Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute Nation, and are mostly descendants of the historic Weeminuche Band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Their reservation is headquartered at Towaoc, Colorado on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are descendants of the Weeminuche band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. The use of lands in the Four Corners area, where the Ute Mountain Ute tribe now live, most anthropologists agree that Utes were established in the Four Corners area by 1500 C. E. The Ute people were hunters and gatherers who moved on foot to hunting grounds, the men hunted animals, including deer, buffalo and other small mammals and birds. Women gathered grasses, berries and greens in woven baskets, They processed and stored meat, Ute in the western part of their territory lived in wickiups and ramadas, Hide tipis were used in the eastern reaches of their territory.
As a result of American westward expansion, the Utes now possess only a fraction of the land that they once traveled seasonally. The Ute people consist of three populations of people, Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation near Fort Duchesne in northeastern Utah, the Southern Ute live on a reservation in southwestern Colorado near Ignacio. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe headquartered in Towaoc, the subjects of this article, the Mesa Verde Region, the present day area containing the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation and the Mesa Verde National Park, was the northern most edge of the colonial territory of Spain. Initial exploration of the American Southwest by the Spanish occurred in 1540 and they established their first capital near the pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, which they renamed San Juan de los Caballeros. In 1626 an account was taken of the Utes by a Spanish scribe in New Mexico, about 1640 the Utes began trading with the Spanish for horses. Spanish traders followed trails to Ute villages and Utes traveled to New Mexican towns, the Utes brought buckskin, dried meats and slaves to exchange for horses and blankets.
Spanish officials negotiate the first peace treaty with the Utes in 1670, in search of gold, Juan de Rivera made three expeditions between 1761 and 1765 from Taos through southwestern Colorado to the Gunnison River. He did not return with gold, but did trade with Utes. Beset by hunger and illness, the men turned back at Salt Lake Valley, the maps and information provided from the expedition provided useful information for future travel and their route from Santa Fe to the Salt Lake Valley became known as the Old Spanish Trail. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established a boundary line between Spanish and United States possessions in the southwest. Spanish territory included the southern plains, a part of the western Rocky Mountains. Even with the boundary, the Spanish did little to maintain their northern borders, when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the Spanish lands became Mexican land. American fur trappers headed into the frontier in 1811 and encountered the Utes
A metate or metlatl is a type or variety of quern, a ground stone tool used for processing grain and seeds. In traditional Mesoamerican culture, metates were used by women who would grind lime-treated maize. Similar artifacts are all over the world, including China. While varying in specific morphology, metates adhere to a common shape and they typically consist of large stones with a smooth depression or bowl worn into the upper surface. The bowl is formed by the continual and long-term grinding of materials using a smooth hand-held stone and this action consists of a horizontal grinding motion that differs from the vertical crushing motion used in a mortar and pestle. The depth of the varies, though they are typically not deeper than those of a mortar. Another type of metate called a grinding slab may be found among boulder or exposed bedrock outcroppings, the upper face of the stone is used for grinding materials, such as acorns, that results in the smoothing of the stones face and the creation of pocked dimples.
Carved, volcanic-stone ceremonial metates represent one of the most unusual and they come in many different forms, and morphological variation corresponds to different regions and time periods. They can be rectangular, flat, or curved and they may or may not have rims and between three and four legs. Some exhibits show signs of use-wear while others show no signs of wear and appear to have made specifically for use as burial goods. Some examples characterized as metate might have actually been a type of throne for sitting on – not a metate at all, some examples are known as effigy-headed metate, which feature an animal’s head at one end, with the metate itself making up the body of the creature. Animals typically depicted are jaguar, crocodile or birds, the most complex type of ceremonial metate is the class referred to as “flying-panel” metate. This style comes from the Atlantic watershed region, including the City of Guayabo and represents a level of craftsmanship. Carved from a piece of stone, these metates typically contain multiple figures.
Trophy heads, jaguar and saurian figures are the most common themes, the “flying panel” metate is believed to be the precursor to free standing sculptural figures more common in the Atlantic watershed region. The earliest traditions of sculpture in Costa Rica, including ceremonial metate. Metate from the Nicoya/Guanacaste region have longitudinally curved and rimless plates and those from the Atlantic Watershed have a plate that is horizontally flat and rimmed. Both are associated with goods, suggesting differential social status existed within these communities
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is in the South Platte River Valley on the edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, Denver is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the reference for the Mountain Time Zone. Denver is ranked as a Beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. With a 2015 estimated population of 682,545, Denver ranks as the 19th-most populous U. S. city, and with a 2. 8% increase in 2015, the city is the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 2,814,330 and ranked as the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area.
The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 3,418,876, which ranks as the 16th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the USA by U. S. News & World Report and this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, and by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria, Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him. The location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne, the site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver.
Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were often traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria, in May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pikes Peak Express in order to secure the regions first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for passengers, mail and gold, in 1863, Western Union furthered Denvers dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus. The Colorado Territory was created on February 28,1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1,1861, Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the territorial capital, with its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver
Jicarilla Apache refers to the members of the Jicarilla Apache Nation currently living in New Mexico and speaking a Southern Athabaskan language. The term jicarilla, pronounced heek-ah-REE-yah, comes from Mexican Spanish meaning little basket and their autonym is Tinde or Dinde, meaning the People. To neighboring Apache bands like the Mescalero and Lipan they were known as Kinya-Inde, the Jicarilla Apache lived in a semi-nomadic existence in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and plains of southern Colorado, northern New Mexico and ranged into the Great Plains starting before 1525 CE. They lived a peaceful life for years, traveling seasonally to traditional hunting, gathering. The Jicarilla learned about farming and pottery from the Puebloan peoples and learned about survival on the plains from the Plains Indians and had a rich and varied diet and lifestyle. Tribal members transitioned from a lifestyle and are now supported by their oil and gas, casino gaming, ranching. The Jicarilla continue to be known for their pottery, large numbers of them lived along the Cimarron River and ranged out into the plains of northwestern Texas and the western portions of Oklahoma and Kansas.
Their territory overlapped that of other tribes. They were found to be in the Chama Valley, New Mexico, prior to that time, and the arrival of the Spanish, the Jicarilla lived a relatively peaceful existence. One of the Plains Indian traits prominent in Jicarilla Culture was an emphasis on raiding, after Spanish contact raiding increased in frequency and intensity with the use of and need for horses. In the 1600s, the Jicarillas were semi-nomads, practicing seasonal agriculture that they learned from the Pueblo people, the Apache are linked to the Dismal River culture of the western Plains, generally attributed to the Paloma and Quartelejo Apaches. Jicarilla Apache pottery has found in some of the Dismal River complex sites. Some of the people of the Dismal River culture joined the Kiowa Apache in the Black Hills of South Dakota and they found farming in the mountains safer than on the open plains. They primarily hunted buffalo into the 17th century and thereafter hunted antelope, mountain sheep, from the wild, women gathered berries, honey, potatoes and seeds.
They believe the heart of the world is located near Taos, the Jicarilla created shrines in sites that held spiritual meaning, sharing some of the Taos area sites with the Taos Pueblo. Clay for the pottery came from the Taos and Picuris Pueblo areas, due to increase in other populations, Manifest Destiny, and Indian Wars, the Apaches traditional cultural and economic lifestyle became strained. Many people died due to famine, Indian Wars, including the Battle of Cieneguilla, at the beginning of the eighteenth century the Jicarilla commonly raided the Plains tribes to their east and used the fruits of their successes to trade with the Pueblo Indians and the Spanish. As they were pushed off the plain, the Jicarilla moved to the mountains and near the pueblos and Spanish missions where they sought alliance with the Puebloan peoples and the Spanish settlers
The Comanche campaign is a general term for military operations by the United States government against the Comanche tribe in the newly settled west. Between 1867 and 1875, military units fought against the Comanche people in a series of expeditions and campaigns until the Comanche surrendered and relocated to a reservation. Western settlement brought the Spanish, French and American settlers into regular contact with the tribes of the region. Many of these Indians were friendly, and received the new settlers gladly, offering to trade and coexist peacefully, the idea of Manifest Destiny as well as the Homestead Act pushed American and immigrant settlers further west, thereby creating more competition for a finite amount of land. This competition for land created tension between the Anglo settlers and the Natives of the region, in an effort to prevent conflicts in the area, many treaties were signed promising land and peace between the two parties, but such treaties were rarely honored. The Comanche tribe was one of the sources of native resistance in the region that became Oklahoma and Texas.
With the outbreak of the Civil War, some Indian tribes attempted to align themselves with what they believed would be the winning side. In the case of the Comanche, the signed a treaty with the Confederacy. This did little to end the cycle of raiding which had come to typify this region, spreading over a large expanse of the southern plains, the Comanche fought hard diplomatically to maintain power in the region they controlled. In the Treaty of Little Arkansas in 1865, the Comanche tribe was awarded a large piece of land spanning parts of Oklahoma, some parts of this region, called the Comancheria, soon became part of the reservation system. This treaty was followed by the Medicine Lodge Treaty in 1867. These policies eventually became part of President Ulysses S. Grant’s Peace Policy, President Grant’s Peace Policy became an important part of the white-Indian relations for a number of years. A faction of the Comanche tribe, the Quahadi, was arguably the most resistant towards the Anglo settlers, skeptical of what they would bring, the Quahadi avoided contact with these men.
