Chintz was glazed calico textiles those imported from India, printed with designs featuring flowers and other patterns in different colours on a light plain background.. Since the 19th century the term has been used for the style of floral decoration developed in those calico textiles, but used more for example on chintzware pottery and wallpaper. Chintz designs are European patterns loosely derived from the style of Indian designs themselves reflecting Mughal art. Unglazed calico was traditionally called "cretonne"; the word calico is derived from the name of the Indian city Calicut to which it had a manufacturing association. In contemporary language the word "chintz" and "chintzy" can be used to refer to clothing or furnishings which are vulgar or florid in appearance, in informal speech, to refer to cheap, low quality, or gaudy things, including personal behavior. Chintz was a woodblock printed, painted or stained calico produced in India from 1600 to 1800 and popular for bed covers and draperies.
Around 1600, Portuguese and Dutch traders were bringing examples of Indian chintz into Europe on a small scale, but the English and French merchants began sending large quantities. By 1680 more than a million pieces of chintz were being imported into England per year, a similar quantity was going to France and the Dutch Republic; these early imports were mostly used for curtains, furnishing fabrics, bed hangings and covers. It has been suggested that wearing them as clothes began when these were replaced and given to maidservants, who made them into dresses, that they were first worn as linings. With imported chintz becoming so popular with Europeans during the late 17th century and English mills grew concerned, as they could not make chintz. In 1686 the French declared a ban on all chintz imports. In 1720 England's Parliament enacted a law that forbade "the Use and Warings in Apparel of imported chintz, its use or Wear in or about any Bed, Cushion or other Household furniture". Though chintz was outlawed, there were loopholes in the legislation.
The Court of Versailles was outside the law and fashionable young courtiers continued wearing chintz. In 1734, French naval officer, M. de Beaulieu, stationed at Pondicherry, sent home letters along with actual samples of chintz fabric during each stage of the process to a chemist friend detailing the dyeing process of cotton chintz. His letters and samples can be seen today in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris. In 1742, another Frenchman, Father Coeurdoux supplied details of the chintz making process, while he was trying to convert the Indians to Catholicism. In 1759 the ban against chintz was lifted. By this time French and English mills were able to produce chintz. Europeans at first produced reproductions of Indian designs, added original patterns. A well-known make was toile de Jouy, manufactured in Jouy, between 1700 and 1843. Modern chintz consists of bright overall floral patterns printed on a light background but there are some popular patterns on black backgrounds as well.
An exhibition of calico and chintz at the Smithsonian American Art Museum Chintz Applique Quilts: From Imitation to Icon – Online exhibition at the International Quilt Study Center & Museum, University of Nebraska-Lincoln On Chintz. An interview with chintz expert Rosemary Crill, senior curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum
Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing. While a denim predecessor known as dungaree has been produced in India for hundreds of years, denim itself was first produced in the French city of Nîmes under the name “serge de Nîmes”; the most common denim is indigo denim, in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile is dominated by the blue warp threads and the other side is dominated by the white weft threads; this causes blue jeans to be white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's signature fading characteristics; the name "denim" derives from French serge de Nîmes, meaning'serge from Nîmes'. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue jeans, although "jean" denoted a different, cotton fabric; the contemporary use of the word "jeans" comes from the French word for Italy: Gênes.
Denim has been used in the United States since the mid-19th century. Denim gained popularity in 1873 when Jacob W. Davis, a tailor from Nevada, manufactured the first pair of rivet-reinforced denim pants. At this time, clothes for Western labourers, such as teamsters and miners, were not durable, his concept for making reinforced jeans was inspired when a female customer requested a pair of durable and strong pants for her husband to chop wood. When Davis was about to finish making the denim jeans, he saw some copper rivets lying on a table and used the rivets to fasten the pockets. Soon, the popularity of denim jeans began to spread and Davis was overwhelmed with requests, he soon sold 200 pairs to workers in need of heavy work clothing. Because of the production capacity in his small shop, Davis was struggling to keep up with the demand, he wrote a proposal to dry goods wholesaler Levi Strauss & Co., supplying Davis with bolts of denim fabric. Davis's proposal was to patent the design of the rivet-reinforced denim pant, with Davis listed as inventor, in exchange for certain rights of manufacture.
Levi Strauss & Co. was so impressed by the possibilities for profit in the manufacture of the garment that they hired Davis to be in charge of the mass production in San Francisco. Throughout the 20th century denim was used for cheap durable uniforms like those issued to staff of the French national railways. In the postwar years, Royal Air Force overalls for dirty work were named "denims." These were a one-piece garment, with long legs and sleeves, buttoned from throat to crotch, in an olive drab denim fabric. All denim goes through the same process to creation. Cotton is harvested by machine. A cotton gin separates the cotton fiber from the seeds; the fiber is put into bales. A bale can make around 400 pairs of jeans; the cotton fiber is spun into yarn. The yarn is dyed giving it color such as the classic denim blue; the yarn is woven in a shuttle loom or projectile loom into denim. The denim is sent to manufacturer for use. Dry or raw denim is denim, not washed after having been dyed during production.
Over time dry denim will fade, considered fashionable in some circumstances. During the process of wear, fading will occur on those parts of the article that receive the most stress. On a pair of jeans, this includes the upper thighs, the ankles, the areas behind the knees. After being made into an article of clothing, most denim articles are washed to make them softer and to reduce or eliminate shrinkage; this process is known as sanforization. In addition to being sanforized, "washed denim" is sometimes artificially distressed to produce a "worn" look. Much of the appeal of artificially distressed denim is. In jeans made from dry denim, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears them and by the activities of their daily life; this process creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a look more "natural" than artificially distressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months. Most dry denim comes from several different countries.
In particular, the United States and Japan are popular sources of cotton for making raw denim. Dry denim varies in weight measured by the weight of a yard of denim in ounces. 12 oz. or less is considered light denim, 12 oz. to 16 oz. is considered mid-weight, over 16 oz. is considered heavyweight. Heavier denim is much more rigid and resistant to wear, but can take a larger number of wears to break in and feel comfortable. Patterns of fading in jeans caused by prolonged periods of wearing them without washing are a way of "personalizing" the garment; these patterns have specific names: combs or honeycombs – meshes of faded line-segments that form behind the knees whiskers – faded streaks that form radially from the crotch area stacks – irregular bands of fading above the ankle caused by according of the fabric due to contact with the foot or shoe train tracks – fading along the out-seams due to abrasion Selvedge is the edge of a fabric as it comes from the loom. Selvedges are woven or knit so that they will not ravel, or curl.
Selvedge denim refers to a unique type of selvedge, made by passing one continuous cross-yarn back and forth through the vertical warp beams. This is traditionally finished at both edges with a contrasting war
J. J. Abrams
Jeffrey Jacob Abrams is an American filmmaker. He is best known for his work in the genres of action and science fiction. Abrams wrote or produced such films as Regarding Henry, Forever Young, Cloverfield, Star Trek, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, the upcoming Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker. Abrams has created numerous television series, including Felicity, Alias and Fringe, he won two Emmy Awards for Lost — Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series and Outstanding Drama Series. His directorial film work includes Mission: Impossible III, Star Trek, Super 8, Star Trek Into Darkness, he directed, produced and co-wrote Star Wars: The Force Awakens, the first film in the Star Wars sequel trilogy and his highest-grossing film, as well as the third-highest-grossing film of all time. He returned to Star Wars by co-writing and directing The Rise of Skywalker. Abrams's frequent collaborators include producer Bryan Burk, actors Greg Grunberg, Simon Pegg and Keri Russell, composer Michael Giacchino, writers Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci, cinematographers Daniel Mindel and Larry Fong, editors Maryann Brandon and Mary Jo Markey.
Abrams was born in New York City and raised in Los Angeles, the son of television producer Gerald W. Abrams and executive producer Carol Ann Abrams, his sister is screenwriter Tracy Rosen. He attended Palisades High School. After graduating high school, Abrams planned on going to art school rather than a traditional college, but enrolled at Sarah Lawrence College, following his father's advice: "it's more important that you go off and learn what to make movies about than how to make movies." Abrams's first job in the movie business started at 15 when he wrote the music for Don Dohler's 1982 horror'B' movie, Nightbeast. During his senior year at college, he teamed with Jill Mazursky to write a feature film treatment. Purchased by Touchstone Pictures, the treatment was the basis for Taking Care of Business, Abrams's first produced film, which starred Charles Grodin and James Belushi, he followed with Regarding Henry, starring Harrison Ford, Forever Young, starring Mel Gibson. He co-wrote with Mazursky the script for the comedy Gone Fishin' starring Joe Pesci and Danny Glover.
In 1994, he was part of the "Propellerheads" with Rob Letterman, Loren Soman, Andy Waisler, a group of Sarah Lawrence alums experimenting with computer animation technology. They were contracted by Jeffrey Katzenberg to develop animation for the film Shrek. Abrams worked on the screenplay for the 1998 film Armageddon with producer Jerry Bruckheimer and director Michael Bay; that same year, he made his first foray into television with Felicity, which ran for four seasons on The WB Network, serving as the series' co-creator and executive producer. He composed its opening theme music. Under his production company, Bad Robot, which he founded with Bryan Burk in 2001, Abrams created and executive-produced ABC's Alias and is co-creator and was executive producer of Lost; as with Felicity, Abrams composed the opening theme music for Alias and Lost. Abrams directed and wrote the two-part pilot for Lost and remained active producer for the first half of the season. In 2001, Abrams co-wrote and produced the horror-thriller Joy Ride.
In 2006, he served as executive producer of What About Brian and Six Degrees on ABC. He co-wrote the teleplay for Lost's third-season premiere "A Tale of Two Cities" and the same year, he made his feature directorial debut with Mission: Impossible III, starring Tom Cruise. Abrams spoke at the TED conference in 2007. In 2008, Abrams produced the monster movie Cloverfield. In 2009, he directed the science fiction film Star Trek, which he produced with Lost co-creator Damon Lindelof. While it was speculated that they would be writing and producing an adaptation of Stephen King's The Dark Tower series of novels, they publicly stated in November 2009 that they were no longer looking to take on that project. In 2008, Abrams co-created, executive produced, co-wrote the FOX science fiction series Fringe, for which he composed the theme music, he was featured in the 2009 MTV Movie Awards 1980s-style digital short "Cool Guys Don't Look at Explosions", with Andy Samberg and Will Ferrell, in which he plays a keyboard solo.
NBC picked up Abrams's Undercovers as its first new drama series for the 2010–11 season. However, it was subsequently cancelled by the network in November 2010. In 2008, it was reported that Abrams purchased the rights to a New York Times article "Mystery on Fifth Avenue" about the renovation of an 8.5 million dollar co-op, a division of property owned by E. F. Hutton & Co. and Marjorie Merriweather Post, for six figures and was developing a film titled Mystery on Fifth Avenue, with Paramount Pictures and Bad Robot Productions, comedy writers Maya Forbes and Wally Wolodarsky to write the adaptation. According to the article, a wealthy couple Steven B. Klinsky and Maureen Sherry live there with their four children. Soon after purchasing the apartment, they hired young architectural designer Eric Clough, who devised an elaborately clever "scavenger hunt" built into the apartment that involved dozens of historical figures, a fictional book and a soundtrack, woven throughout the apartment in puzzles, secret panels and hidden codes, without the couple's knowledge.
The family didn't discover the embedded mystery until months after moving into the apartment. After Ab
Bunting is any festive decorations made of fabric, or of plastic, paper or cardboard in imitation of fabric. Typical forms of bunting are strings of colorful triangular flags and lengths of fabric in the colors of national flags gathered and draped into swags or pleated into fan shapes. Bunting was a specific type of lightweight worsted wool fabric generically known as tammy, manufactured from the turn of the 17th century, used for making ribbons and flags, including signal flags for the Royal Navy. Amongst other properties that made the fabric suitable for ribbons and flags was its high glaze, achieved by a process including hot-pressing; the origin of the word is uncertain. But bunt means colourful in German; the term bunting is used to refer to a collection of flags, those of a ship. The officer responsible for raising signals using flags is known as bunts, a term still used for a ship's communications officer. Papel picado Kerridge, Eric. Textile manufactures in early modern England. Manchester University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7190-1767-4. Scargill, D. I.. Wakefield: A Study of Arrested Urban Development. 36. The Town Planning Review. Pp. 101–110. Media related to Bunting at Wikimedia Commons
Cloth of gold
Cloth of gold or gold cloth is a fabric woven with a gold-wrapped or spun weft—referred to as "a spirally spun gold strip". In most cases, the core yarn is silk wrapped with a strip of high content gold. In rarer instances, fine linen and wool have been used as the core, it is mentioned on both Roman headstones for women and in the Book of Psalms as a fabric befitting a princess. The Ancient Greek reference to the Golden Fleece is seen by some as a reference to gold cloth. Cloth of gold has been popular for ecclesiastical use for many centuries. Under Henry VII of England, its use was reserved to higher levels of nobility, it is used today by companies such as Charvet for neckwear. Few extant examples have survived in Roman provincial tombs. Producers of cloth of gold include the Byzantine Empire and Medieval Italian weavers in Genoa and Lucca. In the 14th century, cloth of gold made in China was called marramas. A similar cloth of silver was made, it is still made in Europe today. Cloth of gold is not to be confused with various gold embroidery techniques that date to the early Middle Ages, though the type of goldwork thread called "passing" is identical to the weft thread of cloth of gold.
Most modern metallic fabrics made in the West are known as lamé. Cloth of gold is a familiar name applied to the venomous Conus textile species of cone shell. Tilsent is a luxurious silken cloth interwoven with flattened threads of silver. Field of the Cloth of Gold Samite The Roman Textile Industry and Its Influence. A Birthday Tribute to John Peter Wild. Edited by Penelope Walton Rodgers, et al. "Some More Medieval Linen Weaves". Medieval Textiles. March 2002. ISSN 1530-762X
Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material, once common in Asia and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes from trees of the Moraceae family, including Broussonetia papyrifera, Artocarpus altilis, Ficus natalensis, it is made by beating sodden strips of the fibrous inner bark of these trees into sheets, which are finished into a variety of items. Many texts that mention "paper" clothing are referring to barkcloth; some modern cotton-based fabrics are named "barkcloth" for their resemblance to these traditional fabrics. Barkcloth has been manufactured in Uganda for centuries and is Uganda's sole representative on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Tapa cloth was used traditionally used for clothing throughout the Pacific, in many places remains important culturally; some communities are reviving this practice. At Monbang traditional village on Alor Island, tourists can see members of the Kabola ethnic group wear barkcloth and dance traditional dances. Today, what is called barkcloth is a soft, thick textured fabric, so named because it has a rough surface like that of tree bark.
This barkcloth is made of densely woven cotton fibers. The fabric has been used in home furnishings, such as curtains, drapery and slipcovers, it is associated with 1940s through 1960s home fashions in tropical, abstract, "atomic" and "boomerang" prints, the last two themes being expressed by images of atoms with electrons whirling, by the boomerang shape, popular in mid-century cocktail tables and fabrics and influenced by the Las Vegas "Atomic City" era. Waverly, a famed design house for textiles and wall coverings between 1923 and 2007, called their version of this fabric rhino cloth for the rough, nubbly surface. American barkcloth shot through with gold Lurex threads was called Las Vegas cloth, contained as much as 65% rayon as well, making it a softer, more flowing fabric than the stiffer all-cotton rhino cloth or standard barkcloth. Cedar bark textile Lacebark Osnaburg Tapa cloth Bark Cloth − Then and Now: Amazing Discoveries, Patricia L. Quilters' Muse Virtual Museum Tapa: Situating Pacific Barkcloth in Time and Place A three-year AHRC funded research project at the Centre for Textile Conservation that aims to transform our understanding of Pacific barkcloth manufacture using a multidisciplinary approach
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.