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Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone. Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness and weakness; the long bones of the arms and legs are most involved in children, while the feet and hips are most involved in adults. The cause is a bacterial infection, but can be a fungal infection, it may occur by spread from surrounding tissue. Risks for developing osteomyelitis include diabetes, intravenous drug use, prior removal of the spleen, trauma to the area. Diagnosis is suspected based on symptoms; this is supported by blood tests, medical imaging, or bone biopsy. Treatment involves both antimicrobials and surgery. In those with poor blood flow, amputation may be required. Treatment outcomes are good when the condition has only been present a short time. About 2.4 per 100,000 people are affected a year. The young and old are more affected. Males are more affected than females; the condition was described at least as early as the 300s BC by Hippocrates. Before the availability of antibiotics the risk of death was significant.

Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness and weakness. Onset may be gradual. Enlarged lymph nodes may be present. In children, the long bones are affected. In adults, the vertebrae and the pelvis are most affected. Acute osteomyelitis invariably occurs in children because of rich blood supply to the growing bones; when adults are affected, it may be because of compromised host resistance due to debilitation, intravenous drug abuse, infectious root-canaled teeth, or other disease or drugs. Osteomyelitis is a secondary complication in 1–3% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. In this case, the bacteria, in general, spread to the bone through the circulatory system, first infecting the synovium before spreading to the adjacent bone. In tubercular osteomyelitis, the long bones and vertebrae are the ones. Staphylococcus aureus is the organism most isolated from all forms of osteomyelitis. Bloodstream-sourced osteomyelitis is seen most in children, nearly 90% of cases are caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

In infants, S. aureus, Group B streptococci and Escherichia coli are isolated. In some subpopulations, including intravenous drug users and splenectomized patients, Gram-negative bacteria, including enteric bacteria, are significant pathogens; the most common form of the disease in adults is caused by injury exposing the bone to local infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism seen in osteomyelitis, seeded from areas of contiguous infection, but anaerobes and Gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Serratia marcescens, are common. Mixed infections are the rule rather than the exception. Systemic mycotic infections may cause osteomyelitis; the two most common are Coccidioides immitis. In osteomyelitis involving the vertebral bodies, about half the cases are due to S. aureus, the other half are due to tuberculosis. Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a special name, Pott's disease.

The Burkholderia cepacia complex has been implicated in vertebral osteomyelitis in intravenous drug users. In general, microorganisms may infect bone through one or more of three basic methods Via the bloodstream - the most common method From nearby areas of infection, or Penetrating trauma, including iatrogenic causes such as joint replacements or internal fixation of fractures or secondary periapical periodontitis in teeth; the area affected when the infection is contracted through the bloodstream is the metaphysis of the bone. Once the bone is infected, leukocytes enter the infected area, and, in their attempt to engulf the infectious organisms, release enzymes that lyse the bone. Pus spreads into the bone's blood vessels, impairing their flow, areas of devitalized infected bone, known as sequestra, form the basis of a chronic infection; the body will try to create new bone around the area of necrosis. The resulting new bone is called an involucrum. On histologic examination, these areas of necrotic bone are the basis for distinguishing between acute osteomyelitis and chronic osteomyelitis.

Osteomyelitis is an infective process that encompasses all of the bone components, including the bone marrow. When it is chronic, it can lead to bone deformity. Chronic osteomyelitis may be due to the presence of intracellular bacteria. Once intracellular, the bacteria are able to escape and invade other bone cells. At this point, the bacteria may be resistant to some antibiotics; these combined facts may explain the chronicity and difficult eradication of this disease, resulting in significant costs and disability leading to amputation. Intracellular existence of bacteria in osteomyelitis is an unrecognized contributing factor to its chronic form. In infants, the infection can spread to a joint and cause arthritis. In children, large subperiosteal abscesses can form because the periosteum is loosely attached to the surface of the bone; because of the particulars of their blood supply, the tibia, humerus, the maxilla, the mandibular bodies are susceptible to osteomyelitis. Abscesses of any bone, may be precipitated by trauma to the affected area.


John Graham Nicholls

John Graham Nicholls FRS is a British/Swiss physiologist. Nicholls is professor emeritus of physiology, he was educated at King's College London. He received his M. D. from Charing Cross Hospital and a Ph. D. from the Department of Biophysics at University College London in 1955. He worked at University College London, the universities of Oxford, Harvard and Stanford. In 1983 he became professor of pharmacology at the Biozentrum University of Basel. Since reaching emeritus status in 1998, he has been professor of neurobiology at the International School for Advanced Studies; the International Brain Research Organization has named a fellowship in his honor and he is a Fellow of the Royal Society. Nicholls is best known for his research in the field of neurobiology. In invertebrate and mammalian nervous systems he studied synaptic transmission as well as the problem of why neurons in the brain and spinal cord fail to regenerate after injury. For his studies he developed a new type of mammalian central nervous system preparation which allowed the investigation of mechanisms involved in neurite outgrowth and CNS regeneration.

In recent years he has started to study how the rhythm of respiration is generated by the nervous system. Additionally, he authored the book From Neuron to Brain, in its fifth edition. 1988 Fellow of the Royal Society 2003 John Nicholls Fellowship 2007 D. Sc. Honoris Causa, University of Trieste 2010 Society for Neuroscience Award for Education in Neuroscience 2011 Endowed John G. Nicholls Lecture Kuffler S. Nicholls JG. From neuron to brain. Sinauer Associates Inc. U. S.. From neuron to brain. Sinauer Associates Inc. U. S.. Martin R. From neuron to brain. Sinauer Associates Inc. Martin R. From neuron to brain. Sinauer Associates. Martin R. From neuron to brain. Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press.


Rhomboid family member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHBDF2 gene. The alternative name iRhom2 has been proposed, in order to clarify that it is a catalytically inactive member of the rhomboid family of intramembrane serine proteases; the RHBDF2 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 17 on the Crick strand. It is 30.534 kilobases in length and encodes a protein of 856 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 96.686 kiloDaltons. The RHBDF2 protein plays an important role in the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, has been implicated in familial esophageal cancer, it is involved in the regulation of the secretion of several ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor

Harry Burton (journalist)

Harry Burton was an Australian journalist and cameraman, kidnapped by the Taliban on the highway to Kabul and murdered. Three other journalists suffered the same fate. Burton, 33 years old when he was killed, was a latecomer to journalism and quit his job three years earlier in Melbourne to get involved in the profession. A scholarship fund was set up in his name by the Jakarta Foreign Correspondents Club to support training for reporters from remote parts of Indonesia camera operators. Burton was born in Brisbane and studied agricultural sciences at what was Dookie Agricultural College to become part of the University of Melbourne, he had worked in Indonesia earlier in 2001 covering the Free Aceh Movement and the conflict in East Timor for the Reuters agency. He decided to go to Jakarta without any previous experience and try his hand at becoming a photo journalist. Prior to that he worked as a Quality Manager for Coles Myer, his breakthrough came in his coverage of the final months of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor that August.

He ran the Reuters television bureau in Dili after the former Portuguese colony voted for independence. He was one of 19 journalists detained in the Fiji coup of 2000. After his release he was made a full-time cameraman by Reuters in January 2000. Burton moved to Afghanistan to cover the ongoing conflict there. In November of that year he was riding in a Jeep from Jalalabad to Kabul, just a few days after the Taliban fell, when his convoy was stopped and passengers ordered to get out, he was killed with three other journalists, Julio Fuentes of the Spanish paper El Mundo, Azizullah Haidari of Reuters, Maria Grazia Cutuli of Italy's Corriere della Sera. Their mutilated bodies were found on 19 November. Burton was buried in Hobart on 28 November 2001. A Kabul court sentenced three men to death for these murders in 2005 respectively. Two brothers, Mahmood Zar Jan and Abdul Wahid, were sentenced in 2005 and another, Reza Khan, was sentenced to death on 20 November 2004. Burton's girlfriend was Joanne Collins, a journalist.

Burton's father called Harry is a scientist, his mother Anne, who predeceased her son, was a social worker. He had three brothers. Burton's father was a judge for the ADF photography award named in his son's honour. List of journalists killed during the War in Afghanistan


Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.

The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.

In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.

However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.

Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.

The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. The high street is where most of the retail shops in the town

Venetian grosso

The Venetian grosso is a silver coin first introduced in Venice in 1193 under doge Enrico Dandolo. It weighed 2.18 grams, was composed of 98.5% pure silver, was valued at 26 dinarii. Its name is from the same root as groschen and the English groat, all deriving from the denaro grosso, its value was allowed to float relative to other Venetian coins until it was pegged to 4 soldini in 1332, incidentally the year the soldino was introduced. In 1332, 1 grosso was the equivalent of 48 dinarii; the Renaissance of the 12th century brought wealth and economic sophistication, but Venetians continued to use the badly debased remnants of the coinage system introduced by Charlemagne. Venice struck silver pennies based on the coinage of Verona, which contained less than half a gram of 25% fine silver. Domestic transactions predominantly used their Veronese counterparts. About 1180, Verona modified its coinage, upsetting this practice. For foreign trade, Venetian merchants favored Byzantine coinage or coins of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 and the progressing debasement of the Byzantine aspron trachy, made this less viable. Elsewhere in Western Europe the situation was similar. A few efforts were made to reverse the decline of the Carolingian penny, their currency for four hundred years. In Lombardy, Frederick Barbarossa struck denari imperiali at double the weight of the pennies of Milan; the consistent fineness of the English sterling, or short cross penny, which Henry II introduced in 1180 made it a popular trading currency in Northern Europe. But it remained for Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice to make the decisive breakthrough with a higher denomination coin of fine silver called a grosso; these coins had two advantages over the old pennies. First and handling costs were reduced by substituting one large coin for tens of smaller ones. Second, the purity of their silver made them acceptable outside of Venice; the earliest surviving account of Enrico Dandolo’s introduction of the Venetian grosso associates it with the outfitting of the Fourth Crusade in 1202 and tradition makes the need to pay for the ships which transported the crusaders the cause of the grosso’s introduction.

Though coinage of the grosso might have begun a few years earlier, the influx of silver used to pay for the crusaders’ ships led to its first large scale mintage. The coin had 2.2 grams of 98.5% fine silver, the purest medieval metallurgy could make. It was called a ducatus argenti since Venice was a duchy, but is more known as a grosso or matapano, a Muslim term referring to the seated figure on its reverse; the designs for the grosso came from the Byzantine aspron trachy. The obverse shows the standing figures of the doge and Saint Mark the Evangelist, the patron of Venice. On the right, Saint Mark holds the gospel, his usual attribute, presents a Gonfalone to the doge; the doge holds the "ducal promise". The legend names the doge with his title, DVX in the field; the legend on the right names the saint as S. M. VENETI, i.e. Saint Mark of Venice; the reverse shows Christ sitting on a throne. The legend abbreviates his Greek name as IC XC. A beaded bordure on both sides of the coin prevented silver from being shaved from the edge of the coin, a practice called clipping.

As an additional security measure, Doge Jacopo Tiepolo added distinctive marks variations in the punctuation in the obverse legend and small marks near Christ’s feet on the reverse, which identified the mint master responsible for the issues. But, except for updating the name of the doge and the addition of the reverse legend, TIBI LAVS 3 GLORIA, by Doge Michele Steno, there were no significant changes in the grosso for one hundred and fifty years. Indeed, around 1237 the doge’s coronation oath included a promise that he would not change the coinage without authorization from the council. Change did come, however. Between 1340 and 1370, increases in the price of silver forced most of the doges to stop issuing grossi, the others to issue only a few; when Doge Andrea Contarini resumed production of grossi their weight began to fall and continued falling until Cristoforo Moro struck the last Venetian grossi with a weight of 0.45 grams. Other Italian mints followed the example of Venice by issuing their own grossi.

Verona, Reggio and Pavia all had coins of pure silver with weights that of the Venetian grosso by 1230. The Roman Senate struck grossi in the mid 13th century, but by it was the Venetian grosso which had become a major trade currency. Indeed, in the 13th century, Martino da Canale claimed the Venetian grosso was "current throughout the world on account of its good quality"; that brought imitations and counterfeits in the Balkans. In 1282, Venice imposed restrictions on its Dalmatian possessions prohibiting the use of copies of the grosso. By 1304, the Byzantine empire issued the basilikon, whose weight and fineness made it interchangeable with the Venetian grosso and whose types were inspired by it. More than that, the Venetian grosso is the most prominent division point between the coinage system of Western Europe based on the penny and the era of larger silver and gold coins, collectively called groats and florins. Like the Venetian grosso, these larger denomination coins did not have names or inscriptions implying a fixed value in terms of the system of pounds and pence in which accounts were kept.

This allowed the government to manipulate the values of its coins in terms of money