The cavaquinho is a small Portuguese string instrument in the European guitar family, with four wire or gut strings. More broadly, cavaquinho is the name of a four-stringed subdivision of the lute family of instruments. A cavaquinho player is called a cavaquista. There are several forms of cavaquinho used for different styles of music. Separate varieties are named for Portugal, Minho, Madeira and Cape-Verde; the instrument’s name cavaqu-inho means “little wood splinter” in Portuguese. The Venezuelan concert cuatro is nearly the same instrument, but somewhat larger; the Brazilian cavaquinho is larger than the Portuguese cavaquinho, resembling a small classical guitar. Its neck is raised above the level of the sound box, the sound hole is round, like cavaquinhos from Lisbon and Madeira; the Venezuelan concert cuatro is nearly the same size and shape, but has its neck laid level with the sound box, like the Portuguese cavaquinho. The cavaco is a smaller version of the Brazilian cavaquinho, similar in size to the Portuguese cavaquinho.
It is part of a samba ensemble. The name cavaco means “wood splinter” in Portuguese – back-formed from the original name cavaquinho; the machete is a steel-string version of the cavaquinho from Madeira. It is a predecessor of the modern ukulele; the Machete de Braga is called a braguinha. The minhoto cavaquinho, associated with the Minho region in Portugal is similar to the viola braguesa, its neck is on the same level as the body. Like the braguesa, the minhoto’s sound hole was traditionally shaped like a stylized ray; the most common tuning in Portugal is C G A D. The standard tuning in Brazil is D G B D. Other tunings include: D A B E – Portuguese ancient tuning, made popular by Júlio Pereira G G B D A A C♯ E D G B E – used for solo parts in Brazil G D A E – mandolin tuning G C E A – ‘cavacolele’ tuning, the same as the soprano/tenor ukulele D G B E – the same as the highest four strings in standard guitar tuning used by guitarists, the same tuning used for the baritone ukulele Different forms of cavaquinho have been adapted in different regions.
Varieties used outside of Iberia are found in Brazil, Cape-Verde, Madeira. The locally iconic Caribbean region cuatro family and the Hawaiian ukuleles were both adapted from the cavaquinho; the cavaco – a small version of the Brazilian cavaquinho – is a important instrument in Brazilian samba and choro music. The samba cavaco is played with a pick, with sophisticated percussive strumming beats that connect the rhythm and harmony by playing the rhythm “comping”; some of the most important players and composers of the Brazilian instrument are Waldir Azevedo, Paulinho da Viola, Mauro Diniz. In Cape Verde the cavaquinho was introduced in the 1930s from Brazil; the present-day Cape-Verdean cavaquinho is similar to the Brazilian one in dimensions and tuning. It is used as a rhythmic instrument in Cape-Verdean music genres but it is used as a melodic instrument; the Hawaiian ukulele has four strings and a shape similar to the cavaquinho, although tuned differently – G C E A. The ukulele is an iconic element of Hawaiian popular music, which spread to the continental United States in the early 20th century.
It was developed from the braguinha and rajão, brought to Hawaii in the late 19th century by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira Island. The machete was introduced into Hawaii by Augusto Dias, Manuel Nunes, João Fernandes in 1879, which further influenced the development of the ukulele; the cuatro is a family of larger 4-stringed instruments derived from the cavaquinho that are popular in Latin-American countries in and around the Caribbean. Versions of the iconic Venezuelan cuatro are similar to the Brazilian cavaquinho, with a neck like a Portuguese cavaquinho; the origins of this Portuguese instrument are elusive. Author Gonçalo Sampaio holds that the cavaquinho and the guitar may have been brought to Braga by the Biscayans. Sampaio explains Minho region’s archaic and Hellenistic modes by possible survival of Greek influences on the ancient Gallaeci of the region, stresses the link between this instrument and historical Hellenistic tetrachords. Cuatro – a four-string Latin-American instrument that remains similar to the cavaquinho Cuatro – the cuatro family of instruments Tenor guitar Ukulele Viola braguesa Richards, Tobe A..
The Cavaquinho Chord Bible: DGBD Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords. United Kingdom: Cabot Books. ISBN 978-1-906207-09-0. – A comprehensive chord dictionary instructional guide for the Brazilian and Portuguese cavaquinho. "All the Cavaquinhos types". Associação Cultural Museu Cavaquinho. "Cavaquinho". Grupo de Cavaquinhos do Porto
Josephine Baker was an American-born French entertainer and French Resistance agent. Her career was centered in Europe in her adopted France. During her early career she was renowned as a dancer, was among the most celebrated performers to headline the revues of the Folies Bergère in Paris, her performance in the revue Un vent de folie in 1927 caused a sensation in Paris. Her costume, consisting of only a girdle of artificial bananas, became her most iconic image and a symbol of the Jazz Age and the 1920s. Baker was celebrated by artists and intellectuals of the era, who variously dubbed her the “Black Venus”, the "Black Pearl", the "Bronze Venus", the "Creole Goddess". Born in St. Louis, she renounced her U. S. citizenship and became a French national after her marriage to French industrialist Jean Lion in 1937. She raised her children in France. "I have two loves, my country and Paris." The artist once said, sang: «J'ai deux amours, mon pays et Paris». Baker was the first African-American to star in a major motion picture, the 1927 silent film Siren of the Tropics, directed by Mario Nalpas and Henri Étiévant.
Baker refused to perform for segregated audiences in the United States and is noted for her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1968 she was offered unofficial leadership in the movement in the United States by Coretta Scott King, following Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination. After thinking it over, Baker declined the offer out of concern for the welfare of her children, she was known for aiding the French Resistance during World War II. After the war, she was awarded the Croix de guerre by the French military, was named a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by General Charles de Gaulle. Baker was born as Freda Josephine McDonald in Missouri, her mother, was adopted in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1886 by Richard and Elvira McDonald, both of whom were former slaves of African and Native American descent. Josephine Baker's estate identifies vaudeville drummer Eddie Carson as her natural father despite evidence to the contrary. Baker's foster son Jean-Claude Baker wrote a biography, published in 1993, titled Josephine: The Hungry Heart.
Jean-Claude Baker did an exhaustive amount of research into the life of Josephine Baker, including the identity of her biological father. In the book, he discusses at length the circumstances surrounding Josephine Baker's birth: The records of the city of St. Louis tell an unbelievable story, they show that Carrie McDonald... was admitted to the Female Hospital on May 3, 1906, diagnosed as pregnant. She was discharged on her baby, Freda J. McDonald having been born two weeks earlier. Why six weeks in the hospital? For a black woman who would customarily have had her baby at home with the help of a midwife? There had been complications with the pregnancy, but Carrie's chart reveals no details; the father was identified as "Edw"... I think Josephine's father was white – so did Josephine, so did her family... people in St. Louis say that had worked for a German family. He's the one who must have paid to keep her there all those weeks, her baby's birth was registered by the head of the hospital at a time when most black births were not.
I have unraveled many mysteries associated with Josephine Baker, but the most painful mystery of her life, the mystery of her father's identity, I could not solve. The secret died with Carrie, she let people think Eddie Carson was the father, Carson played along, Josephine knew better. Carrie McDonald and Eddie Carson had a song-and-dance act; when Josephine was about a year old they began to carry her onstage during their finale. She was further exposed to show business at an early age because her childhood neighborhood was home to many vaudeville theaters that doubled as movie houses; these venues included the Jazzland, Booker T. Washington, Comet Theatres. Josephine lived her early life at 212 Targee Street in the Mill Creek Valley neighborhood of St. Louis, a racially mixed low-income neighborhood near Union Station, consisting of rooming houses and apartments with no indoor plumbing. Josephine was always poorly dressed and hungry as a child, developed street smarts playing in the railroad yards of Union Station.
