half or more Native American ancestry; the US government continued to manage the leases and royalties from oil-producing lands, the tribe became concerned about these assets. In 2000 the Osage Nation filed a suit against the Department of the Interior, alleging that it had not adequately managed the assets and paid people the royalties they were due.
The suit was settled in commitments to improve program management. In 1907 each tribal member received an allotment of 657 acres, they and their legal heirs, whether or not Osage, earned royalties on the "headrights" from their portion of oil-producing land; the tribe held the mineral rights communally, paid its members by a percentage related to their holdings. By a law of 1921, Congress required most Osage of half or more Native American ancestry to have court-appointed guardians until they demonstrated "competency"; the guardians were local white lawyers and businessmen, who made money off their fees and sometimes set up criminal means to defraud the Osage of their wealth. The Osage wealth attracted many other opportunists. In 1925 the tribal elders, with the help of James Monroe Pyle, a local law officer, sought assistance from the Bureau of Investigation when local and state officials could not solve the rising number of murders. Pyle requested an investigation. In its undercover investigation, the Bureau found that several murders in one family were found to have been committed by a gang led by William "King of Osage Hills" Hale.
His goal was to gain the oil royalty headrights and wealth of several tribe members, including his nephew's Osage wife, the last survivor of her family. Three men were convicted and sentenced in this case, but most murders went unsolved. A late twentieth-century investigation by the journalist Dennis McAuliffe revealed deep corruption among white officials in the county at the time. Incidents included failure of law enforcement to conduct post-mortem exams, falsified death certificates issued by the coroner's office, other activities among white officials to cover up the murders. Osage County officials sought revenge against Pyle for his role in bringing the murders to light. Fearing for his life and his wife fled to Arizona, where he again served as an officer of the law, he died there in 1942. In 1925, Congress passed a law prohibiting inheritance of headrights by non-natives from Osage of half or more Native American ancestry, to reduce the threat to the Osage. From 1926–1929, Hale and an associate were convicted of the murders, with one nephew pleading guilty.
They were sentenced to life in prison, but received parole, although the Osage objected. In 1897 oil was first discovered in Osage County; the United States federal government's Department of the Interior managed leases for oil exploration and production on land owned by the Osage Nation through the Bureau of Indian Affairs and managed royalties, paying individual allottees. As part of the process of preparing Oklahoma for statehood, the federal government allotted 657 acres to each Osage on the tribal rolls in 1907; the headrights could be inherited including non-Osage. By 1920 the market for oil had grown and the Osage were wealthy. In 1923 alone "the tribe took in more than thirty million dollars, the equivalent today of more than four hundred million dollars."People all across the United States read about the Osage, called "the richest nation, clan or social group of any race on earth, including the whites, man for man." Some Osage used their royalties to send their children to private schools.
Along with tens of thousands of oil workers, the oil wealth attracted many white opportunists to Osage County. Believing the Osage would not be able to manage their new wealth, or lobbied by whites who wanted a piece of the action, by 1921 the United States Congress passed a law requiring that courts appoint guardians for each Osage of half-blood or more in ancestry, who would manage their royalties and financial affairs until they demonstrated "competency". Under the system minors who had less than half-Osage blood had to have guardians appointed, regardless of whether the minors had living parents; the courts appointed the guardians from businessmen. The incentives for criminali
The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th