Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
Open plan is the generic term used in architectural and interior design for any floor plan which makes use of large, open spaces and minimizes the use of small, enclosed rooms such as private offices. The term can refer to landscaping of housing estates, business parks, etc. in which there are no defined property boundaries, such as hedges, fences or walls. Open-plan office designs are promoted as improving collaboration, but moving from cubicles to open workspaces results in fewer face-to-face interactions among staff and reduced productivity. In residential design, open plan or open concept describes the elimination of barriers such as walls and doors that traditionally separated distinct functional areas, such as combining the kitchen, living room, dining room into a single great room. Many pre-industrial huts are single-room, if small. In England in the Middle Ages, the single-room hearth-heated hall house developed into multi-room houses that became popular as the country industrialized, more people beyond nobility could afford them.
In the 1880s, small public rooms of the home with specific functions began to be replaced by larger rooms that would fulfill multiple uses, with the kitchen and bathrooms still being enclosed private spaces. Larger rooms were made possible by advances in centralized heating that allowed larger spaces to be kept at comfortable temperatures. Frank Lloyd Wright was one of the early advocates for open plan design in houses, expanding on the ideas of Charles and Henry Greene and shingle style architecture. Wright's designs were based on a centralized kitchen which opened to other public spaces of the home where the housewife would be "more hostess'officio', operating in gracious relation to her home, instead of being a kitchen mechanic behind closed doors." Lack of dividing walls between the kitchen and combined living room/dining room became more popular in United States in the 1970s. A home with this type of layout has one or more large, open rooms that function as multiple rooms within a single living space.
The most common is a great room that combines the kitchen, dining room, living room into one shared space. These floor plans work well in homes with a smaller area, while larger homes have more leeway to work with when integrating great rooms into a floor plan; the removal of interior walls increases views and allows sunlight from windows in the exterior walls to permeate throughout the house. In the late 2010s, some people have expressed disapproval at the open concept. Complaints about open concept designs is that they make it more difficult for different people to engage in different activities, makes it difficult to hide clutter or a dirty kitchen. Walls are useful to contain noise and smells, provide privacy, small rooms are more efficient to heat and cool. A follow-on trend among wealth homeowners is to build a second "mess kitchen" where the actual activity of food preparation takes place, while entertaining happens in a clean kitchen, part of the open concept space. Prior to the 1950s open-plan offices consisted of large regular rows of desks or benches where clerks, typists, or technicians performed repetitive tasks.
Such designs were rooted in the work of industrial engineers or efficiency experts such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henry Ford. In the 1950s a German team named Quickborner developed the office landscape, which used conventional furniture, curved screens, large potted plants, organic geometry to create work groups on large, open floors. Office landscape was supplanted by office-furniture companies which developed cubicles based on panel-hung or systems furniture. Many terms have been used over time for offices using the large arrays of open cubicles. An increase in knowledge work and the emergence of mobile technology during the late 20th-century led to an evolution in open-plan offices. Many companies have started experimenting with designs which provide a mix of cubicles, open workstations, private offices, group workstations. In some cases, these are not assigned to one particular individual, but are available to any employee of the company on either a reservable or "drop-in" basis. Terms for this strategy include Hoteling, "alternative officing" and "hotdesking".
Michael Bloomberg used a team-oriented bullpen style – where employees can see and hear each other but desks are grouped into teams – at his media company Bloomberg L. P. and for his staff while Mayor of New York City. A systematic survey of research upon the effects of open-plan offices found frequent negative effects in some traditional workplaces: high levels of noise, conflict, high blood pressure and a high staff turnover; the noise level in open-plan offices reduces productivity, which drops to one third relative to what it would be in quiet rooms. New technologies like voice-activation and mobile phones decrease effectiveness in the open-plan setting. Although promoted as a way to encourage collaboration and increase the group's collective intelligence, open-plan offices are associated with a dramatic reduction in face-to-face interactions, as employees turn to digital communication, such as sending e-mail messages. Open-plan offices have been found to reduce the confidential or private conversations which employees engage in, to reduce job satisfaction and performance, whilst increasing auditory and visual distractions.
Open-plan offices have been found to elevate the risk of employees needing to take time off for sickness. Panopticon
Spellemannprisen referred to as the Norwegian Grammy Awards in English, is a Norwegian music award presented to Norwegian musicians. The award was established by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, an organization that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. First awarded in 1973, the prize honours musicians from the previous year; the Spellemann committee, composed of members of IFPI Norway and FONO, manages the award and acts as the judge. Twenty-one categories are awarded and the committee may award additional honorary and industry awards; the awards are held in January or February. Separate juries convene for each category. Members are confidential from both the other juries; the juries score each nominee separately convene to deliberate until there is a winner. Three nominees are presented to the jury; the Spellemanns committee nominates three categories: Newcomer of the Year, Fiddler of the Year and Hit Artist. A nomination jury nominates the rest of the videos, which are presented to the juries.
Starting in 2007, the winner of the Newcomer of the Year Award takes home a prize of 200 000 kroner. The scholarship is awarded by a Norwegian music industry funding agency; as of 2014, sixteen artists have won the prize more than five times. Leif Ove Andsnes has the most wins with 10 awards. In 2011, the live award show returned to NRK for the first time since 2001, remained on the same channel afterwards. From 2002 to 2010, the show was broadcast on TV 2. Nominees and winners: Barnemusikk Karoline Krüger og Fru Nitters Rytmeorkester: Labyrinter! Naboen Min: Rockesock Tonje Unstad: Musling med melk Mandarinsaft: På vei te en vennBluesUlf Myrvold: Old Memories Geir Bertheussen Blues Express: Southside JT Lauritsen & The Buckshot Hunters: Blue Eyed Soul Volume 1 Jørgen Sandvik: Permanent Vacation CountryHege Øversveen: Goodbye Yellow Roses Country Heroes: Honky Tonk Tears Malin Pettersen: References Pt. 1 The Northern Belle: Blinding Blue NeonElektronika Fakethias: Attune Sex Judas feat. Ricky: Go Down Judas Bjørn Torske: Byen Smerz: Have FunFolkemusikk/tradisjonsmusikk Aslak Brimi Kvartett: Vev Johanne Flottorp: Johanne Flottorp Sudan Dudan: Heimen der ute Marja Mortensson: Mojhtestasse – Cultural Heirlooms Indie/alternativ Okay Kaya: Both Thea Hjelmeland: Kulla Boy Pablo: Soy Pablo Fay Wildhagen: BordersJazzGurls: Run boy, run Moskus: Mirakler Atomic: Pet Variations Hanna Paulsberg Concept + Magnus Broo: Daughter Of The SunKlassisk Frida Fredrikke Waaler Wærvågen & Ingrid Andsnes: Metamorfose Tora Augestad & Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra: Portraying Passion Christian Ihle Hadland: Christian Ihle Hadland plays Domenico Scarlatti Stavanger Symfoniorkester: Symphonic DancesMetalAura Noir: Aura Noire Obliteration: Cenotaph Obscure Beaten To Death: Agronomicon Sylvaine: Atoms Aligned, Coming UndonePopartist Sigrid: Raw EP Sondre Justad: Ingenting i paradis Amanda Delara: Running Deep + Soldiers Emilie Nicolas: Tranquille Emile Popgruppe Band of Gold: Where’s The Magic Razika: Sånn kjennes verden ut Lemaitre: Lemaitre 2018 Seeb: Nice To Meet YouRockOslo Ess: Frie radikaler The Good The Bad and The Zugly: Misanthropical House Årabrot: Who Do You Love Turbonegro: Rock’n’roll MachineSamtid Kjell Tore Innervik: UTOPIAS — Radical Interpretations of Iconic Musical Works for Percussion Telemark kammerorkester, dirigent Lars-Erik ter Jung: Chasing Strings Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra: Ørjan Matre: Konsert for orkester Cikada strykekvartett / Knut Olaf Sunde: Vertigo RoomUrbanMARS: MARS EMIR: Mer av deg Lil Halima: Lil Halima 2018 Unge Beirut: Hevnen er søt, men jeg tilgir degViser Ingeborg Oktober: Skjømmingsboka Ellen Sofie Hovland: Og solen renner over Erik Lukashaugen: Vi eier skogene Masåva: MasåvaÅpen klasse Anja Garbarek: The Road Is Just A Surface Geir Sundstøl: Brødløs Harpreet Bansal: Samaya Amgala Temple: Invisible AirshipsTonos komponistpris Anja Garbarek: The Road Is Just A Surface Geir Holmsen: Et stille sted Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra – Ørjan Matre: Konsert for orkester Arve Henriksen/Eivind Aarset/Jan Bang/Jez riley French: The Height Of The ReedsÅrets låtskriver Stig Joar Haugen: Midt Imellom Magisk Og Manisk Dagny Norvoll Sandvik: Dagny Låtskriver 2018 Ina Wroldsen: Hex Thea Hjelmeland: KullaÅrets musikkvideo Aurora / director: Kinga Burza: "Queendom" Hkeem / director: Thor Brenne: "Ghettoparasitt" Sigrid / director: AB/CD/CD: "Sucker Punch" Sondre Justad / director: Trond Kvig Andreassen: "Ikke som de andre"Årets produsent Aksel Carlson: For example MARS, Emilie Nicolas, Arif & Unge Ferrari Fay Wildhagen: Borders Kai Gundelach: Baltus Kåre Christoffer Vestrheim: For example Anja Garbarek, Emilie Nicolas, Håkon Kornstad, BatagrafÅrets tekstforfatter Eduardo Andersen: La oss ta en idealist Lars Saabye Christensen: Et stille sted Ina Wroldsen: Hex Odd Nordstoga: KløyvdÅrets album Emilie Nicolas: Tranquille Emilie Rotlaus: På vei Sondre Justad: Ingenting i paradis Unge Ferrari: Midt Imellom Magisk Og ManiskÅrets gjennombrudd & Gramo-stipend Boy Pablo Lise Davidsen Kamelen Rotlaus RubenÅrets låt Alan Walker feat.
Tomine Harket, Au/Ra: "Darkside" Astrid S: "Emotion" Ina Wroldsen: "Strongest" K-391 feat. Alan Walker, Julie Bergan, Seungri: "Ignite" Kygo, Miguel: "Remind Me to Forget" Mads Hansen: "Sommerkroppe
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively; the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003; the fourth edition consisted of a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries. First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen. Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen; the online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, the online encyclopedia became free. On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue, it was announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible". In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association. In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia.
In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor. As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by 750 affiliated academics; the SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication. The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month; the online version of Store norske leksikon
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe and bassoon, percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, snare drum and cymbals, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called philharmonic orchestra; the actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.
The typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton; the conductor sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The conductor prepares the orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert, in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on their interpretation of the music being performed; the leader of the first violin section called the concertmaster plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the Baroque music era, orchestras were led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, as pit ensembles for operas and some types of musical theatre.
Amateur orchestras include those made up of students from an elementary school or a high school, youth orchestras, community orchestras. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus; the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments; the orchestra, depending on the size, contains all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Ludwig van Beethoven's influence on the classical model. In the 20th and 21st century, new repertory demands expanded the instrumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a flexible use of the classical-model instruments and newly developed electric and electronic instruments in various combinations.
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orchestra may be used to distinguish different ensembles from the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony orchestra will have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. Chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles; the term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra. The so-called "standard complement" of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven; the composer's instrumentation always included paired flutes, clarinets, bassoons and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven calculated the expansion of this particular timbral "palette" in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, 9 for an innovative effect.
The third horn in the "Eroica" Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of "choral" brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth known as the Pastoral Symphony; the Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica".