Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell
Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell was an American zoologist, born at Norwood and brother of Sydney Cockerell. He was educated at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, studied botany in the field in Colorado in 1887–90. Subsequently, he became a taxonomist and published numerous papers on the Hymenoptera and Mollusca, as well as publications on paleontology and evolution. Cockerell was died in San Diego, California, he married Annie Penn in 1891 and Wilmatte A. Porter in 1900. In 1901, he named the ultramarine blue chromodorid Mexichromis porterae in her honor. Before and after their marriage in 1900, they went on collecting expeditions together and assembled a large private library of natural history films, which they showed to schoolchildren and public audiences to promote the cause of environmental conservation. After his death he was buried in Columbia Cemetery, Colorado. Between 1891 and 1901 Cockerell was curator of the public museum of Kingston, professor of entomology of the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station.
In 1900–03 he was instructor in biology at the New Mexico Normal University. While there he taught and mentored the botanist Charlotte Cortlandt Ellis. In 1903–04 Cockerell was the curator of the Colorado College Museum. During World War II he operated the Desert Museum in California. Cockerell was author of more than 2,200 articles in scientific publications on the Hymenoptera and Mollusca, on paleontology and various phases of evolution, plus some 1700 additional authored works, including treatises on social reform and education, he was one of the most prolific taxonomists in history, publishing descriptions of over 9,000 species and genera of insects alone, some 6,400 of which were bees, some 1,000 mollusks, fungi, mammals and plants. This includes descriptions of numerous fossil taxa, such as the landmark study, Some Fossil Insects from Florissant, Colorado; the standard author abbreviation Cockerell is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. A dorm in the Engineering Quad at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the moth Givira theodori are named in his honor.
Taxa named by Cockerell include: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; the Nautilus 1902 16:19-21. Biography of Cockerell GAP Biography Works by T. D. A. Cockerell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell at Internet Archive Works by or about T. D. A. Cockerell at Internet Archive
Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus Arctostaphylos. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees present in the chaparral biome of western North America, where they occur from Southern British Columbia and Washington to Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in the United States, throughout Mexico. Manzanitas can live in places with little water, they are characterized by smooth orange or red bark and twisting branches. There are 105 species and subspecies of manzanita, 95 of which are found in the Mediterranean climate and colder mountainous regions of California, ranging from ground-hugging coastal and mountain species to small trees up to 20 feet tall. Manzanitas carry berries in spring and summer; the berries and flowers of most species are edible. The word manzanita is the Spanish diminutive of manzana. A literal translation would be little apple; the name manzanita is sometimes used to refer to species in the related genus Arbutus, known by that name in the Canadian area of the tree's range, but is more known as madroño, or madrone in the United States.
Native Americans in Northern California made a tisane from manzanita leaves to treat poison oak rash. The leaves contain chemicals with a mildly disinfectant quality, can be used for mild urinary tract infections; the berries are a good food, as they can be stored. Once stored and dried, the berries can be ground into a coarse meal; the berries can be eaten ripe or green for a sour taste. They are good used as a thickener or sweetener in other dishes. Fresh berries and branch tips can be soaked in water to make a cider. Native Americans used. Manzanitas are useful as ornamental plants in gardens in the western United States and similar climate zones, they are evergreen drought-tolerant, have picturesque bark and attractive flowers and berries, come in many sizes and growth patterns. Arctostaphylos columbiana, for example, is hardy enough to be used for highway landscaping in western Oregon and Washington. Arctostaphylos'Emerald Carpet', A. uva-ursi, other low-growing manzanitas are valuable evergreen groundcovers for dry slopes.
Larger varieties, such as Arctostaphylos.'Dr. Hurd,' can be grown as individual specimens, pruned to emphasize the striking pattern and colors of the branches, they prefer light, well-drained soil, although the low-growing ground covers will tolerate heavier soils. Manzanita branches are popular as decoration, due to their unique shape and strength when dried. Florists sometimes use them as centerpieces at wedding receptions and other events adding hanging votive candles, beaded gems and small flowers to them; the wood is notoriously hard to cure due to cracking against the grain, giving it few uses as lumber. The slow growth rate and many branchings further decrease the sizes available; some furniture and art employ whole round branches, which reduces cracking and preserves the deep red color. The dead wood decays and can last for many years, on and off the plant. Sunlight smooths and bleaches manzanita to light grey or white, rendering it superficially akin to animal bones; because of this and the stunted growth of many species, manzanita is collected in its more unusual shapes, giving it the nickname mountain driftwood.
Manzanita wood is used as perches for parrots and other large pet birds. The branches of the larger species are long-lasting for this purpose; some aquarium keepers use sandblasted manzanita as driftwood in planted aquaria because of its attractive forked growth and its chemical neutrality. If properly cleaned and cured, it holds up well over extended periods of submersion; the wood is resistant to the leaching of tannins into the water column, a problem found with other aquarium driftwoods. When used as driftwood, manzanita must be either weighted down for several weeks or soaked first to counteract the wood's natural buoyancy when it has been dried and cured; the green wood does not float. Manzanita wood, when dry, is excellent for burning in a campfire, fireplace, or stove, it burns at a high temperature for long periods. However, caution should be exercised, because the high temperatures can damage thin-walled barbecues, crack cast iron stoves or cause chimney fires. During World War II, Manzanita root burls were used as an expedient native material to make smoking pipes due to its relation and similar fire-resistant properties to then-unavailable imported briar.
Labeled as "Mission Briar", it was harvested for the remainder of the war, stopping soon after when supplies of imported briar once again became available. Some manzanita species are among the rarest plants in the world. Arctostaphylos hookeri ravenii, an endemic species, is the most endangered and restricted plant in the mainland United States. In 1987 only one specimen remained, at a secret location in the Presidio of San Francisco National Historic Landmark District in San Francisco, California; this plant has since been cloned. Arctostaphylos franciscana, a species native to San Francisco, had not been seen growing wild since 1947 until it was spotted growing in the Presidio of San Francisco in October 2009. Caltrans transplanted this specimen on 23 January 2010 to make way for the Doyle Drive Replacement Project. Transplanting costs were funded in part by Federal Highways Administration, The Presidio of San Francisco, private donors. "Arctostaphylos hookeri, subspecies franciscana", a scrubby, thin-twigged bush, riddled with the webs of miniature spiders, resides in a corner of
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps and ants. Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. Females have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible; the ovipositor is modified into a stinger. The young develop through holometabolism —that is, they have a worm-like larval stage and an inactive pupal stage before they mature; the name Hymenoptera refers to the wings of the insects. All references agree; the Ancient Greek ὑμήν for membrane provides a plausible etymology for the term because species in this order have membranous wings. However, a key characteristic of this order is that the hind wings are connected to the fore wings by a series of hooks. Thus, another plausible etymology involves Hymen, the Ancient Greek god of marriage, as these insects have "married wings" in flight; the cladogram of external relationships, based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the order as a clade, most related to endopterygote orders including the Diptera and Lepidoptera.
Hymenoptera originated with the oldest fossils belonging to the family Xyelidae. Social hymenopterans appeared during the Cretaceous; the evolution of this group has been intensively studied by Alex Rasnitsyn, Michael S. Engel, others; this clade has been studied by examining the mitochondrial DNA. Although this study was unable to resolve all the ambiguities in this clade, some relationships could be established; the Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha were monophyletic. The Megalyroidea and Trigonalyoidea are sister clades; the Cynipoidea was recovered as the sister group to Chalcidoidea and Diaprioidea which are each other's closest relations. The cladogram is based on Schulmeister 2003. Hymenopterans range in size from small to large insects, have two pairs of wings, their mouthparts are adapted with well-developed mandibles. Many species have further developed the mouthparts into a lengthy proboscis, with which they can drink liquids, such as nectar, they have large compound eyes, three simple eyes, ocelli.
The forward margin of the hind wing bears a number of hooked bristles, or "hamuli", which lock onto the fore wing, keeping them held together. The smaller species may have only two or three hamuli on each side, but the largest wasps may have a considerable number, keeping the wings gripped together tightly. Hymenopteran wings have few veins compared with many other insects in the smaller species. In the more ancestral hymenopterans, the ovipositor is blade-like, has evolved for slicing plant tissues. In the majority, however, it is modified for piercing, and, in some cases, is several times the length of the body. In some species, the ovipositor has become modified as a stinger, the eggs are laid from the base of the structure, rather than from the tip, used only to inject venom; the sting is used to immobilise prey, but in some wasps and bees may be used in defense. Hymenopteran larvae have a distinct head region, three thoracic segments, nine or 10 abdominal segments. In the suborder Symphyta, the larvae resemble caterpillars in appearance, like them feed on leaves.
