The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their eventual absorption into the Franks. Celtic in language, according to Tacitus they claimed Germanic descent, although early adopters of Roman material culture, the Treveri had a chequered relationship with Roman power. Their leader Indutiomarus led them in revolt against Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars, much later, during the Crisis of the Third Century, the territory of the Treveri was overrun by Germanic Alamanni and Franks and formed part of the Gallic Empire. Under Constantine and his 4th-century successors, Augusta Treverorum became a large, rich, during this period, Christianity began to succeed the imperial cult and the worship of Roman and Celtic deities as the favoured religion of the city. Such Christian luminaries as Ambrose, Martin of Tours, among the surviving legacies of the ancient Treveri are Moselle wine from Luxembourg and Germany and the many Roman monuments of Trier and its surroundings, including neighbouring Luxembourg.
The spelling variants Treveri and Treviri are found in Latin texts from the time of Caesars De Bello Gallico to Tacituss Annales, Latin texts are in general agreement that the first vowel, however, is -e-. For their part, Ancient Greek texts mostly give Τρηούϊροι, variants such as Treberi and Τρίβηροι appear in Pliny and Ptolemy, respectively. A few highly deviant variant forms are attested, Τριήροι in Ptolemy. The name has been interpreted as referring to a river or to crossing the river. They had a goddess of the ford called Ritona and a temple dedicated to Uorioni Deo. treuer- can be compared with the Old Irish treóir guiding, passage through a ford. The first syllable is long and stressed in Latin dictionaries, according to its Celtic etymology. The city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum, in the time of Julius Caesar their territory extended as far as the Rhine north of the Triboci, across the Rhine from them lived the Ubii. Caesar mentions that the Segni and the Condrusi lived between the Treveri and the Eburones, and that the Condrusii and Eburones were clients of the Treveri, Caesar bridged the Rhine in the territory of the Treveri.
They were bordered on the north and west by Belgic tribes, the Tungri, to the south their neighbours were the Mediomatrici. The Rhine valley was removed from Treveran authority with the formation of the province of Germania Superior in the 80s CE, the valley of the Ahr would have marked their northern boundary. Colonia Augusta Treverorum was the capital of their civitas under the Empire, there is strong evidence that the recently excavated oppidum on the Titelberg plateau in the extreme southwest of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was the Treveran capital during the 1st century BCE. The transfer of their activities to Trier followed the construction of Agrippas road linking Trier with Reims which bypassed the Titelberg, during the Roman period, Trier became a Roman colony, and the provincial capital of Belgica itself. It was the frequent residence of a number of emperors, archaeological evidence suggests that the Treveri were divided into five cantons centred respectively on the oppida of the Titelberg, Kastel and the Martberg
The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula, which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica. They gave their name to the city of Vannes. Other ancient Celtic peoples historically attested in Armorica include the Redones, Osismii, the Veneti inhabited southern Armorica, along the Morbihan bay. They built their strongholds on coastal eminences, which were islands when the tide was in and their most notable city, and probably their capital, was Darioritum, mentioned in Ptolemys Geography. The Veneti built their ships of oak with large transoms fixed by iron nails of a thumbs thickness and they navigated and powered their ships through the use of leather sails. This made their ships strong and structurally sound, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of the Atlantic, judging by Caesars Bello Gallico the Veneti evidently had close relations with Bronze Age Britain, he describes how the Veneti sail to Britain. They controlled the tin trade from mining in Cornwall and Devon, Caesar mentioned that they summoned military assistance from that island during the war of 56 BCE.
Julius Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BCE, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both bodies of water when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. Caesar reports in the Bellum Gallicum that in 57 BCE, the Gauls on the Atlantic coast and they were obliged to sign treaties and yield hostages as a token of good faith. Angered by what he considered a breach of law, Caesar prepared for war, given the highly defendable nature of the Veneti strongholds, land attacks were frustrated by the incoming tide, and naval forces were left trapped on the rocks when the tide ebbed. Despite this, Caesar managed to engineer moles and raised siegeworks that provided his legions with a base of operations. However, once the Veneti were threatened in one stronghold, they used their fleet to evacuate to another stronghold, since the destruction of the enemy fleet was the only permanent way to end this problem, Caesar directed his men to build ships.
However, his galleys were at a disadvantage compared to the far thicker Veneti ships. The Veneti manoeuvred so skilfully under sail that boarding was impossible and these factors, coupled with their intimate knowledge of the coast and tides, put the Romans at a disadvantage. However, these advantages would not stand in the face of Roman perseverance, the Romans were at last able to board, and the whole Veneti fleet fell into their hands. The strongholds on the coast were now stormed and the nobles were slaughtered and this served as a lesson to the rest of the confederacy of the fate in store for those who dared to stand against Rome. History of Brittany List of Celtic tribes List of peoples of Gaul Cunliffe, Brice Falling Masts, Rising Masters, The Ethnography of Virtue in Caesars Account of the Veneti, American Journal of Philology 123, 601-22
The Arverni were a Celtic tribe. The tribe was located in what is today the French Auvergne region, one of the most powerful tribes in ancient Gaul, the Arverni opposed the Romans on several occasions. Their most important stronghold was Gergovia, near the commune of Clermont-Ferrand. The Arverni are known to have had the most powerful tribal hegemony in Gaul during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC under their kings and his son Bituitus. But when Arvern king Bituitus was defeated by the Romans of Quintus and Gnaeus Ahenobarbus in 121 BC, their ascendancy passed to the Aedui and Sequani. No further Arvernian kings are mentioned in the record between 121 BC and 52 BC, and they may have adopted a constitutional oligarchy at this time. However, there were at least two attempts to re-establish rulership by Celtillos and Vercingetorix. The King Luernios was mentioned in writing by the Greek ethnographer Posidonius, Luernios was known to have scattered gold and silver coins to his followers while riding in his chariot.
Under Luernios, the Arverni were at the head of a formidable Gallic military hegemony which stretched from the Rhine to the Atlantic coast and they joined Bellovesus migrations towards Italy, together with the Aeduii, Aulerci and Senones. The Arverni played an important role in the Gallic Wars of Julius Caesar from 58 BC to 51 BC, at first the Arvenian nobles tried to avoid confronting Caesar during his early incursions. They executed the leader Celtillus, evidently for trying to gain sovereignty over all the Gauls, in 52 BC, Celtillus son Vercingetorix rallied his supporters to fight the Romans, but was expelled from Gergovia by the nobles, including his uncle Gobanitio. He raised an army in the country, and returned to the city where he ejected his opponents and was declared king. This accomplished, Vercingetorix forged an alliance with at least 15 Gallic tribes and he led the majority of the Gauls and won the Gergovia battle against Julius Caesar and his cavalry did marvels in pursuing the Roman troops.
After Julius Caesar saved half of his legions and received food from other Gauls, Vercingetorix was defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Alesia, after several months where the legions built 14 ranges of military equipment to block the Gallic soldiers. After several weeks of support from the western Gallic people with huge troops coming to support Vercingetorix, when the western Gallic people decided to depart, Vercingetorix took the decision to surrender to save the people of Alesia. The Arverni territories and over 75% of the Gauls were subsequently incorporated into the Roman imperium, Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, conquered King Bituitus Alba Fucens, town where Bituitus was held after capture
Pytheas of Massalia, was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia. He made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe in about 325 BC, in this voyage he circumnavigated and visited a considerable part of Great Britain. He is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun, the theoretical existence of a Frigid Zone, and temperate zones where the nights are very short in summer and the sun does not set at the summer solstice, was already known. Similarly, reports of a country of perpetual snow and darkness had reached the Mediterranean some centuries before, Pytheas is the first known scientific visitor and reporter of the Arctic, polar ice, and the Germanic tribes. He introduced the idea of distant Thule to the geographic imagination, Pytheas may have reached Iceland. Pliny says that Timaeus believed Pytheas story of the discovery of amber, Strabo says that Dicaearchus did not trust the stories of Pytheas. That is all the information that survives concerning the date of Pytheas voyage, some would give Timaeus an extra 5 years, bringing the voyage down to 325 BC at earliest.
If one presumes that Pytheas would not have written before reaching age 20, he would have been a contemporary, as they read his writings he must have written toward the earlier years of the window. As is common with ancient texts, multiple titles may represent a source, for example. The mainstream today recognizes periplus as a genre of literature and concedes that there was only one work, on the Ocean. Diodorus does not mention Pytheas by name, the connection is made as follows, Pliny reports that Timaeus says there is an island named Mictis … where tin is found, and to which the Britons cross. Diodorus says that tin is brought to the island of Ictis, the last link is supplied by Strabo, who says that an emporium on the island of Corbulo in the mouth of the Loire was associated with the Britain of Pytheas by Polybius. Assuming that Ictis and Corbulo are the same, Diodorus appears to have read Timaeus, who must have read Pytheas, Pytheas was the first documented Mediterranean mariner to reach the British Isles.
The start of Pytheass voyage is unknown, the Carthaginians had closed the Strait of Gibraltar to all ships from other nations. Some historians, mainly of the late 19th century and before, therefore speculated that he must have traveled overland to the mouth of the Loire or the Garonne. Others believed that, to avoid the Carthaginian blockade, he may have close to land and sailed only at night. An alternate theory holds that by the 4th century BC, the western Greeks, in 348 BC, Carthage and Rome came to terms over the Sicilian Wars with a treaty defining their mutual interests. Rome could use Sicilian markets, Carthage could buy and sell goods at Rome, Rome was to stay out of the western Mediterranean, but these terms did not apply to Massalia, which had its own treaty
The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Triboci or Tribocci. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri, divodurum was the capital of the Mediomatrici. Besides Metz, settlements in France include the oppidum of Hérapel, other settlements and oppida in Germany were thought to be Saarbrücken, Speyer and Rodalben, although today the ascription of Speyer, Homburg und Rodalben is hotly disputed. The name Mediomatrici has been explained as the people between the Matrona and the Matra and this agrees with Strabo, who says that the Sequani and Mediomatrici inhabit the Rhine, among whom are settled the Triboci, a Germanic nation which had crossed over from their own country. Elements of the Mediomatrici may have settled near Novara, in northern Italy and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed.
Belgae. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Curiosolites or Curiosolitae were a people in the region now called Brittany, in Celtica, who are mentioned by Julius Caesar several times. The name only occurs in the form, as there are variations in the manuscripts. They are mentioned by Caesar with the Veneti, Unelli and others that Caesar calls maritimae civitates, maritime cities, and border on the Atlantic Ocean. In another place he describes the position of the Curiosolitae on the ocean in the terms, and includes them among the Armoric states. The name occurs in Pliny in the form Cariosvelites, and he mentions them with the Unelli, the Curiosolitae are not mentioned by Ptolemy. No city of people is mentioned, and the Itineraries give no roads in this part of Brittany. The name seems to be preserved in Corseul, a village between Dinan and Lamballe, where there are the remains of an old Roman town and we may conclude that, after the fashion of Gallic names, Corseul represents the capital of the Curiosolitae. The neighbors of the Curiosolitae on the east were the Rhedones, on the west were the Osismi or Osismii, who occupied the extremity of the peninsula of Brittany.
But Charles Athanase Walckenaer places, between the Osismi and the Curiosolitae, the Biducasii of Ptolemy, in the diocese of St. Bidué or St. Brieuc, whom he distinguishes from the Viducasses. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Gallia Belgica was a province of the Roman empire located in Belgium, in the northern and eastern parts of Roman Gaul. It began as one of the three provinces of Gaul described by its Roman conqueror Julius Caesar. An official Roman province was created by emperor Augustus in 22 BC. The province is named for the Belgae as the largest tribal confederation in the area, the southern border of Belgica, formed by the Marne and Seine rivers, was reported by Caesar as the original cultural boundary between the Belgae and the Gauls who he distinguished as Celts. The province was re-organized several times, first increased and decreased in size, the capital of Belgica Prima, became an important late western Roman capital. In 57 BC, Julius Caesar led the conquest of northern Gaul and this definition became the basis of the Roman province of Belgica. Indeed, the Belgian tribes closest to the Rhine he distinguished as the Germani cisrhenani, apart from the southern Remi, all the Belgic tribes allied against the Romans, angry at the Roman decision to garrison legions in their territory during the winter.
At the beginning of the conflict, Caesar reported the combined strength at 288,000, led by the Suessione king. Due to the Belgic coalitions size and reputation for uncommon bravery, instead, he used cavalry to skirmish with smaller contingents of tribesmen. Only when Caesar managed to isolate one of the tribes did he risk conventional battle, the tribes fell in a piecemeal fashion and Caesar claimed to offer lenient terms to the defeated, including Roman protection from the threat of surrounding tribes. Most tribes agreed to the conditions, a series of uprisings followed the 57 BC conquest. The largest revolt was led by the Bellovaci in 52 BC, during this rebellion, it was the Belgae who avoided direct conflict. They harassed the Roman legions, led personally by Caesar, with cavalry detachments, the rebellion was put down after a Bellovaci ambush of the Romans failed. Following a census of the region in 27 BC, Augustus ordered a restructuring of the provinces in Gaul, the capital of this territory was Reims, according to the geographer Strabo, though the capital moved to modern day Trier.
The date of this move is uncertain, successive Roman emperors struck a balance between Romanizing the people of Gallia Belgica and allowing pre-existing culture to survive. The Romans allowed local governments to survive, typically in the form of cantons, Roman government was run by Concilia in Reims or Trier. Additionally, local notables from Gallia Belgica were required to participate in a festival in Lugdunum which typically celebrated or worshiped the emperor’s genius, the gradual adoption of Romanized names by local elites and the Romanization of laws under local authority demonstrate the effectiveness of this concilium Galliarum. With that said, the concept and community of Gallia Belgica did not predate the Roman province, during the 1st century AD, the provinces of Gaul were restructured
Le Conquet is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. This is the most westward town of mainland France, only three insular towns—Ouessant, Île-Molène and Ile de Sein—are more westward. Le Conquet is a port in the northwest of Brittany. The port of Le Conquet is served by the company Penn-ar-Bed providing links with Ouessant, during April to September, the company Finistmer provides fast links between the port of Le Conquet and Lanildut, and the archipelago of Molene and Ouessant. As he fled from Wales in exile, Henry Tudor landed in Le Conquet rather than France due to a storm blew his ship off course. Inhabitants of Le Conquet are called in French Conquetois, the tomb of Jean-François Le Gonidec Chapel dedicated to Michel Le Nobletz Le Conquet is twinned with the town of Llandeilo in Wales. As an important crab fishery port, Le Conquet became a place for catching uncommon species. The fishing port is managed since 2007 by Chambre de commerce et dindustrie de Brest, the crab still remains the symbol of the harbour.
The rescue station was inaugurated in March 10,1867, the rescue station uses the first class life boat of SNSM. She mesures 14 meters in length and she is modern and self-righting. The SNS151 La Louve is always anchored in the harbour with two inflatable boats, one of the latter, named ville du conquet is city property and is used for the coastal watch during the summer season. Le Conquet has a center named Club Subaquatique. Communes of the Finistère department INSEE Communes website Cultural Heritage Pictures from Le Conquet
The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their Gaulish language forms the branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps, Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC, after this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD. The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, the name Gaul itself may be derived from Latin Galli, or it may be derived from the Germanic word Walha. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC, the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people.
The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC, the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls especially in the Mediterranean area, Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. Following the climate deterioration in the late Nordic Bronze Age, Celtic Gaul was invaded in the 5th century BC by tribes called Gauls originating in the Rhine valley. Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, in the Aegean world, an invasion of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. However, according to the Roman legend of the gold of Delphi. One king Cerethrius invaded the Thracians, while another Gallic king Bolgios invaded Macedonia and Illyria where he killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, in 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother.
They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the number of women and children. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war,4,000 Galatians were hired as mercenaries by the Ptolemaic Egyptian king Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 270 BC. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Celts plotted “to seize Egypt, ”, Galatians participated at the victorious in 217 BC Battle of Raphia under Ptolemy IV Philopator, and continued to serve as mercenaries for the Ptolemaic Dynasty until its demise in 30 BC. They sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor, after the defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor
The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori on/at sea, made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica Place by the Sea. The suffix -ika was first used to create forms and then. The original designation was vague, including a part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations. Later, the term became restricted to Brittany, in Breton, on sea is war vor, though the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad for the inland regions. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the name for Aquitania. Trade between Armorica and Britain, described by Diodorus Siculus and implied by Pliny was long-established and this prehistoric connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, the typical Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead, archeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, which has been surveyed by Philip de Jersey.
Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, when the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the second and third divisions of Lugdunensis. Jordanes lists Aëtius allies as including Armoricans and other Celtic or German tribes, the Armorican peninsula came to be settled with Britons from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries. Even in distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island, largely legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlers, whether refugees or not, made the presence felt of their coherent groups in the naming of the westernmost, Atlantic-facing provinces of Armorica and these settlements are associated with leaders like Saints Samson of Dol and Pol Aurelian, among the founder saints of Brittany. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain— Cornish and Welsh— and Celtic Breton are far from settled, Martin Henig suggests that in Armorica as in sub-Roman Britain, there was a fair amount of creation of identity in the migration period.
In western Armorica the small elite which managed to impose an identity on the population happened to be British rather than Gallo-Roman in origin, the process may have been essentially the same. With western Armorica having already evolved into Brittany, the east was recast from a Frankish viewpoint as the Breton March under a Frankish marquis. The home village of the fictional comic-book hero Asterix was located in Armorica during the Roman Republic and this unnamed village was reported as having been discovered by archaeologists in a spoof article in the British The Independent newspaper on April Fools Day,1993. North Armorica is mentioned in the first sentence of James Joyces novel Finnegans Wake, Armorica is featured extensively in Bernard Cornwells novel The Winter King where Ynys Trebes, Mont Saint Michel is besieged and destroyed by the Franks. The protagonist, Mathurin Kerbouchard, of Louis LAmours The Walking Drum is a native of Brittany, armoricani Armorican Plomodiern Parish close Saxon shore Martin Henig, review in British Archaeology 72 John Hooker - Coriosolite coinage and classification
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16