Geography of Bulgaria
Bulgaria is a country situated in Southeast Europe, bordering Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east. The northern border with Romania follows the river Danube until the city of Silistra; the land area of Bulgaria is 110,879 square kilometres larger than that of Iceland or the U. S. state of Tennessee. Considering its small size, Bulgaria has a great variety of topographical features. Within small parts of the country, the land may be divided into plains, hills, basins and deep river valleys; the geographic center of Bulgaria is located in Uzana. Bulgaria features notable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped peaks in Rila and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny Black Sea coast. Most of the country is situated within the humid continental climate region, with Alpine climate in the highest mountains and subtropical climate in the southernmost regions; the country has a dense river network but with the notable exception of the river Danube, they are short and with low water flow.
The average annual precipitation is 670 mm. The driest region is Dobrudzha in the north-eastern part of the Danubian Plain, while the highest rainfall has been measured in the upper valley of the river Ogosta in the western Balkan Mountains. Bulgaria has substantial land in forest. In 2006 land use and land cover was 5% intensive human use, 52% agriculture including pasture, 31% forest, 11% woodland-shrub and non-vegetated, 1% water. Phytogeographically, Bulgaria straddles the Illyrian and Euxinian provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom; the country falls within six terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozone: Balkan mixed forests, Rodope montane mixed forests, Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests, East European forest steppe and Pontic–Caspian steppe. The borders of Bulgaria have a total length of 1,867 km; the coastline is 378 km. The northern border with Romania is 609 km. Most of the frontier is formed by the river Danube from the mouth of the river Timok in the west to the city of Silistra in the east.
The land border from Silistra to Cape Sivriburun at the Black Sea is 139 km long. The Danube, with steep bluffs on the Bulgarian side and a wide area of swamps and marshes on the Romanian side, is crossed by two bridges – New Europe Bridge between Vidin and Calafat, Danube Bridge between Ruse and Giurgiu. There are 48 Bulgarian and 32 Romanian islands along the river Danube; the land frontier has three border crossings at Silistra and Durankulak at the Black Sea. It is crossed by a major gas pipeline transporting natural gas from Russia to Bulgaria; the eastern border is maritime and encompasses the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast from Cape Sivriburun in the north to the mouth of the Rezovo River in the south. Bulgaria's littoral forms 1/10 of the total Black Sea coastline, includes two important gulfs, the Gulf of Varna and the Gulf of Burgas, harbouring the country's two major ports; the southern border is 752 km long, of them 259 km are with Turkey and 493 km are with Greece. The Bulgaria–Turkey frontier runs from the mouth of the Rezovo River in the east through the Strandzha Mountains and the Dervent Heights, crosses the river Tundzha at the village of Matochina and ends at the river Maritsa at the village of Kapitan Andreevo.
There are three border crossings at Malko Tarnovo and Kapitan Andreevo. The border with Greece runs from Kapitan Andreevo through several ridges of the Rhodope Mountains following the watershed of the rivers Arda and Vacha on the Bulgarian side, runs through the Slavyanka Mountain, crosses the river Struma at the village of Kulata and runs through the crest of the Belasitsa Mountain to the Tumba Peak. There are six border checkpoints at Svilengrad, Makaza, Zlatograd and Kulata; the western border is 506 km long, of them 165 km are with North Macedonia and 341 km are with Serbia. The frontier with North Macedonia runs from the Tumba Peak in the south through the mountains of Ograzhden, Maleshevo and Osogovo up to mount Kitka. There are three border crossings near the town of Petrich and at the villages of Logodazh and Gyueshevo; the border with Serbia runs from Kitka through the mountainous region Kraishte, including the Ruy Mountain, crosses the valley of the river Nishava, runs through the main watershed of the western Balkan Mountains and follows the river Timok for 15 km until its confluence with the Danube.
There are five border checkpoints at Dolno Uyno, Kalotina, Vrashka Chuka and Bregovo. The relief of Bulgaria is varied. In the small territory of the country there are extensive lowlands, hills and high mountains, many valleys and deep gorges; the main characteristic of Bulgaria's topography is four alternating bands of high and low terrain that extend east to west across the country. From north to south, those bands, called geomorphological regions, are the Danubian Plain, the Balkan Mountains, the Transitional region and the Rilo-Rhodope region; the easternmost sections near the Black Sea are hilly, but they gain height to the west until the westernmost part of the country is high ground. Table, showing the distribution of the
Lovech is a city in north-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality; the city is located about 150 kilometres northeast from the capital city of Sofia. Near Lovech are the towns of Pleven and Teteven; the name is derived from the Slavic root lov, "hunting" + the Slavic suffix -ech. Lovech is situated in the Forebalkan area of northern Bulgaria, on both sides of the river Osam, unifies both mountainous and plain relief; the eastern part of the town is surrounded by a 250 m high plateau, where the largest park in Lovech, Stratesh, is located, the southwestern part is surrounded by the hills Hisarya and Bash Bunar. In the northwest the relief changes to the plains of the neighbouring Pleven Province; the average altitude of Lovech is about 200 m above mean sea level. The highest point of the town is Akbair Hill at 450 m. In Stratesh Park, the highest place in the town, there are a great number of lilac bushes seen from the whole town, which are a wonderful view in the spring.
Due to this, Lovech is well known as the town of the lilacs. According to the census, held in February, 2011, Lovech is populated by 36,600 inhabitants within city limits. In the 1880s the population of Lovech numbered about 7,000. Since it started growing decade by decade because of the migrants from the rural areas and the surrounding smaller towns, with a peak in the period 1987-1991 when exceeded 50,000 residents. After this time, the population has started decreasing in consequence of the poor economic situation in the Bulgarian provinces during the 1990s that led to a new migration in the direction of the country capital Sofia and abroad. According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows: Bulgarians: 32,706 Turks: 919 Gypsies: 411 Others: 120 Indefinable: 201 Undeclared: 2,243 Total: 36,600 The ethnic composition of Lovech Municipality is 43,223 Bulgarians, 2,321 Turks and 665 Gypsies among others. Following the census of 1926 Professor Anastas Ishirkov noted the homogeneity of the population, 95% of Bulgarian origin.
Lovech is one of the oldest towns in Bulgaria. Traces of human activities from ancient times were found in the region in the caves near the town; the reason was the comfortable location between the mountains and the flat country, the presence of a river. The first inhabitants of the town were the Thracian tribe of the Meldi, whose traces date back to the 4th or 3rd centuries BC, they founded their capital, called Melta, in the area, situated at the place of today's neighbourhood and architecture reserve Varosha. When the Balkans were occupied by the Roman Empire, a military station called Prezidium was founded near the modern town, situated at an important strategic position on one of the main Roman roads. Parts of this road are to be seen in the territory of Lovech today; the former Roman citadel Hisarya, situated on the hill of the same name, was the place where in 1187 the peace treaty between the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire was signed and the returning of Bulgaria on the European map was declared, marking the beginning of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
In the 12th century Lovech was one of the most famous towns in Bulgaria. The Turkish invasion in the middle of the 14th century did not pass the town, but the Hisarya fortress was captured last of all, in 1446, although for a long time after that the town enjoyed some privileges such as a prohibition on Turkish people to settle in the town or to take Bulgarian children as janissaries. In the 17th century Lovech was once again an important trade centre and one of the richest towns in Bulgaria, a reason for the town being called Altın Lofça at the time. In the times of revolutionary organisations against the Ottoman rule, Lovech was the centre of operations of the Internal Revolutionary Organisation of Vasil Levski, called the Secret Revolutionary Committee, he was arrested by the Turkish military in a village near Lovech called Kakrina and hanged in Sofia. The biggest museum of Vasil Levski in Bulgaria containing many personal items such as notebooks and weapon is situated in the old town part of Lovech.
Between 1872 and 1874, the Bulgarian master-builder Nikola Fichev, known as Kolyu Ficheto, built the famous Covered Bridge over the river Osam, the only one of its kind in the Balkans. The bridge was burned out in 1925, but rebuilt in 1931. Now it connects the new and the old part of the town and it's full of cafes, small restaurants and many souvenir shops. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, an important battle was held at Lovech, known as the Battle of Lovcha; the war and several plagues and migrations in Wallachia drastically reduced the population. There was a substantial number of victims from the Bulgarian population. Many Turkish families were expelled by the Russian army and the Muslims of Lovech known to be "Lofçalılar" have immigrated to several parts of Turkey. In more recent times, Lovech was the place where modern foreign language education in Bulgaria started. Taking over from the American college established there in 1881, the first foreign language school in Bulgaria was set up in Lovech in 1950.
Three languages were taught in this school: English and German. However soon after that the teaching of English and French was moved to Sofia and Varna founding the first language schools in these cities: the First English Lang
Galați is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube River. In 2011, the Romanian census recorded 249,432 residents, making it the 8th most populous city in Romania. Galați is an economic centre based around the port of the naval shipyard; the name "Galați" is derived from the Cuman word galat. This word is borrowed from the Arabic word قَلْعَةٌ qalʿat, "fortress". Other etymologies have been suggested, such as the Serbian galac. However, the galat root appears in nearby toponyms, some of which show a Cuman origin, for example Gălățui Lake, which has the typical Cuman -ui suffix for "water". Another toponym in the region is Galicia, with its town of Halych, locally associated with the jackdaw. Before the Mongol invasion of Rus, Galați was known as Malyi Halych as part of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia. Other similar place names are Galich and Galatia in Turkey. Galați has several exonyms: Greek: Γαλάτσι. Archeological evidence points to occupation of the region in the neolithic period.
For example, north west of the town of Galați, on the eastern shores of the Malina marshes, fragments of ceramic-type Stoicani Aldeni and tools made of bone have been found. A stone sceptre, from the late Bronze Age, belonging to the Coslogeni culture was found on the marshes' southern bank. Galați town itself developed from an ancient Dacian settlement of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE where there was a ford across the Danube river. In 101 to 102 and 105 to 106, the Dacians fought wars against the Romans and the area became part of the Roman empire. A strong Roman fortress was built at Barboși to defend the ford across Danube. From the 300s a Daco-Roman settlement developed at a ford south of the site of the Church of the Virgin. There is evidence of continuous inhabitation of Galați since the 600s. A treasure hoard consisting of 12 silver coins issued between 613 and 685 was found in a Byzantine tomb near the Church of the Virgin. Western and Byzantine coins from the time of Emperor Michael IV were found.
At one time, the city became part of the Republic of Genoa Territories and was called "Caladda". In 1445, a document signed by Stephen II of Moldavia mentions Galați. In 1484, Chilia was conquered by Ottomans. Galați township remained Moldova's only port, not only for domestic trade but for trade with Turkey and Poland. In 1590, the Galați Jewish cemetery was opened; the Ukrainian folk hero, Ivan Stepanovich Mazeppa was a Hetman who died on 1709 in Varniţa, was buried in Galați. Hetman Mazeppa was buried in a brick tomb. In 1710, Tatars plundered Galați after the Battle of Stănilești. In 1775, Russia established a consulate in Galați. However, in 1789, during the Russo-Turkish war of 1787–92, Galați was burned by the armies of the Russian general Mikhail Kamensky. Due to unrest in this part of Europe, Galați port became a site for the construction of large warships. Abbot Boskov, a Romanian traveller, stated: "I saw a large boat, the way those who say Turks caravels, on site, ready to be launched into the water.
He was commissioned by big tax collector of Constantinople. The ship was huge, seventeen seventy steps, loaded with eighty-four bronze cannons." In the Greek–Turkish war of 1821, Ottoman subjects were killed in Galați. This was the result of a series of rebellions by members of the port workers' association and city clerks. Despite the wars and unrest, Galați developed based on trade. In 1805, France and England established vice-consulates. In 1832, the School of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel is founded. Two years in 1834, Austrian ships were having scheduled arrivals and in 1837, Galați was declared a free port. In 1850, James Buchanan, the U. S. president, sent a vice-consul to Galați and the U. S. opened a consulate in 1858. Galați was a trading port for German lands; when the Crimean War finished, Galați became a seat of the Danube European Commission. In 1869, the Mihai Eminescu municipal park opened and by 1870, factories were opening. By, 1908 they numbered 41. On 13 September 1872, northern city rail tunnel opened.
The River station opened shortly after on 24 September 1880. In 1889, the V. A. Urechia library opened. After the union of the Romanian principalities in 1859, with Alexandru Ioan Cuza as leader, development in Galați increased. Zeletin wrote, "The birth of the modern Romanian state must distinguish two main currents – one exuberant but superficial, based on liberal ideas which depart from Paris to Bucharest and Iași; the other is quieter but deep, leaving from London to Galați and Brăila: English is the current capitalist economy." Between 1900 and the beginning of World War I, Galați continued its trade in grain and timber with sixteen consulates. Galați was part of Covurlui County. In 1907, social unrest among the peasant classes precipitated intervention by the Romanian army. In 1911, a statue of the poet Mihai Eminescu was erected. Galați remained under Romanian control during World War I. Romanian soldiers fought alongside those of Russia against the army of the Central Powers. Galați was bombed by retreating Russian troops in January 1918.
In 1919, a high school for Jewish students opened. A first air race between Galați and Bucharest was held in 1926; the 1930 Romanian census recorded 100,000 residents in Galați. After Bucharest, C
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia. With a population of about 430,000, it is one of the smaller capitals of Europe but still the country's largest city; the greater metropolitan area is home to more than 650,000 people. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia, occupying both banks of the River Danube and the left bank of the River Morava. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital; the city's history has been influenced by people of different nations and religions, namely Austrians, Croats, Germans, Jews and Slovaks. It was the coronation site and legislative center of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1536 to 1783, has been home to many Slovak and German historical figures. Bratislava is the political and economic centre of Slovakia, it is the seat of the parliament and the Slovak Executive. It has several universities, many museums, theatres and other cultural and educational institutions. Many of Slovakia's large businesses and financial institutions have headquarters there. In 2017, Bratislava was ranked as the third richest region of the European Union by GDP per capita.
GDP at purchasing power parity is about three times higher than in other Slovak regions. Bratislava receives around 1 million tourists every year; the city received its contemporary name in 1919. Until it was known in English by its German name, since after 1526 it was dominated by the Habsburg Monarchy and the city had a relevant ethnic-German population; that is the term from which the pre-1919 Czech names are derived. The city's Hungarian name, was given after the castle's first castellan, "Poson"; the origin of the name is unclear: it might come from the Czech Pos or the German Poscho, which are personal names. The medieval settlement Brezalauspurc is sometimes attributed to Bratislava, but the actual location of Brezalauspurc is under scholarly debate; the city's modern name is credited to Pavel Jozef Šafárik's misinterpretation of Braslav as Bratislav in his analysis of mediaeval sources, which led him to invent the term Břetislaw, which became Bratislav. During the revolution of 1918–1919, the name'Wilsonov' or'Wilsonstadt' was proposed by American Slovaks, as he supported national self-determination.
The name Bratislava, used only by some Slovak patriots, became official in March 1919. Other alternative names of the city in the past include Greek: Ιστρόπολις Istropolis, Czech: Prešpurk, French: Presbourg, Italian: Presburgo, Latin: Posonium, Romanian: Pojon and Serbo-Croatian: Požun / Пожун. In older documents, confusion can be caused by the Latin forms Bratislavia, Wratislavia etc. which refer to Wrocław, not Bratislava. The first known permanent settlement of the area began with the Linear Pottery Culture, around 5000 BC in the Neolithic era. About 200 BC, the Celtic Boii tribe founded the first significant settlement, a fortified town known as an oppidum, they established a mint, producing silver coins known as biatecs. The area fell under Roman influence from the 1st to the 4th century AD and was made part of the Danubian Limes, a border defence system; the Romans introduced grape growing to the area and began a tradition of winemaking, which survives to the present. The Slavs arrived from the East between the 6th centuries during the Migration Period.
As a response to onslaughts by Avars, the local Slavic tribes rebelled and established Samo's Empire, the first known Slavic political entity. In the 9th century, the castles at Bratislava and Devín were important centres of the Slavic states: the Principality of Nitra and Great Moravia. Scholars have debated the identification as fortresses of the two castles built in Great Moravia, based on linguistic arguments and because of the absence of convincing archaeological evidence; the first written reference to a settlement named "Brezalauspurc" dates to 907 and is related to the Battle of Pressburg, during which a Bavarian army was defeated by the Hungarians. It is connected to the fall of Great Moravia weakened by its own inner decline and under the attacks of the Hungarians; the exact location of the battle remains unknown, some interpretations place it west of Lake Balaton. In the 10th century, the territory of Pressburg became part of Hungary, it developed as a key administrative centre on the kingdom's frontier.
This strategic position destined the city to be the site of frequent attacks and battles, but brought it economic development and high political status. It was granted its first known "town privileges" in 1291 by the Hungarian King Andrew III, was declared a free royal town in 1405 by King Sigismund. In 1436 he authorized the town to use its own coat of arms; the Kingdom of Hungary was defeated by the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. The Turks failed to conquer it. Owing to Ottoman advances into Hungarian territory, the city was designated the new capital of Hungary in 1536, after becoming part of the Habsburg Monarchy and marking the beginning of a new era; the city became a coronation town and the seat of kings, the nobility and all major organisations and offices. Between 1536 and 1830, eleven Hungarian kings and queens were crowned at St. Martin's Cathedral. The
Ingolstadt is a city in Bavaria, Germany, on the banks of the River Danube, in the centre of Bavaria. In 2016, it had 133,638 citizens, it is part of the Munich Metropolitan Region. The Illuminati, an Age of Enlightenment secret society, was founded in Ingolstadt in the late 18th century. Ingolstadt is a setting in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, where the scientist Victor Frankenstein creates his monster, it is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile manufacturer Audi, defence aircraft manufacturer Airbus, electronic stores Media Markt and Saturn. Ingolstadt Central Station has been connected to Nuremberg by a high-speed rail link since May 2006. Ingolstadt has a second passenger station at Ingolstadt Nord. Covering an urban area of 133.35 square kilometres, Ingolstadt is geographically Bavaria's fourth-largest city after Munich and Augsburg. At its largest point the city is about 18 km from east from north to south about 15 km; the city boundary has a length of 70 km. The city boundary is about 14 km away from the geographic centre of Bavaria in Kipfenberg.
The old town is 374 metres above sea level and the highest point, located in the district of Pettenhofen, is 410.87 m. The lowest point of the Schutter confluence with the Danube is at 362 m above sea level. Ingolstadt uses Central European Time as throughout Germany; the city is expanding at the southern banks of the Danube in a wide flat bowl. The Ingolstadt basin borders the Jura foothills, located south and is to the north of the Donau-Isar-Hügelland. In the southwest is the Donaumoos while in the east the lowland forests of the Danube reach into the urban area, it is the second largest hardwood floodplain on the Danube. The Sandrach, the former Southern main branch of the Danube forms the Southern city border. In the north, the Schutter flows through from the west reaching the Danube near to the Altstadt. Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of Charlemagne on 6 February 806 as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa 1250, Ingolstadt was granted city status. Ingolstadt was the capital of the Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt between 1392 and 1447.
Ingolstadt was united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria ordered the building of the New Castle, whose form was influenced by French Gothic architecture. In 1472 Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria founded the University of Ingolstadt which became the Ludwig-Maximilians-University. In 1800 it was moved to Landshut and in 1826 to Munich; the University of Ingolstadt was an important defender of the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation era, led by such notable scholars as Johann Eck. Ingolstadt is where William IV, Duke of Bavaria wrote and signed the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot in 1516. In the Battle of Ingolstadt in May 1525, the Black Company – a unit of Franconian farmers and knights fighting on the side of the peasants during the German Peasants' War – took their last stand at Ingolstadt against the Swabian League, all being defeated and killed. On 30 April 1632, the German field marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly died at Ingolstadt during a Swedish siege of the city; the field marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus.
Ingolstadt proved to be the first fortress in Germany that held out for the entire length of the Swedish siege, the Swedes withdrew. The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City Museum; the horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig". When the Swedes withdrew, the city preserved the remains of the king's horse putting the form on display, it has remained thus for 400 years. In 1748, Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Order of Illuminati, was born in Ingolstadt. After the French invasion in 1799 the fortress was demolished and the university was relocated to Landshut. A fortress city, Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval defensive wall; the Bavarian fortress now holds the museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I, future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war. A sappers' drill ground lies next to the river, two military air bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft.
The long military tradition of the city is reflected in today's cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been converted into well-used public parks. Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie, now a museum for medical history. Marieluise Fleißer set her play Pioneers in Ingolstadt in the city. In 1945, the car manufacturer Auto Union first arrived in the city; the company's original factories in Chemnitz and Zwickau were shattered during the war, were seized by the Russians as reparations. Auto Union executives started a spare parts operation in Ingolstadt in the immediate post war period, with a view to relocating the entire company to the region. With the help of Marshall Plan aid, Auto Union was formally re-founded in Ingolstadt in 1949 evolving into the modern-era Audi company, after it was taken over by Volkswagen in 1964. Today, Audi now dominates the economy of the city; as one of five ducal residences of medieval Bavaria — besides Landshut, Munich and Burgha
Ruse (also transliterated as Rousse, Russe. Ruse is in the northeastern part of the country, on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the Romanian city of Giurgiu 75 km south of Bucharest, Romania's capital, 200 km from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and 300 km from the capital Sofia, it is the most significant Bulgarian river port, serving an important part of the international trade of the country. Ruse is known for its 19th- and 20th-century Neo-Baroque and Neo-Rococo architecture, which attracts many tourists, it is called the Little Vienna. The Ruse-Giurgiu Friendship Bridge, until 14 June 2013 the only one in the shared Bulgarian -Romanian section of the Danube, crosses the river here. Ruse is the birthplace of the Nobel laureate in Literature Elias Canetti and the world-famous writer Michael Arlen. Ruse is on the right bank of the river Danube, the high bank, having two underwater terraces and three river terraces at 15 to 22 m, 30 to 66 m, 54 to 65 m; the average altitude is 45.5 m AMSL.
The urban area is an 11-km ellipse running along the river. The city extends from the land-connected Matey island and the mouth of Rusenski Lom on the west to Srabcheto hill on the east. During the 20th century, the west end of the city was modified by moving the mouth of Rusenski Lom to the west, as well as by moving the bank itself with its fairway to the north. Sarabair hill is 159 m high; the Rousse TV Tower is built there on the remains of a former Turkish fortification. Ruse has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. Owing to its position on the Danubian Plain, the city's winters can get windy. Winter temperatures dip below 0 °C, sometimes to −20 °C. In summer, the average temperature is 25 °C. Temperatures reach 35 to 40 °C in mid-summer in the city centre and stay as low as 18 to 20 °C during the nights. During spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between 17 to 22 °C, precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.
The highest temperature recorded was 44.0 C and the lowest was −22.8 C. Scholars suggest that the city on the river bank derived its present name from the Finnish root ruskea meaning "brown", or *ru- or from the Cherven fortress, meaning "red," through the root rous, present in many Slavic languages. A popular legend claims that the name Ruse comes from Finnish ruskea, or the name of a female founder of the city, whose name was Rusa, meaning "brown hair". In the 13th and 14th centuries, during the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire, a fortified settlement called Rusi, first mentioned in 1380, emerged near the ruins of the earlier Roman town. Other theories include settlement by people from Rus; the city emerged from a Neolithic settlement of the 3rd to 2nd millennium BCE, when pottery, fishing and hunting developed. Excavations have revealed several layers, suggesting that the place was attacked by neighbouring tribes and suffered from natural disasters. Ancient sanctuaries were found nearby, where idols of a pregnant woman, a fertility goddess, were prevalent.
The Thracian settlement developed into a Roman military and naval centre during the reign of Vespasian, as part of the fortification system along the northern boundary of Moesia. Its name, Sexaginta Prista, suggests a meaning of "a city of 60 ships", based on the supposed 60 nearby berths; the fortress was on the main road between Singidunum and the Danube Delta and was destroyed in the 6th century by Avar and Slavic raids. Hungarian historian Felix Philipp Kanitz was the first to identify Sexaginta Prista with Ruse, but the Škorpil brothers demonstrated the link through studying inscriptions, coins and objects of daily life. An inscription from the reign of Diocletian proves that the city was rebuilt as a praesidium after it was destroyed by the Goths in 250 CE; the settlement was mentioned as Golyamo Yorgovo in the Middle Ages, whose present successor is Giurgiu in Romania. During Ottoman rule, the invaders destroyed the town, reacting to a 1595 unsuccessful liberation attempt by a joint Vlach-Bulgarian army, led by Michael the Brave.
After its rebuilding in the following years, Ruse was dubbed Rusçuk and had again expanded into a large fortress by the 18th century. It grew into one of the most important Ottoman towns on the Danube and an administrative centre of Tuna Vilayet, which extended from Varna and Tulcea to Sofia and Niš; the Dunav newspaper appeared — it was the first printed in Bulgaria and in Bulgarian. Some Bulgarian schools were founded; the streets are numbered for the first time in Bulgarian lands. A post office, home for the aged were founded. Three empires met here for trading: Austro-Hungary, British Empire. France and Italy opened consulates in Ruse; the modern city arose from the shades of the settlement. In 1865 the Obraztsov Chiflik was founded on the place. Ruse developed into a centre of the Bulgarian National
Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich and Augsburg; the city is the political and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany; the first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there. In 179, a new Roman fort Castra Regina was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, it was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739. From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings.
From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there; this was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 this had doubled to 40,000 people. On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg, Germany. In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg; this bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics. In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.
The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, Roman Catholics were denied civil rights, but the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet. So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states": the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, the three monasteries.
In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria, acted as functional co-capital of the Empire due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one brief exception was a prince himself. In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg, it was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine, annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg. Dalberg modernized public life. Most he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by t