They have large chewing mandibles, three pairs of thoracic limbs, and, in most cases, six or eight abdominal prolegs. Unlike caterpillars, the prolegs have no grasping spines, the antennae are reduced to mere stubs. Symphytan larvae that are wood borers or stem borers have no abdominal legs and the thoracic legs are smaller than those of non-borers. With rare exceptions larvae of the suborder Apocrita have no legs and are maggotlike in form, are adapted to life in a protected environment; this may be the body of a host organism, or a cell in a nest, where the adults will care for the larva. In parasitic forms, the head is greatly reduced and withdrawn into the prothorax. Sense organs appear to be poorly developed, with no ocelli small or absent antennae, toothlike, sicklelike, or spinelike mandibles, they are unable to defecate until they reach adulthood due to having an incomplete digestive tract to avoid contaminating their environment. The larvae of stinging forms have 10 pairs of spiracles, or breathing pores, whereas parasitic forms have nine pairs present.
Among most or all hymenopterans, sex is determined by the number of chromosomes an individual possesses. Fertilized eggs get two sets of chromosomes and develop into diploid females, while unfertilized eggs only contain one set and develop into haploid males; the act of fertilization is under the voluntary control of the egg-laying female, giving her control of the sex of her offspring. This phenomenon is called haplodiploidy. However, the actual genetic mechanisms of haplodiploid sex determination may be more complex than simple chromosome number. In many Hymenoptera, sex is determined by a single gene locus with many alleles. In these species, haploids are male and diploids heterozygous at the sex locus are female, but a diploid will be homozygous at the sex locus and develop as a male, instead; this is likely to occur in an individual whose parents were siblings or other close relatives. Diploid males are known to be produced by inbreeding in many ant and wasp species
Megachilidae is a cosmopolitan family of solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structure is restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen. Megachilid genera are most known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials from which they build their nest cells. All species feed on nectar and pollen, but a few are kleptoparasites, feeding on pollen collected by other megachilid bees. Parasitic species do not possess scopae; the motion of Megachilidae in the reproductive structures of flowers is swimming-like. The life cycle of nonparasitic Megachilidae is that nests are built, divided into cells; each cell receives a supply of an egg. She builds a wall; the larva consumes the food supply. After moulting a few times, it pupates, it emerges from the nest as an adult. Males die shortly after mating, but females survive for another few weeks, during which they build new nests. Nests are built in natural or artificial cavities; some embed individual cells in a mass of clay or resin attached to a wall, rock surface, or plant stem.
Nest cavities are linear, for example in hollow plant stems, but not always. Some genera of megachilids are brood parasites, they parasitize related taxa. They enter the nest before it is sealed and lay their eggs in a cell. After hatching, the parasite larva kills the host larva, unless the female parasite has done so, consumes the provisions. Parasitic species are of smaller than their victims. In 1921, the journal American Museum Novitates published a preliminary report on parasitic megachilid bees of the western United States. North America has an estimated 630 different megachilid species, including Megachile, Anthidium and Chalicodoma. Most Megachilidae are native, a few are introduced and intentionally, thus Megachilidae represent 15% to 20% of named species of bees. The scientific name Megachilidae refers to the genus Megachile, translating as large lipped (Ancient Greek μέγᾰς + χεῖλος. Most Megachilidae build their nests in above-ground cavities, their nesting habits means that in some studies of bee diversity, this bee family is most to be the one encountered though the many ground nesting bees are much greater in specie numbers.
For example, in Krombein's trap-nesting survey all bees that nested in his offerings were Megachilid species—40 of 43 occupying bee species.. Because they are above-ground nesters and more attracted to artificial nests, megachilid bees are more cultivated than ground nesting solitary bees, they accept nesting materials made from hollow stems and blocks with preformed holes, several megachilids have become important species for agricultural / horticultural pollination. In North America these cultivated bees include the introduced Megachile rotundata, used extensively in alfalfa pollination, the western native and raised Osmia lignaria, used in orchard pollination. Other Osmia and Megachile species are in commercial use in North America and Asia. A suite of megachilid rely on plant resins for nest construction; these "resin bees" are smaller than honey bees, effective pollinators, although the hard glue-like resins can complicate management of other tunnel nesting bees. Carder bees, are unique for using plant fibers.
A non-native is best known—A. Manicatum, the European wool carder bee, was accidentally introduced to the Americas in the late'60s and has now spread across the continent, it has been described as "... the most distributed unmanaged bee species in the world." Like most Anthidium, rather than cutting leaves or petals, A. manicatum scrapes the hairs from leaves to use for nesting material. It is atypical because the male is larger than the female and on patrol, protecting a "harem" by chasing and attacking all interlopers including honey and bumble bees, its tail equipped with multiple prongs that can knife in between the segments of most any intruder. Neither the introduced Anthidium nor its American cousins are considered parasites, only territorial and at times aggressive, but some Megachilidae are, including Coelioxys, a kleptoparasite of leafcutter bees, Stelis, a kleptoparasite of leafcutter and mason bees. While some Megachilidae are extensively studied for their commercial possibilities, others are studied by happenstance.
Chalicodoma mason bees, not cultivated, are known through extended observation and w
Mason bee is a name now used for species of bees in the genus Osmia, of the family Megachilidae. Mason bees are named for their habit of using mud or other "masonry" products in constructing their nests, which are made in occurring gaps such as between cracks in stones or other small dark cavities. Species of the genus include the orchard mason bee Osmia lignaria, the blueberry bee O. ribifloris, the hornfaced bee O. cornifrons. The former two are native to the Americas and the latter to eastern Asia, although O. lignaria and O. cornifrons have been moved from their native ranges for commercial purposes. The red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, is found across the European continent. Over 300 species are found across the Northern Hemisphere. Most occur in temperate habitats within the Palearctic and Neartic zones, are active from spring through late summer. Osmia species are metallic green or blue, though many are blackish and at least one rust-red. Most have black ventral scopae, they have arolia between their claws, unlike Anthidium species.
The term mason bee has been used to refer to bees from a number of other genera under Megachilidae such as Chalicodoma, most notably in "The Mason-Bees" by Jean-Henri Fabre and his translator Alexander Teixeira de Mattos in 1914. Unlike honey bees or bumblebees, Osmia species are solitary; when the bees emerge from their cocoons, the males exit first. The males remain near the nests waiting for the females, some are known to extract females from their cocoons; when the females emerge, they mate with one or several males. The males soon die, within a few days the females begin provisioning their nests. Osmia females nest in narrow gaps and occurring tubular cavities; this means hollow twigs, but can be in abandoned nests of wood-boring beetles or carpenter bees, in snail shells, under bark, or in other small protected cavities. They do not excavate their own nests; the material used for the cell can be clay, grit, or chewed plant tissue. The palearctic species O. avosetta is one of a few species known for lining the nest burrows with flower petals.
A female might inspect several potential nests before settling in. Within a few days of mating the female has selected a nest site and has begun to visit flowers to gather pollen and nectar for her nests. Once a provision mass is complete, the bee lays an egg on top of the mass, she creates a partition of "mud", which doubles as the back of the next cell. The process continues. Female eggs are laid in the back of the nest, male eggs towards the front. Once a bee has finished with a nest, she plugs the entrance to the tube, may seek out another nest location. Within weeks of hatching the larva has consumed all of its provisions and begins spinning a cocoon around itself and enters the pupal stage, the adult matures either in the fall or winter, hibernating inside its insulatory cocoon. Most Osmia species are found in places where the temperature drops below 0 °C for long durations and they are well-adapted to cold winters; some species of mason bees are semi-voltine, meaning that they have a two-year maturation cycle, with a full year spent as a larva.
Solitary bees produce neither beeswax. They are immune from acarine and Varroa mites, but have their own unique parasites and diseases; the nesting habits of many Osmia lend themselves to easy cultivation, a number of Osmia are commercially propagated in different parts of the world to improve pollination in fruit and nut production. Commercial pollinators include O. lignaria, O. bicornis, O. cornuta, O. cornifrons, O. ribifloris, O. californica. They are used both as an alternative to and as an augmentation for European honey bees. Mason bees used for orchard and other agricultural applications are all attracted to nesting holes – reeds, paper tubes, nesting trays, or drilled blocks of wood; as is characteristic of solitary bees, Osmia are docile and sting when handled, their sting is small and not painful, their stinger is unbarbed. Orchard mason bee Osmia californica List of Osmia species Margeriet. Pollination with Mason Bees: A Gardener's Guide to Managing Mason Bees for Fruit Production.
Beediverse Publishing. ISBN 9780968935705. Bosch and Kemp, William J.. How to manage the blue orchard bee. Sustainable Agriculture Network Handbook Series. P. 98. ISBN 978-1888626063. Retrieved 3 October 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Osmia Identification Guide Osmia Identification Guide List of Species Worldwide Species Map Palaearctic Osmiine Bees
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi