Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit
Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage
Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage is a mild pasteurized natural rind cow's milk blue cheese produced by monks in the Rhône-Alpes region of France in the 14th century. Now made in the Dauphiné area, the cheese has been a protected Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée since 1998; as a requirement, the cheese has to be composed of milk from Abondance or Villard cows. The cheese contains the mold Penicillium roqueforti. In Larousse's Grand Dictionnaire Universel of the 19th century, King Francis I is described as being quite fond of the cheese
Pic du Midi d'Ossau
The Pic du Midi d'Ossau is a mountain rising above the Ossau Valley in the French Pyrenees. Despite possessing neither a glacier nor, in the context of the range, a high summit, its distinctive shape makes it a symbol of the French side of the Pyrenees; this familiar shape makes it recognisable from afar, it is distinctive from the Boulevard des Pyrénées in Pau, some 55 km to the north. As seen from the north, the mountain presents itself as having two distinct peaks, although from the south two other summits are visible, it stands separate from any surrounding peaks, being surrounded by the valleys of the Gave de Bious, to the west, the Gave du Brousset, to the east. These two mountain streams come together in the hamlet of Gabas at the foot of the mountain's northern slopes, to form the Gave d'Ossau; the Pic du Midi d'Ossau was reputedly first climbed in 1552 by an expedition led by François de Foix-Candale to become the Bishop of Aire. Although the success of this first climb is disputed, it is known that the mountain had been climbed by 1787 when a military surveyor noted that a triangulation cairn had been built on the summit.
The first recorded climb was by Guillaume Delfau accompanied by Mathieu on October 2, 1797. The mountain offers many routes of ascent, it approaches the summit via the Refuge de Pombie, a Club Alpin Francais owned mountain hut situated at 2,031 m, requires most of a day to execute. Politically, the mountain lies within the commune of Laruns, in the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques and the Aquitaine region of France, it lies within the protected area of the Pyrenees National Park. Mountain details from SummitPost.org
Basque Country (greater region)
The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century, it comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France. The region is home to the Basque people, their language and traditions; the area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre. The name in Basque is Euskal Herria; the name is difficult to translate into other languages due to the wide range of meanings of the Basque word herri. It can be translated as nation; the first part, Euskal, is the adjectival form of Euskara "the Basque language". Thus a more literal translation would be "country/nation/people/settlement of the Basque language", a concept difficult to render into a single word in most other languages.
The two earliest references are in Joan Perez de Lazarraga's manuscript, dated around 1564–1567 as eusquel erria and eusquel erriau and heuscal herrian and Heuscal-Herrian in Joanes Leizarraga's Bible translation, published in 1571. The term Basque Country refers to a collection of regions inhabited by the Basque people, known as Euskal Herria in Basque language, it is first attested as including seven traditional territories in Axular's literary work Gero, in the early 17th century; some Basques refer to the seven traditional districts collectively as Zazpiak Bat, meaning "The Seven One", a motto coined in the late 19th century. The Northern Basque Country, known in Basque as Iparralde is the part of the Basque Country that lies within France as part of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques départment of France, as such it is usually known as French Basque Country. In most contemporary sources it covers the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus, but sources disagree on the status of the village of Esquiule.
Within these conventions, the area of Northern Basque Country is 2,995 square kilometres. The French Basque Country is traditionally subdivided into three provinces: Labourd, historical capital Ustaritz, main settlement today Bayonne Lower Navarre, historical capitals Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais, main settlement today Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Soule, historical capital Mauléon However, this summary presentation makes it hard to justify the inclusion of a few communes in the lower Adour region; as emphasized by Jean Goyhenetche, it would be more accurate to depict it as the reunion of five entities: Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule but Bayonne and Gramont. The Southern Basque Country, known in Basque as Hegoalde is the part of the Basque region that lies within Spain, as such it is also known as Spanish Basque Country, it is the largest and most populated part of the Basque Country. It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community and the Chartered Community of Navarre; the Basque Autonomous Community consists of three provinces designated "historical territories": Álava Biscay Gipuzkoa The Chartered Community of Navarre is a single-province autonomous community.
Its name refers to the Fueros of Navarre. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states that Navarre may become a part of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country if it is so decided by its people and institutions. To date, there has been no implementation of this law. Despite demands for a referendum by minority leftist forces and Basque nationalists in Navarre, it has been opposed by mainstream Spanish parties and Navarrese People's Union; the latter has asked for an amendment to the Constitution to remove this clause. In addition to those, two enclaves located outside of the respective autonomous community are cited as being part of both the Basque Autonomous Community and the Basque Country: The Treviño enclave, a Castilian enclave in Álava Valle de Villaverde, a Cantabrian exclave in Biscay Navarre holds two small administrative strips in Aragon, organised as Petilla de Aragón; the Basque Country region is dominated by a warm and wet oceanic climate and the coastal area is part of Green Spain and by extension it affects Bayonne and Biarritz as well.
Inland areas in Navarre and the southern regions of the autonomous community are transitional with continental mediterranean climate with somewhat larger temperature swings between seasons. The list only sources locations in Spain, but Bayonne/Biarritz have a similar climate as nearby Hondarribia on the Spanish side of the border; the values do not apply to San Sebastián since its weather station is at a higher elevation than the urban core where temperatures are higher year-round and similar to those in Bilbao and Hon
Chabichou is a traditional soft, natural-rind French goat cheese with a firm and creamy texture. Chabichou is aged for 10 to 20 days; the legend of Chabichou goes back to 732, at the time of the defeat of the Arabs in the area, in the 8th century, after the Battle of Poitiers. Many of them left the area but some settled there with their families and, in particular, their goat herds; the countryside was appropriate for grazing the "poor man's cow". The cheese was named cheblis, which would become "chabichou" thereafter. However, the domestication of the goat in this area is supposed to date back to Roman colonization, extends up to the present. Chabichou du Poitou, made in the north of Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, acquired its AOC status in 1990 with the assistance of the efforts of Ségolène Royal, it is known for its characteristic label. Its production rose to 555 tons in 2003. Since 1782, Chabichou du Poitou has been mentioned in the French "Guide du voyageur à Poitiers et aux environs"; when regional wine production slowed in the late 1800s due to the European phylloxera crisis, production of Chabichou increased.
The AOC production zone is limited to an area south of Haut-Poitou: the south of Vienne, the Deux-Sèvres and the north of the Charente. See the official website of Chabichou du Poitou: http://www.chabichou-du-poitou.eu Chabichou of Poitou is made of fresh and whole goat's milk. It is but pressurized: less than 100 microliters per liter of milk, they let the milk coagulate during a 24-hour period between 20 and 22 °C. This curd is moulded manually with a ladle or mixer into perforated and truncated moulds and left to drain for another 18 to 24 hours while turning it over it two or three times, maintaining it at 22 °C. Afterwards, they are salted with dry salt or sometimes in a brine bath, it is laid out in drying rooms, i.e. it is drained while being placed in moulds for 24 to 48 hours. Afterwards it is left to mature within 80 % to 90 % humidity, it remains there for at least 10 days, but for two or three weeks. Some are preserved for months for a more vigorous flavor. Chabichou is white and smooth, flexible to the palate, with a fine caprine odor.
Immature Chabichou of Poitou can be enjoyed with a white wine such as Sauvignon blanc one from the same region. But more mature Chabichou is better with a red wine from the region, an aperitif or a Pineau des Charentes. List of goat milk cheeses Description at Cheese.com
Reblochon is a soft washed-rind and smear-ripened French cheese made in the Alpine region of Savoy from raw cow's milk. It has its own AOC designation. Reblochon was first produced in the Aravis massif. Thônes remains the centre of Reblochon production; until 1964 Reblochon was produced in Italian areas of the Alps. Subsequently, the Italian cheese has been sold in declining quantities under such names as Rebruchon and Reblò alpino. Reblochon derives from the word "reblocher" which when translated means "to pinch a cow's udder again"; this refers to the practice of holding back some of the milk from the first milking. During the 14th century, the landowners would tax the mountain farmers according to the amount of milk their herds produced; the farmers would therefore not milk the cows until after the landowner had measured the yield. The milk that remains is much richer, was traditionally used by the dairymaids to make their own cheese. In the 16th century the cheese became known as "fromage de dévotion" because it was offered to the Carthusian monks of the Thônes Valley by the farmers, in return for having their homesteads blessed.
Reblochon is not available in the United States, as it is unpasteurised and has not been sufficiently aged to pass U. S. import laws. Raw-milk Reblochon has not been available in the United States since 2004 due to the enforcement of laws concerning the pasteurization of soft and semi-soft cheese. Delice du Jura, a pasteurized soft ripened cheese, is being marketed as a close relative and a good substitute in the United States. Reblochon is a soft smear-ripened cheese traditionally made from raw cow's milk; the cow breeds best for producing the milk needed for this cheese are the Abondance and the Montbéliarde. This cheese measures 14 cm across and 3–4 cm thick, has a soft centre with a washed rind and weighs an average of 450 grams; as proof of its being well-aged in an airy cellar, the rind of this cheese is covered with a fine white mould. The optimal period to savour this cheese is between May and September after it has been aged six to eight weeks, it is excellent from March to December. Reblochon has a nutty taste that remains in the mouth after its soft and uniform centre has been enjoyed.
It is an essential ingredient of tartiflette, a Savoyard gratin made from potatoes and onions. In 2002, 17.4 million kilograms of Reblochon were produced. Reblochon AOC Official Reblochon website Prodottitipici.com Reblochon – Piemonte – Formaggi e Latte – Vaccini Quaderni della Regione Piemonte: Caratterizzazione della produzione tradizionale regionale dei prodotti lattiero-caseari: Toma del lait brusc, Formaggio crosta rossa, Cevrin di Coazze
Banon is a French cheese made in the region around the town of Banon in Provence, south-east France. Known as Banon à la feuille, it is an unpasteurized cheese made from goat's milk and is circular in shape, around 7 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm in height, weighing around 100 g. This pungent uncooked, unpressed cheese consists of a fine soft white pâte, wrapped in chestnut leaves and tied with raffia prior to shipping; the Provençal specialty fromage fort du Mont Ventoux is made by placing a young banon in an earthenware jar. The cheese is seasoned with salt and pepper, doused in vinegar and eau-de-vie and left in a cool cellar to ferment; the concoction will last for many years becoming fierce in taste. Small goat's cheeses have been made in the dry hills of Provence since Roman times; as it is sold today, the cheese was first made by a couple in the village of Puimichel near to the town of Banon in the département of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The affinage period lasts for two weeks, following which it is dipped in eau de vie and wrapped in chestnut leaves that have been softened and sterilized by boiling in a mixture of water and vinegar.
The cheese is at its best when made between autumn. Banon was awarded the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée label in 2003. List of goat milk cheeses Official website Banon in Tout Un Fromage