She had little formal education, attended Lincoln Elementary School only through the fifth grade. Josephine's mother married a kind but perpetually unemployed man, Arthur Martin, with whom she had a son and two more daughters and Willie, she took in laundry to wash to make ends meet, at eight years old, Josephine began working as a live-in domestic for white families in St. Louis. One woman abused her, burning Josephine's hands when the young girl put too much soap in the laundry. By age 12, she had dropped out of school. At 13, she worked as a waitress at the Old Chauffeur's Club at 3133 Pine Street, she lived as a street child in the slums of St. Louis, sleeping in cardboard shelters, scavenging for food in garbage cans, making a living with street-corner dancing, it was at the Old Chauffeur's Club where Josephine married him the same year. However, the marriage lasted less than a year. Following her divorce from Wells, she found work with a street performance group called the Jones Family Band.
In Baker's teen years she struggled to have a healthy relationship with her mother, Car
Carlos Gardel was a French Argentine singer, songwriter and actor, the most prominent figure in the history of tango. Gardel's baritone voice and the dramatic phrasing of his lyrics made miniature masterpieces of his hundreds of three-minute tango recordings. Together with lyricist and long-time collaborator Alfredo Le Pera, Gardel wrote several classic tangos. Gardel died in an airplane crash at the height of his career, becoming an archetypal tragic hero mourned throughout Latin America. For many, Gardel embodies the soul of the tango style, he is referred to as "Carlitos", "El Zorzal", "The King of Tango", "El Mago", "El Morocho del Abasto", "El Mudo". Gardel was born to unmarried 25-year-old laundress Berthe Gardès, the baby registered under the name Charles Romuald Gardès in Toulouse, France, on 11 December 1890; the father of the baby boy was listed on his birth certificate as "unknown", but 11 days Berthe Gardès signed a statement establishing the baby's father as Paul Laserre, a married man who left Toulouse a few months before the baby was born.
Berthe Gardès left Toulouse, a little over a year likely to escape the social stigma of having a child born out of wedlock. In early 1893 in Bordeaux, France and son boarded the ship SS Don Pedro and sailed to Buenos Aires, arriving on 11 March 1893. Berthe Gardès had her passport recorded upon arrival; the two-year-old boy was recorded as Charles Gardès. Gardel's mother settled at the western edge of the central San Nicolás district of Buenos Aires, at Calle Uruguay 162, she worked two blocks away on Calle Montevideo, pressing clothes in the French style, which commanded a high price in the fashion-conscious city. Gardel grew up speaking Spanish, not French, with friends and family calling him Carlos, the Spanish version of his French name, by the familiar diminutive form Carlitos; some time after 1918, Laserre traveled from France to Buenos Aires to ask Berthe Gardès, now called Doña Berta, whether she would like to legitimize her son by marrying Laserre. This would have disrupted her story about being a widow.
Gardel told his mother that if she did not need this man in her life, neither did he, closing the matter with "I don't wish to see him." Gardel began his singing career at private parties. He sang with Francisco Martino and in a trio with Martino and José Razzano. Gardel created the tango-canción in 1917 with his rendition of Pascual Contursi and Samuel Castriota's Mi noche triste; the recording was a hit throughout Latin America. Gardel went on tour through Argentina, Chile, Puerto Rico and Colombia, as well as making appearances in Paris, New York and Madrid, he sold 70,000 records in the first three months of a 1928 visit to Paris. As his popularity grew, he made a number of films for Paramount in France and the U. S. While sentimental films such as Cuesta abajo and El día que me quieras lack lasting dramatic value, they were outstanding showcases of his tremendous singing talents and movie star looks. Gardel was aware of the fact. In an effort to seem as if he were available to any woman, he sought to keep his love life secret.
Gardel had one major girlfriend in his life: Isabel del Valle. He met del Valle in late 1920. At the time, he was performing at the Esmeralda Theater in Buenos Aires, they were close for more than a decade. Gardel and del Valle were not seen together often in public. Gardel's mother and del Valle's family helped make sure. Only Gardel's closest friends knew about it. Gardel arranged for del Valle to have a house. Around 1930 the relationship began to degrade. Gardel had his lawyer stop making payments to del Valle, who married another man and moved to Uruguay, she was always respectful of the memory of Gardel when interviewed about him in late life for a 1980s television program. Gardel died on 24 June 1935 in an airplane crash in Colombia. Others who died included the pilot Ernesto Samper, lyricist Alfredo Le Pera, guitarists Guillermo Desiderio Barbieri and Ángel Domingo Riverol, several business associates, other friends of the group, it is believed that José María Aguilar Porrás, died a few days after the crash.
Millions of Gardel's fans throughout Latin America went into mourning. Hordes came to pay their respects as his body was taken from Colombia through New York City and Rio de Janeiro. Thousands rendered homage during the two days he lay in state in Montevideo, the city in which his mother lived at the time. Gardel's body was laid to rest in La Chacarita Cemetery in Buenos Aires; the place and year of Gardel's birth was a controversy. The Toulouse birthplace was confirmed in 2012 with the location of his birth certificate. Scholars such as Vanderbilt University history professor Simon Collier, University of Belgrano agriculture history professor Osvaldo Barsky and Uruguayan history professor Jorge Ruffinelli from Stanford University write about how Gardel was born in Toulouse, France, in 1890, how he laid a false trail about his birthplace beginning in 1920, when he was 30. In October 1920, Gardel first applied for Uruguayan citizenship. One month he was issue
David Grisman is an American mandolinist. His music combines bluegrass and jazz in a genre he calls "Dawg music", he founded the record label Acoustic Disc, which issues his recordings and those of other acoustic musicians. Grisman grew up in a Conservative Jewish household in New Jersey, his father was professional trombonist. As teenager, he played piano and saxophone. In the early 1960s, he went to college at New York University, he belonged to the Even Dozen Jug Band with John Sebastian. He played in the bluegrass band the Kentuckians led by Red Allen in the psychedelic rock band Earth Opera with Peter Rowan, he moved to San Francisco, met Jerry Garcia, appeared on the Grateful Dead album American Beauty. He played in Garcia's bluegrass band In the Way with Peter Rowan and Vassar Clements. Garcia named him "Dawg" after a dog, following him while they were driving in Stinson Beach, California. "Dawg Music" is what Grisman calls his mixture of bluegrass and Django Reinhardt/Stéphane Grappelli-influenced jazz as highlighted on his album Hot Dawg.
It was Grisman's combination of Reinhardt-era jazz, folk, Old World Mediterranean string band music, as well as modern jazz fusion that came to embody "Dawg" music. In the 1970s, he started the David Grisman Quintet with Darol Anger, Joe Carroll, Todd Phillips, Tony Rice, they released their first album in 1977 for Kaleidoscope Records and their second, Hot Dawg, two years for Horizon Records, the jazz division of A&M Records. When the quintet recorded for Warner Bros. Records, the membership changed to include Mike Marshall, Mark O'Connor, Rob Wasserman, with occasional guest appearances by jazz violinist Stéphane Grappelli. In the 1980s, Grisman formed the record label Acoustic Disc, which issued his recordings and those by other acoustic musicians. Over time, he might be most remembered for publishing a large amount of the world's best mandolin music. Beginning in the 1990s, he released albums with a more jazz oriented sound when he recorded with bassist Jim Kerwin, drummer George Marsh, guitarist Martin Taylor.
But the folk and bluegrass part of his personality emerged when he recorded with Mark O'Connor, Tony Rice, Andy Statman. On the albums Tone Poems and Tone Poems 2, he recorded traditional jazz and folk songs on vintage guitars and mandocellos that were built at the time the songs were composed. Grisman was married twice before, he has three grown children: Samson and Monroe. Samson, a bassist and recording session musician living in Portland performs with his father. Gillian, a filmmaker living in Novato, directed Grateful Dawg and the music documentary, Village Music: Last of the Great Record Stores. Monroe, named for bluegrass music pioneer Bill Monroe, lives in Fairfax and plays in the Tom Petty tribute band Petty Theft. Grisman's song "Dawggy Mountain Breakdown" was the opening theme song for Car Talk on NPR. Grisman sued YouTube in May 2007, asserting in federal court that YouTube should be required to prevent individuals from illegally uploading recordings of his music. Grisman's attorneys requested voluntary dismissal of the suit.
The documentary Grateful Dawg chronicles the friendship between David Grisman. Grisman was a judge for the 6th and 7th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists, he wrote much of the bluegrass music for the 1974 film Big Bad Mama directed by Roger Corman. It was played by the Great American Music Band, they were recorded and mixed by Bill Wolf. Acoustic Disc is an independent record label founded by Grisman in 1990; the label is based in San Rafael and specializes in bluegrass, folk and Dawg music. Dawg.net Dave Grisman/Acoustic Disc official website David Grisman at The Music Box Collection of reviews David Grisman discography at the Grateful Dead Family Discography
The Selmer guitar—often called a Selmer-Maccaferri or just Maccaferri by English speakers, as early British advertising stressed the designer rather than manufacturer—is an unusual acoustic guitar best known as the favored instrument of Django Reinhardt. Selmer, a French manufacturer, produced the instrument from 1932 to about 1952. In 1932 Selmer partnered with the Italian guitarist and luthier Mario Maccaferri to produce a line of acoustic guitars based on Maccaferri's unorthodox design. Although Maccaferri's association with Selmer ended in 1934, the company continued to make several models of this guitar until 1952; the guitar was associated with jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt. In its archetypal steel-string Jazz/Orchestre form, the Selmer is distinguished by a large body with squarish bouts, either a "D"-shaped or longitudinal oval sound hole; the strings are gathered at the tail, as on a mandolin. Two "mustache" markers are fixed to the soundboard to help position the movable bridge; the top of the guitar is arched or domed—a feature achieved by bending a flat piece of wood rather than by the violin-style carving used in archtop guitars.
The top is rather thin, at about 2 mm. It has a snake-shaped, slotted headstock; the back and top are both ladder-braced, the norm for French and Italian steel-string guitars of the time. Other models can be more conventional in appearance and construction, with the Modèle Classique, for example being a standard fan-braced, flat-top classical guitar. Early models have a large, D-shaped sound hole, shaped to accommodate an internal resonator invented by luthier Mario Maccaferri – this was designed to increase the volume of the guitar and to out variations in volume and tone between different strings; the scale, at 640 mm, fretting of the early guitars was similar to other contemporary guitars, but with a wide fretboard more typical of a classical guitar. Many of these guitars, produced during 1932 and 1933, were sold to the UK market via Selmer's London showroom and it was during this period that the guitars became known as "Maccaferris" to Britons. Maccaferri designed the original guitars and oversaw their manufacture, but his involvement with Selmer ended after 18 months.
Over the next few years, the design evolved without his input and, by 1936, the definitive version of the Selmer guitar had appeared. It was called the "Modèle Jazz", but known as the "Petite Bouche" or "Oval Hole"; these guitars have revised internal bracing and a longer scale length of 670 mm. The vast bulk of guitars produced. While Maccaferri may no longer have been around, the guitars retain many unusual characteristics of his original innovative design, including the world's first sealed oil-bath machine heads and a top, bent, mandolin-style, behind the floating bridge - something that contributes to the guitar's remarkable volume when played. Before the advent of amplification, the Selmer guitar appealed to European players the way archtop guitars did in America: it was loud enough to hear over other instruments in a band; the "petite bouche" model has an loud and cutting voice, remains the design preferred by lead players in Django-style bands, while the accompanying rhythm players use D-hole instruments.
Modern exponents of the style amplify their instruments in concert, but may still play acoustically in small venues and jam sessions. Gypsy jazz players couple the guitar with light, silver-plated, copper-wound Argentine strings made by Savarez, heavy plectrums, traditionally of tortoiseshell. Today, the Selmer guitar is completely associated with Django Reinhardt and the "gypsy jazz" school of his followers. From the 1930s through to the 1950s, Selmers were used by all types of performer in France and in the UK; the first Selmers sold in the UK were used in standard dance bands, were associated with performers such as Len Fillis and Al Bowlly. In France, the Selmer was the top professional guitar for many years, is heard in everything from musette to the backing of chansonniers. Leading players included Sacha Distel. More the style of guitar has been associated with Enrico Macias. Though best known for its steel-string D-hole and oval-hole guitars, during the Maccaferri period Selmer made and sold Maccaferri-designed classical guitars, harp guitars, 6- and 7-string Hawaiian guitars, tenor guitars, a 4-string "Grande" model and the "Eddie Freeman Special", a 4-string guitar with the scale-length and body-size of a standard guitar, designed to use with a special reentrant tuning, successful in the UK market.
Most of these instruments featured Macaferri's distinctive D-shaped sound hole and many contained the resonator. Production of all but the Modèle Jazz ended by the mid-1930s. Selmer contra
Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed Satchmo and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer and occasional actor, one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras in the history of jazz. In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. Around 1922, he followed Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz Band. In the Windy City, he networked with other popular jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend, Bix Beiderbecke, made new contacts, which included Hoagy Carmichael and Lil Hardin, he earned a reputation at "cutting contests", relocated to New York in order to join Fletcher Henderson's band. With his recognizable rich, gravelly voice, Armstrong was an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
He was very skilled at scat singing. Armstrong is renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice as much as for his trumpet playing. Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz, by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", that is, whose skin color became secondary to his music in an America, racially divided at the time, he publicly politicized his race to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him access to the upper echelons of American society highly restricted for black men. Armstrong stated that he was born on July 4, 1900. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4, 1901, was discovered by Tad Jones by researching baptismal records. At least three other biographies treat the July 4th birth date as a myth.
Armstrong was born in New Orleans on August 4, 1901 to William Armstrong. Albert was from Boutte and gave birth at home when she was about sixteen. William Armstrong abandoned the family shortly after. About two years he had a daughter, Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong, raised by Albert. Louis Armstrong was raised by his grandmother until the age of five when he was returned to his mother, he spent his youth in poverty in a rough neighborhood known as The Battlefield. At six he attended the Fisk School for Boys, a school that accepted black children in the racially segregated system of New Orleans, he did odd jobs for a family of Lithuanian Jews. While selling coal in Storyville, he heard spasm bands, groups that played music out of household objects, he heard the early sounds of jazz from bands that played in brothels and dance halls such as Pete Lala's, where King Oliver performed. The Karnoffskys treated him like family. Knowing he lived without a father, they nurtured him. In his memoir Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907, he described his discovery that this family was subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could see the ungodly treatment that the white folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."
He wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination." His first musical performance may have been at the side of the Karnoffsky's junk wagon. To distinguish them from other hawkers, he tried playing a tin horn to attract customers. Morris Karnoffsky gave Armstrong an advance toward the purchase of a cornet from a pawn shop; when Armstrong was eleven, he dropped out of school. His mother moved into a one-room house on Perdido Street with him and her common-law husband, Tom Lee, next door to her brother Ike and his two sons. Armstrong joined a quartet of boys, he got into trouble. Cornetist Bunk Johnson said. In his years Armstrong credited King Oliver, he said about his youth, "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for." Borrowing his stepfather's gun without permission, he fired a blank into the air and was arrested on December 31, 1912.
He spent the night at New Orleans Juvenile Court was sentenced the next day to detention at the Colored Waif's Home. Life at the home was spartan. Mattresses were absent. Meals were little more than bread and molasses. Captain Joseph Jones used corporal punishment. Armstrong developed his cornet skills by playing in the band. Peter Davis, who appeared at the home at the request of Captain Jones, became Armstrong's first teacher and chose him as bandleader. With this band, the thirteen year-old. On June 14, 1914, Armstrong was released into the custody of his father and his new stepmother, Gertrude, he lived in this household with two stepbrothers for several months. After Gertrude gave birth to a daughter, Armstrong's father never welcomed him, so he returned to his mother, Mary Albert. In her small home, he had to share a bed with his sister, his mother still lived in The Battlefield
Fingerstyle guitar is the technique of playing the guitar by plucking the strings directly with the fingertips, fingernails, or picks attached to fingers, as opposed to flatpicking. The term "fingerstyle" is something of a misnomer, since it is present in several different genres and styles of music—but because it involves a different technique, not just a "style" of playing for the guitarist's picking/plucking hand; the term is used synonymously with fingerpicking, although fingerpicking can refer to a specific tradition of folk and country guitar playing in the US. The terms "fingerstyle" and "fingerpicking" applied to similar string instruments such as the banjo. Music arranged for fingerstyle playing can include chords and other elements such as artificial harmonics, hammering on and pulling off notes with the fretting hand, using the body of the guitar percussively, many other techniques; the guitarist will play the melody notes, interspersed with the melody's accompanying chords and the deep bassline simultaneously.
Some fingerpicking guitarists intersperse percussive tapping along with the melody and bassline. This enables a single guitarist to provide all of these important song elements; this enables singer-guitarists to accompany themselves, it enables smaller groups which have only a single guitarist to use one guitarist to provide all of these musical elements. Fingerpicking is a standard technique on the classical or nylon string guitar, but is considered more of a specialized technique on steel string guitars. Fingerpicking is less common on electric guitars, except in the heavy metal music virtuoso style of lead guitar playing known as shred guitar; the timbre of fingerpicked notes is described as, "result in a more piano-like attack," and less like pizzicato. Because individual digits play notes on the guitar rather than the hand working as a single unit, a guitarist playing fingerstyle can perform several musical elements simultaneously. One definition of the technique has been put forward by the Toronto Fingerstyle Guitar Association: Physically, "Fingerstyle" refers to using each of the right hand fingers independently to play the multiple parts of a musical arrangement that would be played by several band members.
Deep bass notes, harmonic accompaniment and percussion can all be played when playing Fingerstyle. Many fingerstyle guitarists have adopted a combination of acrylic nails and a thumbpick to improve tone and decrease nail wear and chance of breaking or chipping. Notable guitarists to adopt this hardware are Doyle Dykes and Canadian guitarist Don Ross and Richard Smith Players do not have to carry a plectrum, but fingernails may have to be maintained at the right length and in good condition if the player has a preference to use fingernails over their skin, it is possible to play multiple non-adjacent strings at the same time. This enables the guitarist to play a low bass note and a high treble note at the same time; this enables the guitarist to play double stops, such as an octave, a fifth, a sixth, or other intervals that suit the harmony. It is more suitable for playing polyphonically, with separate, independent musical lines, or separate melody and bass parts, therefore more suitable to unaccompanied solo playing, or to small ensembles, like duos in which a guitarist accompanies a singer.
Fingerstyle players have up to four surfaces striking the strings and/or other parts of the guitar independently. (an exception to this may be found in the flamenco technique of rasgueado. It is easy to play arpeggios, it is possible to play chords without any arpeggiation, because up to five strings can be plucked simultaneously. There is less need for fretting hand damping in playing chords, since only the strings that are required can be plucked. A greater variation in strokes is possible, allowing greater expressiveness in timbre and dynamics. A wide variety of strums and rasgueados are possible. Less energy is imparted to strings than with plectrum playing, leading to lower volume when playing acoustically. Playing on heavier gauge strings can damage nails: fingerstyle is more suited to nylon strings or lighter gauge steel strings Nylon string guitars are most played fingerstyle; the term "Classical guitar" can refer to any kind of art music played fingerstyle on a nylon string guitar, or more narrowly to music of the classical period, as opposed to baroque or romantic music.
The major feature of classical-fingerstyle technique is that it enables solo rendition of harmony and polyphonic music in much the same manner as the piano can. The technique is intended to maximize the degree of control over the musical dynamics, texture and timbral characteristics of the guitar; the sitting position of the player, while somewhat variable places the guitar on the left leg, elevated, rather than the right. This sitting position is intended to maintain shoulder alignment and physical balance between the le