Günter Wilhelm Grass was a German novelist, playwright, graphic artist and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. He was born in the Free City of Danzig; as a teenager, he served as a drafted soldier from late 1944 in the Waffen-SS and was taken prisoner of war by US forces at the end of the war in May 1945. He was released in April 1946. Trained as a stonemason and sculptor, Grass began writing in the 1950s. In his fiction, he returned to the Danzig of his childhood. Grass is best known for The Tin Drum, a key text in European magic realism, it was the first book of the other two being Cat and Mouse and Dog Years. His works are considered to have a left-wing political dimension, Grass was an active supporter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the Tin Drum was adapted as a film of the same name, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1999, the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize in Literature, praising him as a writer "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history".
Grass was born in the Free City of Danzig on 16 October 1927, to Wilhelm Grass, a Lutheran Protestant of German origin, Helene Grass, a Roman Catholic of Kashubian-Polish origin. He referred to himself as Kashubian. Grass was served as an altar boy when he was a child, his parents had a grocery store with an attached apartment in Danzig-Langfuhr. He had a sister, born in 1930. Grass attended the Danzig gymnasium Conradinum. In 1943, at age 16, he became a Luftwaffenhelfer. Soon thereafter, he was conscripted into the Reichsarbeitsdienst. In November 1944, shortly after his 17th birthday, Grass volunteered for submarine service with Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, "to get out of the confinement felt as a teenager in his parents' house", which he considered stuffy Catholic lower middle-class; the Navy refused him and he was instead called up for the 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg in late 1944. Grass did not reveal until 2006, his unit functioned as a regular Panzer Division, he served with them from February 1945 until he was wounded on 20 April 1945.
He was captured in Marienbad and sent to a U. S. prisoner-of-war camp in Bad Aibling, Bavaria. From 1946 to 1947, Grass received training in stonemasonry, he studied sculpture and graphics at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. He was a co-founder of Group 47, organized by Hans Werner Richter. Grass worked as an author, graphic designer, sculptor, traveling frequently. In 1953 he studied at the Berlin University of the Arts. From 1960, he lived in Berlin as well as part-time in Schleswig-Holstein. In 1961 he publicly objected to the erection of the Berlin Wall. From 1983 to 1986, he held the presidency of the Academy of Berlin. Grass's marriage in 1954 to Anna Margareta Schwarz, a Swiss dancer, ended in divorce in 1978, he and Schwarz had four children, Raoul and Bruno. Separated in 1972, he had a child with her, Helene, he had a child with Ingrid Kruger, Nele. In 1979 he married an organist, to whom he was still married at his death, he had two stepsons from his second marriage and Hans. He had 18 grandchildren at his death.
Grass was a fan of Bundesliga Club SC Freiburg. Grass's best-known work is The Tin Drum, published in 1959, it was followed in 1961 by Cat and Mouse, a novella, in 1963 by the novel Dog Years. The books are collectively called the Danzig Trilogy and focus on the rise of Nazism and how World War II affected Danzig, separated from Germany after World War I and became the Free City of Danzig. Dog Years is considered a sequel of sorts to The Tin Drum, as it features some of the same characters, it portrays the area's mixed ethnicities and complex historical background in lyrical prose, evocative. The Tin Drum established Grass as one of the leading authors of Germany, set a high bar of comparison for all of his subsequent works, which were compared unfavorably to this early work by critics. Nonetheless, in the West Germany of the late'50s and early'60s the book could be controversial, its "immorality" prompted the city of Bremen to revoke a prize it had bestowed upon him; when Grass received the Nobel Prize in literature in 1999 the Nobel Committee stated that the publication of The Tin Drum "was as if German literature had been granted a new beginning after decades of linguistic and moral destruction" The 1977 novel The Flounder is based on the folktale of "The Fisherman and His Wife", deals with the struggle between the sexes.
It has been read as an anti-feminist novel, since in the novel the magical flounder of the folk tale, now representing male triumphalism and the patriarchy is caught by a group of 1970s feminists, who put it on trial. The book interrogates male-female relations from the past and the present through the relationship between the narrator and his wife, who as the wife in the folk tale, insatiably craves more. In spite of the fact that the book could be read as a defense of women and a denouncement of male chauvinism, the book was harshly critiqued and rejected by feminists d
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the company are Industry, Energy and Infrastructure & Cities, which represent the main activities of the company; the company is a prominent maker of medical diagnostics equipment and its medical health-care division, which generates about 12 percent of the company's total sales, is its second-most profitable unit, after the industrial automation division. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Siemens and its subsidiaries employ 379,000 people worldwide and reported global revenue of around €83 billion in 2018 according to its earnings release. Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 12 October 1847. Based on the telegraph, their invention used a needle to point to the sequence of letters, instead of using Morse code; the company called Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, opened its first workshop on 12 October.
In 1848, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe. In 1850, the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens Sir William Siemens, started to represent the company in London; the London agency became a branch office in 1858. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1855, a company branch headed by another brother, Carl Heinrich von Siemens, opened in St Petersburg, Russia. In 1867, Siemens completed the monumental Indo-European telegraph line stretching over 11,000 km from London to Calcutta. In 1867, Werner von Siemens described a dynamo without permanent magnets. A similar system was independently invented by Charles Wheatstone, but Siemens became the first company to build such devices. In 1881, a Siemens AC Alternator driven by a watermill was used to power the world's first electric street lighting in the town of Godalming, United Kingdom; the company diversified into electric trains and light bulbs. In 1887, it opened its first office in Japan.
In 1890, the founder retired and left running the company to his brother Carl and sons Arnold and Wilhelm. Siemens & Halske was incorporated in 1897, merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert. In 1907, Siemens had 34,324 employees and was the seventh-largest company in the German empire by number of employees. In 1919, S & H and two other companies jointly formed the Osram lightbulb company. During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, electron microscopes. In 1932, Gebbert & Schall, Phönix AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Veifa mbH merged to form the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG, the third of the so-called parent companies that merged in 1966 to form the present-day Siemens AG. In the 1920s, Siemens constructed the Ardnacrusha Hydro Power station on the River Shannon in the Irish Free State, it was a world first for its design; the company is remembered for its desire to raise the wages of its under-paid workers only to be overruled by the Cumann na nGaedheal government.
Siemens exploited the forced labour of deported people in extermination camps. The company owned a plant in Auschwitz concentration camp. During the final years of World War II, numerous plants and factories in Berlin and other major cities were destroyed by Allied air raids. To prevent further losses, manufacturing was therefore moved to alternative places and regions not affected by the air war; the goal was to secure continued production of important everyday goods. According to records, Siemens was operating 400 alternative or relocated manufacturing plants at the end of 1944 and in early 1945. In 1972, Siemens sued German satirist F. C. Delius for his satirical history of the company, Unsere Siemenswelt, it was determined much of the book contained false claims although the trial itself publicized Siemens' history in Nazi Germany; the company supplied electrical parts to Nazi concentration camps and death camps. The factories had poor working conditions, where death were common; the scholarship has shown that the camp factories were created and supplied by the SS, in conjunction with company officials, sometimes high-level officials.
Siemens businessman and Nazi Party member John Rabe is, credited with saving many Chinese lives during the infamous Nanking Massacre. He toured Germany lecturing on the atrocities committed by Japanese forces in Nanking. In the 1950s, from their new base in Bavaria, S&H started to manufacture computers, semiconductor devices, washing machines, pacemakers. In 1966, Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke merged to form Siemens AG. In 1969, Siemens formed Kraftwerk Union with AEG by pooling their nuclear power businesses; the company's first digital telephone exchange was produced in 1980. In 1988, Siemens and GEC acquired the UK technology company Plessey. Plessey's holdings were split, Siemens took over the avionics and traffic control businesses—as Siemens Plessey. In 1985, Siemens bought Allis-Chalmers' interest in the partnership company Siemens-Allis which supplied electrical control equipment, it was incorporated into Siemens' Energy and Automation division. In 1987, Siemens reintegrated
Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich and Augsburg; the city is the political and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany; the first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there. In 179, a new Roman fort Castra Regina was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, it was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739. From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings.
From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there; this was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 this had doubled to 40,000 people. On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg, Germany. In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg; this bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics. In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.
The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, Roman Catholics were denied civil rights, but the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet. So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states": the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, the three monasteries.
In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria, acted as functional co-capital of the Empire due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one brief exception was a prince himself. In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg, it was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine, annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg. Dalberg modernized public life. Most he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by t
The Kulim District is a district and town in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. It is located on the southeast of Kedah; the town of Kulim, a mere 27 km east of Penang's capital city, George Town forms part of Greater Penang, Malaysia's second largest conurbation. The Kulim’s independence clock was officiated by the Sultan of Kedah and serves as the unofficial landmark for the city of Kulim; the construction of the clock was completed within 3 months and upon completion 1833-1888 Capital States Kedah: Kulim, was made formalized by DYMM Tuanku Sultan Badlishah Ibni Almarhum Yang Di Pertuan Paduka Seri Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah, KOM, CMG, KBE Sultan Kedah on 15 September 1957, or 2 weeks after the declaration of independence of Malaysia. Kulim District is divided into 15 mukims, which are: Bagan Sena Junjung Karangan Keladi Kulim Town Lunas Mahang Nagalilit Padang China Padang Meha Sedim Sidam Kanan Sungai Seluang Sungai Ular Terap Kulim District is administered by Kulim Municipal Council. Kulim Hi-Tech Park Ismail Omar the 9th Inspector General of Royal Malaysian Police Malaysian ambassador to France.
Gary Steven Robbat, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim F. C. Suppiah Chanturu, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim F. C. Muhammad Akram Mahinan, professional football player for Johor Darul Takzim II F. C. List of Kulim district representatives in the Federal Parliament List of Kulim district representatives in the State Legislative Assembly Butterworth–Kulim Expressway Northern Corridor Economic Region Penang Kulim travel guide from Wikivoyage Kulim’s Municipal Council Website Kulim 2035 Draft Plan
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Siemens & Halske
Siemens & Halske AG was a German electrical engineering company that became part of Siemens. It was founded on 12 October 1847 as Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske; the company, located in Berlin-Kreuzberg, specialised in manufacturing electrical telegraphs according to Charles Wheatstone's patent of 1837. In 1848, the company constructed one of the first European telegraph lines from Berlin to Frankfurt am Main. Siemens & Halske expanded with representatives in Great Britain and Russia as well as its own cable-manufacturing plants at Woolwich and Saint Petersburg; the company's rise was supported by Werner von Siemens' patent of the electrical generator in 1867. In 1881, Siemens & Halske built the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, the world's first electric streetcar line, in the southwestern Lichterfelde suburb of Berlin, followed by the Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram near Vienna, the first electrical interurban tram in Austria–Hungary. 1882 saw the opening of the experimental "Elektromote" track, an early trolleybus concept in the Berlin suburb of Halensee.
The rising popularity of telegraphs and electrical tramways, as well as in generators and electric motors, ensured steady growth for Siemens & Halske. Siemens & Halske was not alone in the realm of electrical engineering. In 1887, Emil Rathenau had established Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, which became a long-time rival. Werner von Siemens retired in 1890, while Johann Georg Halske had left the company in 1867. Werner von Siemens' brother Karl Heinrich, together with Werner's sons Arnold and Georg Wilhelm, grew the firm and erected new Siemens & Halske premises along the banks of the western Spree river, in the Berlin suburb of Charlottenburg, in 1897; the firm's vast new site continued to grow, from 1899 onwards it was known as Siemensstadt. When Siemens & Halske merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert, Siemens & Halske AG specialized in communications engineering. During World War I, rotary engines of advanced and unusual design were produced under the Siemens-Halske brand, like the Siemens-Halske Sh.
I and Sh. III. Siemens established several company subsidiaries for which the Siemens & Halske AG functioned as a holding company. During the Second World War, Siemens & Halske employed slave labour from concentration camps. Siemens Siemens-Schuckert Media related to Siemens & Halske at Wikimedia Commons Documents and clippings about Siemens & Halske in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Osmium is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76. It is a hard, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group, found as a trace element in alloys in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest occurring element, with an experimentally measured density of 22.59 g/cm3. Manufacturers use its alloys with platinum and other platinum-group metals to make fountain pen nib tipping, electrical contacts, in other applications that require extreme durability and hardness; the element's abundance in the Earth's crust is among the rarest. Osmium is the densest stable element. Calculations of density from the X-ray diffraction data may produce the most reliable data for these elements, giving a value of 22.587±0.009 g/cm3 for osmium denser than the 22.562±0.009 g/cm3 of iridium. Osmium is a hard but brittle metal that remains lustrous at high temperatures, it has a low compressibility. Correspondingly, its bulk modulus is high, reported between 395 and 462 GPa, which rivals that of diamond; the hardness of osmium is moderately high at 4 GPa.
Because of its hardness, low vapor pressure, high melting point, solid osmium is difficult to machine, form, or work. Osmium forms compounds with oxidation states ranging from −2 to +8; the most common oxidation states are +2, +3, +4, +8. The +8 oxidation state is notable for being the highest attained by any chemical element aside from iridium's +9 and is encountered only in xenon, ruthenium and iridium; the oxidation states −1 and −2 represented by the two reactive compounds Na2 and Na2 are used in the synthesis of osmium cluster compounds. The most common compound exhibiting the +8 oxidation state is osmium tetroxide; this toxic compound is formed. It is a volatile, water-soluble, pale yellow, crystalline solid with a strong smell. Osmium powder has the characteristic smell of osmium tetroxide. Osmium tetroxide forms. With ammonia, it forms the nitrido-osmates OsO3N−. Osmium tetroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. By contrast, osmium dioxide is black, non-volatile, much less reactive and toxic.
Only two osmium compounds have major applications: osmium tetroxide for staining tissue in electron microscopy and for the oxidation of alkenes in organic synthesis, the non-volatile osmates for organic oxidation reactions. Osmium pentafluoride is known; the lower oxidation states are stabilized by the larger halogens, so that the trichloride, tribromide and diiodide are known. The oxidation state +1 is known only for osmium iodide, whereas several carbonyl complexes of osmium, such as triosmium dodecacarbonyl, represent oxidation state 0. In general, the lower oxidation states of osmium are stabilized by ligands that are good σ-donors and π-acceptors; the higher oxidation states are stabilized by strong σ- and π-donors, such as O2− and N3−. Despite its broad range of compounds in numerous oxidation states, osmium in bulk form at ordinary temperatures and pressures resists attack by all acids and alkalis, including aqua regia. Osmium has seven occurring isotopes, six of which are stable: 184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os.
186Os undergoes alpha decay with such a long half-life ×1015 years 140000 times the age of the universe, that for practical purposes it can be considered stable. Alpha decay is predicted for all seven occurring isotopes, but it has been observed only for 186Os due to long half-lives, it is predicted that 184Os and 192Os can undergo double beta decay but this radioactivity has not been observed yet.187Os is the descendant of 187Re and is used extensively in dating terrestrial as well as meteoric rocks. It has been used to measure the intensity of continental weathering over geologic time and to fix minimum ages for stabilization of the mantle roots of continental cratons; this decay is a reason. However, the most notable application of osmium isotopes in geology has been in conjunction with the abundance of iridium, to characterise the layer of shocked quartz along the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary that marks the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Osmium was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in London, England.
The discovery of osmium is intertwined with that of platinum and the other metals of the platinum group. Platinum reached Europe as platina, first encountered in the late 17th century in silver mines around the Chocó Department, in Colombia; the discovery that this metal was not an alloy, but a distinct new element, was published in 1748. Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts, they always observed a small amount of a insoluble residue. Joseph Louis Proust thought. Victor Collet-Descotils, Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin observed iridium in the black platinum residue in 1803, but did not obtain enough material for further experiments; the two French ch