Brooklyn College is a college of the City University of New York, located in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. Brooklyn College originated in 1930 with the establishment of an extension division of the City College for Teachers; the school began offering evening classes for first-year male college students in 1917. In 1930 by the New York City Board of Higher Education, the college authorized the combination of the Downtown Brooklyn branches of Hunter College – at that time a women's college – and the City College of New York – a men's college – both of, established in 1926. With the merger of these branches, Brooklyn College became the first public coeducational liberal arts college in New York City. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the school tied for number 83 as a Regional college; the school was ranked in the top ten for value and location by Princeton Review in 2003 and in the top fifty for value in 2009. In 1932, the architect Randolph Evans drafted a plan for the college's campus on a substantial plot of land his employer owned in the Midwood section of Brooklyn.
He sketched out a Georgian-style campus facing a central quadrangle, anchored by a library building with a tall tower. Evans presented the sketches to the President of the college at Dr. William A. Boylan. Boylan was pleased with the plans, the lot of land was purchased for $1.6 million. Construction of the new campus began in 1935, with a groundbreaking ceremony attended by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and Brooklyn Borough President Raymond Ingersoll. In 1936, the President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt went to Brooklyn College to lay the cornerstone of the Brooklyn College Gymnasium. President Boylan, Borough President Ingersoll, President Roosevelt all had buildings on Brooklyn College's campus named after them. Harry Gideonse was the second President of Brooklyn College, from 1939 to 1966. During his tenure Brooklyn College was one of the top colleges in the US in terms of the number of alumni receiving doctorate degrees. In May 1983, Brooklyn College named its library the Harry D. Gideonse Library.
John Kneller was the fifth President of Brooklyn College, from 1969 to 1979. Students occupied his office at the college during a student strike after the Kent State shootings and the Cambodian Campaign in 1970, he kept campus buildings open for students and faculty. A member of the Brooklyn College Fencing Team introduced streaking to the college in 1974, dashing across the Quad; the campus located in Midwood became the only Brooklyn College campus after the school's Downtown Brooklyn campus was shut down during the 1975 budget emergency. Robert Hess was the sixth President of Brooklyn College, from 1979 until 1992. In a 1988 survey of thousands of academic deans, the college ranked 5th in the United States in providing students with a strong general education. Brooklyn College was the only college in the top five in the survey, a public institution. While Brooklyn College was referred to as “the poor man’s Harvard,” Hess quipped: “I like to think of Harvard as the rich man’s Brooklyn College.”
Brooklyn College's campus East Quad looks much like it did when it was constructed. The campus serves as home to BCBC/ Brooklyn College Presents complex and its four theaters, including the George Gershwin; the demolition of Gershwin Hall, replaced by The Leonard & Claire Tow Center for the Performing Arts, is the most recent construction on an evolving campus. Other changes to the original design include the demolition of Plaza Building, due to its inefficient use of space, poor ventilation, significant maintenance costs. To replace the Plaza Building, the college constructed West Quad Center, designed by the notable Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly; the new building contains classroom space, gymnasiums and a swimming pool. It houses the offices of Registration, Financial Aid, the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science; the grounds contain a quadrangle with grassy trees. New façades are being constructed on Roosevelt and James halls where they once connected with Plaza Building.
The 2009–10 CUNYAC championship men's basketball team now plays its home games in the West Quad Center. This follows a major library renovation that saw the library moved to a temporary home while construction took place; the Brooklyn College library is now located in its original location in a renovated and expanded LaGuardia Hall. Noted as one of the most beautiful in the United States, In 2016, Brooklyn College announced a new home for the Koppelman School of Business, with the construction of a new building, Koppelman Hall, on property adjacent to the 26-acre campus bought in 2011; this increased the campus size to 35 acres. The campus has been shown on numerous movies and television shows. Brooklyn College is made up of five schools: Murray Koppelman School of Business School of Education School of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Natural and Behavioral Sciences School of Visual and Performing Arts Beginning in 1981, the college instituted a group of classes that all undergraduates were required to take, called "Core Studies".
The classes were: Classical Origins of Western Culture, Introduction to Art, Introduction to Music, People and Politics, The Shaping of the Modern World, Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning and Computer Programming, Landmarks of Literature, Physics, Geology, Studies in African and Latin American Cultures, Knowledge and Values. In 2006, the Core Curriculum was revamped, the 13 required courses were replaced with 15 courses in 3 disciplines, from which students were required to take 11. In the fall of 2
History of immigration to the United States
The history of immigration to the United States details the movement of people to the United States starting with the first European settlements from around 1600. Beginning around this time and other Europeans settled on the east coast. In 1619, Africans began being imported as slaves; the United States experienced successive waves of immigration from Europe. Immigrants sometimes paid the cost of transoceanic transportation by becoming indentured servants after their arrival in the New World. Immigration rules became more restrictive. Cheap air travel has increased immigration from Asia and Latin America. Attitudes towards new immigrants have cycled between hostile since the 1790s. In 1607 the first successful English colony settled in Virginia. Once tobacco was found to be a profitable cash crop, many plantations were established along the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and Maryland, thus began the first and longest era of immigration, lasting until the American Revolution in 1775. It brought Northern European immigrants of British and Dutch extraction.
The British ruled from the mid-17th century and they were by far the largest group of arrivals, remaining within the British Empire. Over 90% of these early immigrants became farmers. Large numbers of young men and women came alone as indentured servants, their passage was paid by employers in the colonies who needed help in shops. Indentured servants were provided food, housing and training but they did not receive wages. At the end of the indenture they were free to start their own farms. Seeking religious freedom in the New World, one hundred English Pilgrims established a small settlement near Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. Tens of thousands of English Puritans arrived from the East Anglian parts of England, as well as Kent and East Sussex. and settled in Boston and adjacent areas from around 1629 to 1640 to create a land dedicated to their religion. The earliest New English colonies, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, were established along the northeast coast. Large scale immigration to this region ended before 1700, though a small but steady trickle of arrivals continued.
The New English colonists were the most urban and educated of all their contemporaries, they had many skilled farmers and craftsmen among them. They started Harvard, in 1635 in order to train their ministers, they settled in small villages for mutual support and common religious activities. Shipbuilding, commerce and fishing were their main sources of income. New England's healthy climate, small widespread villages, an abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and the highest birth rate of any of the colonies; the Eastern and Northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was settled by the descendants of the original New Englanders. Immigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the English Civil War decreased to less than 1% in nearly all of the years prior to 1845; the rapid growth of the New England colonies was entirely due to the high birth rate and the low death rate per year. The Dutch driven by the United East Indian Company, first established settlements along the Hudson River in New York starting about 1626.
Wealthy Dutch patroons set up large landed estates along the Hudson River and brought in farmers who became renters. Others established rich trading posts to trade with Native Americans and started cities such as New Amsterdam and Albany, New York. After the British took over and renamed the colony New York and Yankees began arriving. Maryland, New York, New Jersey and Delaware formed the middle colonies. Pennsylvania was settled by Quakers from Britain, followed by Ulster Scots on the frontier and numerous German Protestant sects, including the German Palatines; the earlier colony of New Sweden had small settlements on the lower Delaware River, with immigrants of Swedes and Finns. These colonies were absorbed by 1676; the middle colonies' were scattered West of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The initial Dutch colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. From around 1680 to 1725, the Pennsylvania colonial center was dominated by the Quakers for decades after they emigrated from the North Midlands of England.
During this time, the main commercial center of Philadelphia was run by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities, with a strong German contingent located in several small towns in the Delaware River valley. Starting around 1680, when Pennsylvania was founded, many more settlers arrived to the middle colonies. Many Protestant sects were encouraged to settle there for freedom of good, cheap land, their origins were 33 % German. By 1780, New York's population were around 27% descendants of Dutch settlers, about 6% were African, the remainder were English with a wide mixture of other Europeans. N
The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea and the Yellow Sea. Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China, was operational all year. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan.
The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia and chose to go to war. After negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack. Russia suffered multiple defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war. Russia ignored Japan's willingness early on to agree to an armistice and rejected the idea to bring the dispute to the Arbitration Court at The Hague; the war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers; the consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Meiji government endeavored to assimilate Western ideas, technological advances and ways of warfare. By the late 19th century, Japan had transformed itself into a modernized industrial state; the Japanese wanted to be recognized as equal with the Western powers. The Meiji Restoration had been intended to make Japan a modernized state, not a Westernized one, Japan was an imperialist power, looking towards overseas expansionism. In the years 1869–73, the Seikanron had bitterly divided the Japanese elite between one faction that wanted to conquer Korea vs. another that wanted to wait until Japan was more modernized before embarking on a war to conquer Korea. Worse, the Western Powers were conquering small pieces of China and China had dominated Korea with its military for centuries; the Japanese were doing what they could to emulate the West in every way possible, including conqering and occupying its neighbors. In much the same way that Europeans used the "backwardness" of African and Asian nations as a reason for why they had to conquer them, for the Japanese elite the "backwardness" of China and Korea was proof of the inferiority of those nations, thus giving the Japanese the "right" to conquer them.
Inouye Kaoru, the Foreign Minister, gave a speech in 1887 saying "What we must do is to transform our empire and our people, make the empire like the countries of Europe and our people like the peoples of Europe", going to say that the Chinese and Koreans had forfeited their right to be independent by not modernizing. Much of the pressure for an aggressive foreign policy in Japan came from below, with the advocates of "people's rights" movement calling for an elected parliament favoring an ultra-nationalist line that took it for granted the Japanese had the "right" to annex Korea, as the "people's right" movement was led by those who favored invading Korea in the years 1869–73; as part of the modernization process in Japan, Social Darwinian ideas about the "survival of the fittest" were common in Japan from the 1880s onward and many ordinary Japanese resented the heavy taxes imposed by the government to modernize Japan, demanding something tangible like an overseas colony as a reward for their sacrifices.
Furthermore, the educational system of Meiji Japan was meant to train the schoolboys to be soldiers when they grew up, as such, Japanese schools indoctrinated their students into Bushidō, the fierce code of the samurai. Having indoctrinated the younger generations into Bushidō, the Meiji elite found themselves faced with a people who clamored for war, regarded diplomacy as a weakness; the British Japanologist Richard Storry wrote the biggest misconception about Japan in the West was that the Japanese people were the "docile" instruments of the elite, when in fact much of the pressure for Japan's wars from 1894 to 1941 came from below, as ordinary people demanded a "tough" foreign policy, tended to engage in riots and assassination when foreign policy was perceived to be pusillanimous. Though the Meiji oligarchy refused to allow democracy, they did seek to appropriate some of the demands of the "people's rights" movement by allowing an elected Diet in 1890 (with limited powers and an equally
The Harvard Library system comprises about 76 libraries, with more than 18 million volumes. It is the oldest library system in the United States and the largest university library and largest private library system in the world. Based on number of items held, it is the fifth largest library in the United States. Harvard's library system grew due to donations from prominent individuals, John Harvard being one of them. John Harvard was a Puritan minister; these volumes were left to Harvard. The works in this collection soon became obsolete, as Harvard Library changed to an academic institute and found little need for the theological titles; the location of the library changed over time. It was in the Old College building. In 1676, the library was moved to Harvard Hall, where it remained until the building burnt down during the fire in 1764; the fire of 1764 destroyed the entire collection. After, a new Harvard Hall was built and 15,000 books were collected to create the new library; as time went on space became limited in Harvard Hall, the library was moved to Gore Hall in 1841.
Gore Hall was no longer suitable and the books were moved elsewhere in 1912. Around this time, the library spread into more than one building; some of the libraries were devoted to specialized topics. Over the next century the library grew to become the largest in America, but on January 24, 1764, a major fire destroyed all of Harvard's books and scientific instruments. All of the books in the library at the time of the fire were burned; the books, loaned out when the fire occurred were the only portion of the collection that remained. Books and donations were offered by friends of the college to replace its collections. An eccentric Englishman, Thomas Hollis V of Lincoln's Inn, began shipping thousands of specially chosen volumes to the University Library. Hollis continued to send books until his death in 1774 and he bequeathed £500 for a fund to continue buying books; this became Harvard's first endowed book fund, is still increasing the collections every year. Harvard Library's online catalog, HOLLIS, is named after him.
Some of the books have been digitized within the Google Books Library Project, begun as a project developed with leadership and oversight by former Director Sidney Verba. On August 1, 2012, a new Harvard Library organization began operations, designed to improve a fragmented system of 73 libraries across Harvard's Schools with one that promotes University-wide collaboration. Functions that occur within all libraries—Access Services, Technical Services and Preservation Services—were unified to enable greater focus on the needs of the user community; the new structure was developed from recommendations of the Task Force on University Libraries and the Library Implementation Working Group. By 1973, the Harvard Library had authored or published over 430 volumes in print, as well as nine periodicals and seven annual publications. Among these is a monthly newsletter, The Harvard Librarian, as well as a quarterly journal, the Harvard Library Bulletin; the latter was established in 1947, was dormant from 1960 until being revived in 1967.
The Harvard Library is the formal name for an administrative entity within the central administration of the University that has responsibility for central library services and policy. As of August 2013, Sarah Thomas is the current vice president for the Harvard Library and the Roy E. Larsen Librarian of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the Harvard Library consists of: Access Services connects the academic community to the vast array of library resources. Information and Technical Services is responsible for acquiring and providing access to tangible and online collections in all formats. Preservation and Digital Imaging Services is committed to ensuring that library materials remain secure and usable for contemporary and future scholars by conserving materials, digitizing collections, preserving library content in digital formats and providing robust education and outreach programs; the Harvard University Archives is the institutional archives of the University. It oversees the University's permanent records, collects Harvard-related manuscripts and historical materials, supervises records management across the University.
Finance supports the Library by providing accurate information that assists decision-making, maintaining the integrity of finance systems and completing financial transactions. Program Management ensures that potential projects and approved projects are managed in a considered and transparent way; the Office for Scholarly Communication provides for open access to works of scholarship produced by the Harvard community. Visiting Committee members are Harvard alumni who are appointed by the Corporation; the Committee oversees the strategy and administration of the Harvard Library on behalf of the Overseers. Bi-annual visits and regular updates by the Office of the Provost provide an opportunity for Visiting Committee members to understand and advise on the Harvard Library's progress; the Library Board is charged with reviewing the strategic plans of the Harvard Library and assessing its progress in meeting those plans, reviewing system-wide policies and standards and overseeing the progress of the central services.
The provost chairs the Library Board (establis
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 known as the Hart–Celler Act, is a federal law passed by the 89th United States Congress and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson; the law abolished the National Origins Formula, the basis of U. S. immigration policy since the 1920s. To restrict immigration from Asia, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Immigration Act of 1924 had permanently established the National Origins Formula as the basis of U. S. immigration policy. During the 1960s, at the height of the Civil rights movement, the National Origins Formula came under attack for being racially discriminatory. With the support of the Johnson administration, Senator Philip Hart and Congressman Emanuel Celler introduced a bill to repeal the formula; the bill received wide support from both Democratic and Republican members of Congress, Johnson signed the Hart-Cellar Act into law on October 3, 1965. The Hart-Celler Act created seven-category preference system that gives priority to relatives of U.
S. citizens and legal permanent residents, as well as to professionals and other individuals with specialized skills. The act maintained per-country and total immigration limits, but included a provision exempting immediate relatives of U. S. citizens from numerical restrictions. The act set a numerical limit on immigration from the Western Hemisphere for the first time in U. S. history. Though proponents of the bill had argued that it would not have a major effect on the total level of immigration or the demographic mix of the United States, the act increased the total number of immigrants coming to the United States, as well as the share of immigrants coming to the United States from Asia and Africa; the Hart–Celler Act of 1965 marked a radical break from the immigration policies of the past. Previous laws restricted immigration from Asia and Africa, gave preference to northern and western Europeans over southern and eastern Europeans. In the 1960s, the United States faced both foreign and domestic pressures to change its nation-based formula, regarded as a system that discriminated based on an individual's place of birth.
Abroad, former military allies and new independent nations aimed to delegitimize discriminatory immigration and regulations through international organizations like the United Nations. In the United States, the national-based formula had been under scrutiny for a number of years. In 1952, President Truman had directed the Commission on Immigration and Naturalization to conduct an investigation and produce a report on the current immigration regulations; the report, Whom We Shall Welcome, served as the blueprint for the Hart–Celler Act. At the height of the Civil Rights Movement the restrictive immigration laws were seen as an embarrassment. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the 1965 act into law at the foot of the Statue of Liberty; the immigration into the country, of "sexual deviants", including homosexuals, was still prohibited under the legislation. The INS continued to deny entry to homosexual prospective immigrants on the grounds that they were "mentally defective", or had a "constitutional psychopathic inferiority" until the Immigration Act of 1990 rescinded the provision discriminating against gay people.
The Hart–Celler Act amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, while it upheld many provisions of the Immigration Act of 1924. It maintained per-country limits, a feature of U. S. immigration policy since the 1920s, it developed preference categories. One of the main components aimed to abolish the national-origins quota; this meant that it eliminated national origin and ancestry as basis for immigration. It created a seven-category preference system, which gave priority to relatives of U. S. citizens and legal permanent residents and to professionals and other individuals with specialized skills. Immediate relatives and "special immigrants" were not subject to numerical restrictions; some of the "special immigrants" include ministers, former employees of the U. S. government, foreign medical graduates, among others. For the first time, immigration from the Western Hemisphere was limited, it added a labor certification requirement, which dictated that the Secretary of Labor needed to certify labor shortages.
Refugees were given the seventh and last category preference with the possibility of adjusting their status. However, refugees could enter the United States through other means as well like those seeking temporary asylum; as per the rules under the Immigration and Nationality Act, U. S. organizations are permitted to employ foreign workers either temporarily or permanently to fulfill certain types of job requirement. The Employment and Training Administration under the U. S. Department of Labor is the body that provides certification to employers allowing them to hire foreign workers in order to bridge qualified and skilled labor gaps in certain business areas. Employers must confirm that they are unable to hire American workers willing to perform the job for wages paid by employers for the same occupation in the intended area of employment. However, some unique rules are applied to each category of visas, they are as follows: H-1B and H-1B1 Specialty Workers should have a pay, as per the prevailing wage – an average wage, paid to a person employed in the same occupation in the area of employment.
H-2A Agricultural Workers should have the highest pay in accordance to the Adverse Effect Wage Rate, the present rate for a particular crop or area, or the state or federal minimum wage. The law stipulates requirements like employer-sponsored
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti