Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was a medieval capital of the Safavid dynasty for over forty years and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran, it is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, political newspaper and Pahlavi influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598. Located in 150 km northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m above sea level; the climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya. The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in 1548–1598, it is a provincial capital today, an important cultural center throughout history. Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages; the city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of Iranian history. It was destroyed by Hulagu Khan. After the Ottoman capture of Tabriz, Shah Tahmasp made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire, a status that Qazvin retained for half a century until Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan. In 1210 the city was damaged by the forces of Kingdom of Georgia sent by Tamar the Great, as per the retribution for destroying Georgian-controlled Ani by the Muslim forces that left 12,000 Christians dead. In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade volume grew, its bazaars were enlarged. In the middle of the century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre of Babis occurred in Qazvin in 1847. In the second half of the 19th century Qazvin was one of the centers of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here.
From 1893 this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction in Persia which connected Qazvin by roads to Tehran and Hamadan. The company built the St. Nicolas Church. In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce; the 1921 Persian coup d'état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched from Qazvin. Qazvin has been one of the main pivots on which Persia’s history has revolved and this is where its reputation as an impenetrable fortress originates. During the fall of the Safavids, Qazvin was the centre of Persians reunion for the liberation of Persian territories invaded by Ottoman and Afghan forces in the west and east, respectively; the deployed swordsmen from Qazvin not only retrieved Safavid boundaries, but contributed to their expansion up to China, after occupying India by Nader Shah The Great and Baghdad. Qazvin hosted the base of Assassins and was the training centre of the Nehzat-e Jangal revolutionaries. Qazvin became a state in 1996. In Autumn 2015 portions of Qazvin were struck by a meteorite.
The majority of the people of the city of Qazvin are Persians. The majority language is Persian with a Qazvini accent. Azerbaijanis and Tats Persians are the other largest ethnic groups of the city of Qazvin, they speak Tati. Qazvin is a multicultural city and has hosted Armenian, Romanian and Kurdish minorities which have fled to Qazvin for saving their lives from Ottomans invaders. Qazvin has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area. Qazvin contains several buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia; the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, today a museum in central Qazvin. After Islam, the popularity of mystics, as well as the prominence of tradition, religious jurisprudence, philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools, they include: Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin Heydarieh mosque Masjed Al-nabi: With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavieh's monarchy era.
Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran. Its present-day form is attributed to the Seljukian era. Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period. Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription. Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried. Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648. Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani. Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903. Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period. Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians. Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945. Japanese rule over Korea was the outcome of a process that began with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, whereby a complex coalition of the Meiji government and business officials sought to integrate Korea both politically and economically into the Empire of Japan. A major stepping-stone towards the Japanese occupation of Korea was the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, in which the then-Korean Empire was declared a protectorate of Japan; the annexation of Korea by Japan was set up in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, never signed by the Korean Regent, Gojong. Japanese rule over Korea ended in 1945, when U. S. and Soviet forces captured the peninsula. In 1965 the unequal treaties between Joseon-ruled Korea and Imperial Japan those of 1905 and 1910, were declared "already null and void" at the time of their promulgation by the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea.
The Japanese administration of the Korean Peninsula was directed through the General Government. After the surrender of Japan to the Allied forces at the end of World War II, Korea returned to self-government, albeit under two separate governments and economic systems backed by the Soviet Union and by the United States; the industrialization of the Korean Peninsula began with the Joseon dynasty while Korea was still independent but accelerated under Japanese occupation. The manner of the acceleration of industrialization under Japanese occupation the use of industrialization for the purposes of benefiting Japan, the exploitation of the Korean people in their own country, the marginalization of Korean history and culture, the environmental exploitation of the Korean Peninsula, its long-term negative repercussions for modern-day North and South Korea are among the most provocative aspects of the controversy. In South Korea, the period is described as the "Japanese forced occupation". Other terms include "Japanese Imperial Period", "The dark Japanese Imperial Period", "period of the Japanese imperial colonial administration", "Wae administration".
In Japan, the term "Chōsen of the Japanese-Governed Period" has been used. From the late 18th to late 19th centuries, Western governments sought to intercede in and influence the political and economic fortunes of Asian countries through the use of new approaches described by such terms as "protectorate", "sphere of influence", "concession", which minimized the need for direct military conflict between competing European powers; the newly modernized government of Meiji Japan sought to join these colonizing efforts and the Seikanron began in 1873. This effort was fueled by Saigō Takamori and his supporters, who insisted that Japan confront Korea's refusal to recognize the legitimacy of Emperor Meiji, as it involves the authority of the emperor, military intervention "could not be postponed"; the debate concerned Korea in the sphere of influence of Qing China, which certain elements in the Japanese government sought to separate from Chinese influence and establish as a puppet state. Those in favor saw the issue as an opportunity to find meaningful employment for the thousands of out-of-work samurai, who had lost most of their income and social standing in the new Meiji socioeconomic order.
Further, the acquisition of Korea would provide both a foothold on the Asian continent for Japanese expansion and a rich source of raw materials for Japanese industry. The arguments against such designs were outlined in Ōkubo Toshimichi's "7 Point Document", dated October 1873, in which he argued that the action against Korea was premature, as Japan itself was in the process of modernization and an expedition would be far too costly for Japan to sustain. Okubo's views were supported by the antiwar faction, which consisted of those returning from the Iwakura Mission in 1873. Iwakura Tomomi, the diplomat who had led the mission, persuaded the emperor to reconsider, thus putting an end to the "Korean crisis" debate; the destabilization of the Korean nation may be said to have begun in the period of Sedo Jeongchi whereby, on the death of King Jeongjo of Joseon, the 10-year-old Sunjo of Joseon ascended the Korean throne, with the true power of the administration residing with his regent, Kim Jo-sun, as a representative of the Andong Kim clan.
As a result, the disarray and blatant corruption in the Korean government in the three main areas of revenues – land tax, military service, the state granary system – heaped additional hardship on the peasantry. Of special note is the corruption of the local functionaries, who could purchase an appointment as an administrator and so cloak their predations on the farmers with an aura of officialdom. Yangban families well-respected for their status as a noble class and being powerful both "socially and politically", were seen as little more than commoners unwilling to meet their responsibilities to their communities. Faced with increasing corruption in the government, brigandage of the disenfranchised (such as the mounted fire brigands, or Hwajok, the boat-borne water bri
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Seoul Subway Line 1
Line 1 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a commuter rail service which links central Seoul, South Korea to Soyosan Station in the northeast, Incheon in the southwest, Sinchang via Suwon and Cheonan in the south. The central underground portion of this rail line is the oldest subway section in the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system; the underground section between Seoul Station and Cheongnyangni Station, referred to as Seoul Metro Line 1, is operated by Seoul Metro. The line first opened in 1974 as the"'Korean National Railroad of Seoul"' with through services to national mainline railways from Seongbuk Station to Incheon and Suwon Stations. At the time, the 7.8 km underground portion was run by Seoul Metro was called Line 1 and labeled red on maps. On the other hand, the remaining sections of the rail line run by Korail were labeled either blue or gray on maps, the express lines were red. In 2000, the adjacent through-running Korail services from the Gyeongbu and Gyeongwon Lines were bundled together as part of a greater Line 1, the labeling on maps was changed to the current dark blue color.
Commuter railway service was extended to Sinchang in December 2008. Frequent service is provided between Soyosan, Uijeongbu, Seoul and Guro, where trains split between Incheon in the west and Byeongjeom and Cheonan in the south. Express trains operate from Seoul Stations to Dongincheon and Sinchang stations. Trains travel along Gyeongbu, Gyeongin and Gyeongwon railway lines. In June 2006, Jinwi and Jije Stations opened on the Gyeongbu Line. In January 2010 Dangjeong Station opened, between Uiwang Stations. Part of the Gyeongwon Line from Dongducheon to Uijeongbu was merged into Line 1 in December 2006; the line runs on the left-hand side of the track, as opposed to the right-hand side of the track like all of the other Seoul Metropolitan Subway lines do. Korail operates a variety of express "rapid" trains for long distance commuter services on Line 1; these services include: Gyeongin line express services from Yongsan to Dongincheon, operating express between Guro and Dongincheon, including: Regular express services, introduced on January 29, 1999, following quadruple-tracking of the Gyeongin Line.
Faster limited express trains, introduced on July 7, 2017. Gyeongbu line express services. Seoul Station-Cheonan/Sinchang, skipping all stations between Seoul Station and Geumcheon-gu Office Station, making intermediate stops at Anyang and Uiwang, following the Yeongsan-Cheonan/Sinchang express service pattern south of Suwon. Gyeongwon line express services from Dongducheon to Incheon, operating express between Dongducheon and Kwangwoon University and run local between Incheon and Kwangwoon University. Former express services include: One late night Gyeongin line express service that originated at Soyosan, made all stops to Guro made express stops until Incheon. Yeongdeungpo-Byeongjeom Gyeongbu line express service, skipping all stations between Yeongdeungpo and Anyang and following the Yeongsan-Cheonan/Sinchang express service pattern south of Anyang until Byeongjeom; this service was introduced on August 25, 2014 and was discontinued on December 9, 2016. Two faster Yongsan-Sinchang limited express trains, introduced in 2013.
This train only operated on holidays. It was discontinued on July 1, 2018. GW: Gyeongwon expressGI: Gyeongin expressGB: Gyeongbu red expressSC: Gyeongbu green limited stop 1974 August 15: Line 1 is opened with 9 stations from Seoul to Cheongnyangni, creating a system of 28 stations on national railroads from Seongbuk Station to Incheon Station and Suwon Station. Korail is named Korean National Railroad, with Line 1 just referring to the Seoul–Cheongnyangni section.1978 December 9: The Gyeongwon Line from Yongsan to Seongbuk opens as a new branch, with Ichon and Seongsu.1979 February 1: Yuljeon Station is opened.1980 January 5: Sinimun Station is opened. April 1: Seobinggo and Hoegi are opened. July 10: Seongsu is renamed Eungbong Station1982 August 2: Seoksu Station is opened.1984 January 1: Yuljeon Station is renamed Seongdae-ap Station. May 22: Sindorim Station is opened. November 20: Baegun Station is opened.1985 January 14: Seokgye Station is opened. April 20: Chang-dong is opened as a northward extension.
August 22: Wolgye and Nokcheon are opened. October 18: Oksu Station is opened.1986 September 2: 6 stations from Uijeongbu to Chang-dong are opened as a northward extension.1987 October 5: Uijeongbu Bukbu Station is opened. December 31: Jung-dong Station is opened.1988 January 16: Onsu Station is opened. October 25: The Ansan Line is opened as a southward branch, from Geumjeong Station to Ansan Station.1994 July 11: Ganseok and Dowon are opened. December 1: Seongdae-ap Station is renamed to Sungkyunkwan University.1995 February 16: Guil Station is opened.1996 January 1: Hwigyeong Station is renamed to Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Station March 28: Bugae Station is opened.1997 April 30: Sosa Station is opened.1998 January 7: Singil and Doksan are opened.2000 Korea National Railroad and Line 1 are integrated as Seoul Subway Line
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Killeen is a city in Bell County, United States. According to the 2010 census, its population was 127,921, making it the 21st-most populous city in Texas, it is the principal city of the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area. Killeen is directly adjacent to the main cantonment of Fort Hood, its economy depends on the activities of the post, the soldiers and their families stationed there. It is known as high influx of soldiers. In 1881, the Gulf and Santa Fe Railway extended its tracks through central Texas, buying 360 acres a few miles southwest of a small farming community known as Palo Alto, which had existed since about 1872; the railroad platted a 70-block town on its land and named it after Frank P. Killeen, the assistant general manager of the railroad. By the next year, the town included a railroad depot, a saloon, several stores, a school. Many of the residents of the surrounding smaller communities in the area moved to Killeen. By 1884, the town had grown to include about 350 people, served by five general stores, two gristmills, two cotton gins, two saloons, a lumberyard, a blacksmith shop, a hotel.
Killeen expanded as it became an important shipping point for cotton and grain in western Bell and eastern Coryell Counties. By 1900, its population was about 780. Around 1905, local politicians and businessmen convinced the Texas legislature to build bridges over Cowhouse Creek and other streams, doubling Killeen's trade area. A public water system began operation in 1914 and its population had increased to 1,300 residents; until the 1940s, Killeen remained a small and isolated farm trade center. The buildup associated with World War II changed that dramatically. In 1942, Camp Hood was created as a military training post to meet war demands. Laborers, construction workers, contractors and their families moved into the area by the thousands, Killeen became a military boomtown; the opening of Camp Hood radically altered the nature of the local economy, since the sprawling new military post covered half of Killeen's farming trade area. The loss of more than 300 farms and ranches led to the demise of Killeen's cotton gins and other farm-related businesses.
New businesses were started to provide services for the military camp. Killeen suffered a recession when Camp Hood was all but abandoned after the end of the Second World War, but when Southern congressmen got it established in 1950 as a permanent army post, the city boomed again, its population increased from about 1,300 in 1949 to 7,045 in 1950, between 1950 and 1951, about 100 new commercial buildings were constructed in Killeen. By 1955, Killeen had 224 businesses. Troop cutbacks and transfers in the mid-1950s led to another recession in Killeen, which lasted until 1959, when various divisions were reassigned to Fort Hood; the town continued to grow through the 1960s after US involvement deepened in the Vietnam War and demand for troops kept rising. By 1970, Killeen had developed into a city of 35,507 inhabitants and had added a municipal airport, a new municipal library, a junior college. By 1980, when the census counted 49,307 people in Killeen, it was the largest city in Bell County. By 1990, its population had increased to 63,535, 265,301 people lived in the Killeen/Temple metropolitan area.
In addition to shaping local economic development after 1950, the military presence at Fort Hood changed the city's racial and ethnic composition. No blacks lived for example. By the early 1950s, Marlboro Heights, an all-black subdivision, had been developed. In 1956, the city school board voted to integrate the local high school; the city's first resident Catholic priest was assigned to the St. Joseph's parish in 1954, around the same time, new Presbyterian and Episcopal churches were built. By the 1980s, the city had a heterogeneous population including whites, Mexican Americans, a number of other foreign nationals. After the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in the late summer of 1990, the city prepared for war, sending thousands of troops from the 2nd Armored Division and the 1st Cavalry Division to the Middle East. On October 16, 1991, George Hennard murdered 23 people and committed suicide at the Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen. In December 1991, one of Killeen's high school football teams, the Killeen Kangaroos, won the 5-A Division I state football championship by defeating Sugar Land Dulles 14–10 in the Astrodome.
By 2000, the census listed Killeen's population as 86,911, by 2010, it was over 127,000, making it one of the fastest-growing areas in the nation. Numerous military personnel from Killeen have served in the wars in Afghanistan; as of April 2008, more than 400 of its soldiers had died in the two wars. On November 5, 2009, only a few miles from the site of the Luby's massacre, a gunman opened fire on people at the Fort Hood military base with a handgun, killing 13 and wounding 32. Major Nidal Malik Hasan, a career officer and psychiatrist, sustained four gunshot wounds after a brief shootout with a civilian police officer, he suffered paralysis from the waist down. He was convicted by a court martial, where he was sentenced to death. In 2011, Killeen got media attention from a new television series called Surprise Homecoming, hosted by Billy Ray Cyrus, about military families who have loved ones returning home from overseas. On April 2, 2014, a second shooting spree occurred at several locations at Fort Hood.
Ivan Lopez, a career soldier, killed three people and wounded 16 others before committing suicide.. Killeen is located in w
The Trionychidae are a taxonomic family of a number of turtle genera. Softshells include some of the world's largest freshwater turtles, though many can adapt to living in brackish areas. Members of this family occur in Africa and North America. Most species have traditionally been included in the genus Trionyx, but the vast majority have since been moved to other genera. Among these are the North American Apalone softshells that were placed in Trionyx until 1987, they are called "softshell" because their carapaces lack horny scutes, though the spiny softshell, Apalone spinifera, does have some scale-like projections, hence its name. The carapace is leathery and pliable at the sides; the central part of the carapace has a layer of solid bone beneath it, as in other turtles, but this is absent at the outer edges. Some species have dermal bones in the plastron, but these are not attached to the bones of the shell; the light and flexible shell of these turtles allows them to move more in open water, or in muddy lake bottoms.
Having a soft shell allows them to move much faster on land than most turtles. Their feet are webbed and are three-clawed, hence the family name "Trionychidae," which means "three-clawed." The carapace color of each type of softshell turtle tends to match the sand and/or mud color of its geographical region, assisting in their "lie and wait" feeding methodology. These turtles have many characteristics pertaining to their aquatic lifestyle. Many must be submerged in order to swallow their food, they have elongated, snorkel-like nostrils. Their necks are disproportionately long in comparison to their body sizes, enabling them to breathe surface air while their bodies remain submerged in the substrate a foot or more below the surface. Females can grow up to several feet in carapace diameter. Pelochelys cantorii, found in southeastern Asia, is the largest softshell turtle on earth. Most are strict carnivores, with diets consisting of fish, aquatic crustaceans, snails and sometimes birds and small mammals.
Softshells are able to "breathe" underwater with rhythmic movements of their mouth cavity that contains numerous processes that are copiously supplied with blood, acting as gill filaments in fish. This enables them to stay underwater for prolonged periods. Moreover, the Chinese softshell turtle has been shown to excrete urea. According to Ditmars: "The mandibles of many species form the outer border of powerful crushing processes—the alveolar surfaces of the jaws", which aids the ingestion of tough prey such as molluscs; these jaws make large turtles dangerous, as they are capable of amputating a person's finger, or their hand. Softshell turtles are eaten as a delicacy in most parts of their range in East Asia. A Chinese dish stews them with chicken. According to a 1930 report by Soame Jenyns, Guangdong restaurants had them imported from Guangxi in large numbers; as a noted Japanese biologist pointed out in 1904, the Japanese variety of this turtle, which at time was classified as Trionyx japonicus, occupied a place in Japanese cuisine as esteemed as the diamondback terrapin in the United States or the green turtle in England.
The farming of this "luscious reptile", known in Japan as suppon, was developed on an industrial scale in that country by the late 19th century. Due to rising demand and overhunting, the price of Pelodiscus sinensis in China skyrocketed by the mid-1990s. Another species, Palea steindachneri, is on a much smaller scale. In the United States, harvesting softshells was, until legal in Florida. Environmental groups have been advocating the authorities' restricting the practice; the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission responded by introducing the daily limit of 20 turtles for licensed harvesters—a level which the turtle advocates consider unsustainable, as there may be between 100 and 500 hunters statewide. While some catch was consumed locally, most was exported. New rules, in effect as of July 20, 2009, restrict collecting any wild turtles to one turtle per person per day prohibit collection of softshells in May through July, prohibit trade in turtles caught from the wild. An exemption is provided for licensed turtle farms that need to catch turtles in the wild to serve as their breeding stock.
Some other US states, have adopted strict limitations on wild turtle trade. In 2009, South Carolina passed the law restricting interstate and international export of wild-caught turtles to 10 turtles per person at one time, or 20 turtles per person per year. Family Trionychidae Palaeotrionyx Subfamily Plastomeninae Genus Hutchemys Genus Plastomenus Subfamily Cyclanorbinae Genus Cyclanorbis Genus Cycloderma Genus Lissemys Subfamily Trionychinae Genus Amyda Genus Apalone Genus Chitra Genus Dogania Genus