Goods were never exchanged between the groups, and because of this seclusion they were unaffected by the cholera plagues in 1816 and 1849. The Quahadi were noted for their nature, so much so that other Comanche feared them. They were the wealthiest of the Comanche in terms of horses and cattle and it was this faction of the Comanche that gave the American troops the most trouble during this period. Following on the heels of the Civil War, the Army had a low number of recruits, approximately 5,000 enlisted men, divided into ten regiments made up the American forces that would face the powerful Comanche. General Sherman picked Ranald S. Mackenzie, described by President Grant as “the most promising young officer in the army, ” commanding the 4th Cavalry and his men developed a style of fighting designed to slowly defeat the Comanche rather than face them in open battle
Archaic period (North America)
The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts and shellfish. As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming and this classification system was first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in the widely accepted 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. In the organization of the system, the Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and is superseded by the Formative stage, the Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stage Numerous local variations have been identified within the cultural rankings. The period has been subdivided by region and time, for instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara and Chihuahua cultures. Such early mound sites as Frenchmans Bend and Hedgepeth were of time period. Watson Brake is now considered the oldest mound complex in the Americas, more than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, and it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast.
Across what is now the Southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BCE, people exploited wetland resources, middens developed along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along coastlines prior to 3000 BCE. Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels, starting around 3000 BCE evidence of large-scale exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE shell rings, large shell middens more or less surrounding open centers, developed along the coast of the Southeastern United States. These shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida Peninsula. In some places, such as Horrs Island in Southwest Florida, four shell or sand mounds on Horrs Island have been dated to between 4,870 and 4,270 Before Present. The site which is considered to be one of the most significant centres of habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada, is located on the north side Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario.
It became part of a trading network because of its strategic location at the centre of major North American waterways. In Glyn Edmund Daniel, Christopher Chippindale, feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley, Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals. Knoxville, U of Tennessee P. ISBN 1-5723-3733-8, Florida, The University Press of Florida
The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture, there may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the late 18th century. They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and they took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers. Today, the Comanche Nation has 15,191 members, approximately 7,763 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around the Lawton, Fort Sill, the Comanche Nation Homecoming Powwow is held annually in Walters, Oklahoma in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today. The name Comanche is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, the Comanche Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Stephens, membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum.
The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues tribal vehicle tags and they have their own Department of Higher Education, primarily awarding scholarships and financial aid for members college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton and they own ten tribal smoke shops and four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton, Comanche Red River Casino in Devol, Comanche Spur Casino, in Elgin, in 2002, the tribe founded the Comanche Nation College, a two-year tribal college in Lawton. Each July Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters, the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Years and one in May, the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt and they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds.
The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture and they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, and have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians. Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people ever southward, by 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Rio Grande and the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. The Comanche never formed a single cohesive unit, but were divided into almost a dozen autonomous groups. These groups shared the language and culture, and rarely fought each other
In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to a projectile, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife. Scientific techniques exist to track the specific kinds of rock or minerals used to make stone tools in various regions back to their original sources. Occasionally, projectile points made of worked bone or ivory are found at archaeological sites, in regions where metallurgy had emerged, projectile points were made from copper, bronze, or iron. In North America, some late prehistoric points were fashioned from copper that was mined in the Lake Superior region, a large variety of prehistoric arrowheads, dart points, and spear points have been discovered. Flint, obsidian and many rocks and minerals were commonly used to make points in North America. Some of the more famous Paleo-Indian types include Clovis, projectile points fall into two general types, dart/spear points, and arrow points. Larger points were used to tip spears and atlatl darts, arrow points are smaller and lighter than dart points, and were used to tip arrows.
The question of how to distinguish an arrow point from a point used on a projectile is non-trivial. According to some investigators, the best indication is the width of the hafting area, an alternative approach is to distinguish arrow points by their necessarily smaller size. Projectile points come in a variety of shapes and styles, which vary according to chronological periods, cultural identities. Typological studies of projectile points have become more elaborate through the years, for instance, Gregory Perino began his categorical study of projectile point typology in the late 1950s. Collaborating with Robert Bell, he published a set of four volumes defining the known point types of that time, Perino followed this several years with a three-volume study of Selected Preforms and Knives of the North American Indians. Another recent set of studies of North American projectile points has been produced by Noel Justice
Southern Ute Indian Reservation
The Southern Ute Indian Reservation is a Native American reservation in southwestern Colorado near the northern New Mexico state line. Its territory consists of land from three counties, in descending order of surface area they are La Plata, the reservation has a land area of 1,058.785 sq mi. Its largest communities are Ignacio and Arboles, the only other community that is recognized as a separate place by the Census Bureau is the CDP of Southern Ute, which lies just southeast of Ignacio. The Southern Ute Indian Reservation was opened in southwestern Colorado, the tribes that originally resided there were the Muache and the Weeminuche. These tribes were considered the Southern Utes, there was a half blood Ute Indian from the Ucompahgre band named Ouray who was appointed by president Lincoln as head of all Ute tribes, which the southern Ute bands did not agree with them. The first reservation created by the treaty of 1868 encompassed about 1/3 of present-day Colorado, when precious metals and minerals were discovered in the central mountains settlers sought access to the land.
In 1873 The Brunot Agreement was created and this agreement limited the reservation to the narrow strip of land that is called The Southern Ute Reservation today. The United States made treaties with various bands of Ute in 1855,1865, and 1866, initially given the whole of eastern Colorado for a reservation, the discovery of gold there in the 1860s brought a quick reduction in territory. The treaty banned liquor and provided for the establishment and maintenance of a labor school for ten years. The eastern part of the reservation is forest with elevations of more than 9000 feet, the western portion is mostly arid mesa. The actual land lies in the corner of the state of Colorado and consists of a strip fifteen miles wide and one hundred. What was originally one long, narrow reservation in the corner of Colorado has been reduced. A portion of the Ute Mountain Reservation extends into New Mexico, in 1895, the Hunter Act made allotments of individual land available to the Indians instead of having them hold it collectively, as a tribe.
The Mountain Utes optd for collective ownership, but the Southern Utes went with individual ownership, after the Southern Utes took 160 acres apiece, the balance was thrown open to settlers but some land went unclaimed and reverted to the Southern Ute tribe. The result was that the Southern Ute Reservation is divided into collective, during the late 1870s a railroad line was built that cut through the reservation. White settlers arrived to build and work on the railroad, there were many quarrels between the Indians and the settlers over use of the land. Tensions increased and an incident known as the Beaver Massacre occurred in which 11 Indians were killed by stockmen who accused them of butchering some of the settlers cattle, the Meeker Massacre occurred on Sept.29,1879 when the Indian agent Nathan Meeker and his men were killed. During this event the Indians took Meekers wife and daughters as hostages, another treaty was created in 1880, in this treaty the southern Utes agreed to settle on the La Plate River within their reservation
The Kiowas are a tribe of Native Americans. They migrated from western Montana southward into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, in 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today they are recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie. The Kiowa language is spoken today and is part of the Tanoan language family. As of 2011, there are 12,000 members, Kiowa call themselves Kaigwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning Principal People. The first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka or from ka-a, kae-kia means a Kiowa man, Kae-ma is a Kiowa woman. The second element -gua refers to men or people, so the meaning of the two elements is Kiowa people, to express Principal People or genuine, real or true People in Kiowa is to add the ending -hin. Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the pulling or coming out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
Later, they called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for people with large tipi flaps, the mountain pass they came through was populated heavily by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to them by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a practice to keep their hair from getting tangled as an arrow was let loose from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle, for a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land, mostly in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho. An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is creek people, and the Arapaho word for creek is kohowu, for example, the Kiowa are referred to as creek people in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. Thus, it is possible Kiowa may have come from a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho, the Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family.
The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school. He worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language and he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzies letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk
The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture. They lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, the Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers. They held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences that found form in their architecture, the kiva, a congregational space that was used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient peoples community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes. The Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term, reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean ancient enemies. Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term used, archaeologists continue to debate when this distinct culture emerged.
The current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means village in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the particular style of dwelling. The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to ancient people or ancient ones, Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, meaning ancient people, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans. The Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest and this area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America.
The others are the Mogollon and Patayan, in relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area. The Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet, extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, and sculpted windows, in areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more easily eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed. The Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites, all areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, and wind and water erosion.
Summer rains could be unreliable and often arrived as destructive thunderstorms, while the amount of winter snowfall varied greatly, the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water
In archaeology a type site is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. For example, the site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A culture is Jericho. A type site is often the eponym. For example, the site of the pre-Celtic/Celtic Bronze Age Hallstatt culture is the lakeside village of Hallstatt. In geology the term is used similarly for a site considered to be typical of a rock formation etc. A type site contains artifacts, in an assemblage, that are typical of that culture, type sites are often the first or foundational site discovered about the culture they represent. The use of term is therefore similar to that of the specimen type in biology or locus typicus in geology. New Caledonia, of the Lapita culture