Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow in Greater London and is part of the historic county of Middlesex. It is a suburban district 10.6 miles west south-west of Charing Cross, a minority of its workers are employed in Central London, to which the town is connected by rail and tube. Hounslow is part of the TW3 postcode area, though areas to the west are in TW4 instead. The population of the town, comprising the Hounslow Central, Hounslow Heath, the name Hounslow is spelt in old records as Hundeslow and similar, pointing to Anglo-Saxon Hundes hlāw, meaning the dogs mound or the mound of a man named or nicknamed Hound. Positioned on the Bath Road, Hounslow was centred around Holy Trinity Priory founded in 1211, the priory developed what had been a small village into a town with regular markets and other facilities for travellers heading to and from London. Although the priory was dissolved in 1539 the town remained an important staging post on the Bath Road, the adjacent Hounslow Heath that had been used as a military encampment by both Oliver Cromwell and James II developed a reputation as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads.
Nearby important landowners included those of Osterley House, Syon House, Hanworth Park House, in 1756 Sir Thomas Morris, a distant relative of Bernard Matthews, established the base of his chicken farming empire. As a rich philanthropist who started from humble beginnings, he used his wealth to establish a school for the privileged children of the town. The building of the Great Western Railway line from London to Bristol from 1838 reduced long-distance travel along the Bath Road, by 1842 the local paper was reporting that the formerly flourishing village, which used to stable 2,000 horses, was suffering a general depreciation of property. The Hounslow Loop Line was constructed in 1850, prompting new development, the construction of the Great West Road in the 1920s attracted the building of the factories and headquarters of large companies. The factories were a local source of employment until a decline in the 1970s, attracting workers from a wide area. The settlement is employed in the Commuter Belt with access between 45 and 60 minutes from most of Central London.
DHL Air UK has its office in the Orbital Park in Hounslow. The M4 motorway is 2& mi north, its nearest junction, J3, the A315 is the historic WSW road out of London on which Hounslows High Street is placed. To the east, it bisects Isleworth and Chiswick, to the west it bisects North Feltham and Bedfont before joining the A30. The north-south A312, The Parkway, to the west of Hounslow leads south to Hampton or north to Harrow passing Waggoners Roundabout, Yeading, three minor roads converge on Heston from the A315 in parts of Hounslow, the A3063, A3005 and B363. For longer journeys north, the M4, A4 or A30 M25 provides the best routes, for longer journeys south, Hanworth Road leads to the A316 that becomes the M3 motorway. Hounslow railway station, operated by South West Trains is on the line to London Waterloo station, or westwards to Reading
Isleworth is a small town of Saxon origin sited within the London Borough of Hounslow in west London, England. It lies immediately east of the town of Hounslow and west of the River Thames, Isleworths original area of settlement, alongside the Thames, is known as Old Isleworth. The north-west corner of the town, bordering on Osterley to the north, as a result, most of Isleworths Thames-side is that part overlooking the 8. Excavations around the end of the Syon Park estate have unearthed evidence of a Romano-British settlement. Gislheresuuyrth, meaning in Old English Enclosure belonging to Gīslhere, is first referred to as a permanent settlement in an Anglo-Saxon charter in the year 695. The Domesday Book says that during the reign of Edward the Confessor the manor belonged to Earl Algar, the Domesday Book as Gistelesworde records its 55 ploughlands,118 households and amount rendered, £72 per year, to its feudal system overlords. After the Conquest, successive Norman barons of the St Valeri family held the manor of Isleworth but there is no evidence that ever lived there – it being held as a source of revenue.
One of the gave several manorial rents and privileges to Londons Hospital of St Giles. He gave the church and advowson to the Abbey of St Valeri and he built a new moated manor house, which is described in the Black Book of the Exchequer – having a tiled roof, two bedchambers and an inner courtyard. Beyond the moat was a courtyard with a number of buildings for servants and supplies. The seemingly classic medieval manor house was burned down during the Second Barons War in 1264, the Wardens and Scholars of Winchester College therefore became proprietors of productive rectory. This lasted for 150 years, in 1543 King Henry VIII exchanged with Winchester certain manors elsewhere for five churches in Middlesex, including All Saints. Four years he gave the Isleworth rectory and advowson to the Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, soon after, they were given to the Dean and Canons of St Georges Chapel, with whom they remain today. The castle-like stone church tower by the remains from this period.
In 1415 Henry V granted nuns from the Swedish Bridgettine order land on the bank of the Thames, in Twickenham parish opposite his new Sheen Palace, where they built their first house Syon Monastery. In 1422 Henry V transferred ownership of Isleworth Manor from the Duchy of Cornwall to Syon Monastery and this is the site of the present Syon House Henry VIII demolished most of Syon Monastery after 1539 and the site and manor was granted to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset. It was Seymour who built Syon House in 1548 and it has remained in the possession of the Percy family, now the Dukedom of Northumberland, for over four hundred years. The Royalist army occupied the house during the Battle of Brentford in November 1642, Syon Park was rebuilt and landscaped by the Adam brothers and Capability Brown between 1766 and 1773
Hanwell is a town in the London Borough of Ealing, west London, England. Hanwell is about 2.5 km west of Ealing Broadway and it is the westernmost location of the LONDON post town. The earliest surviving reference is AD959 when it is recorded as Hanewelle in pledge, the origin of the name is uncertain, various suggestions have been put forward. Near to the old Rectory and close to Hanwell spring is a stone of about a ton in weight. In Anglo-Saxon the word Han denoted a boundary stone and this juxtaposition of these two natural features could have given rise to the name Han-well which dates back to before the Domesday Book. The original borders of the parish stretched from the bend of the River Brent at Greenford and its geography, before the draining of the marshes, formed a natural boundary between the different tribes of the south east of England. This gives some support to the suggestion that Han came from the Saxon han for cockerel, if so, the name is derived from Han-créd-welle. Han-créd or cock-crow meant the border between night and day, and is neither one nor the other, so Hanwell would mean well upon the boundary.
For more see, River Brent, the only other Hanwell in Britain is a small parish in Oxfordshire on the boundary with Warwickshire. The Uxbridge Road was turnpiked between Uxbridge and Tyburn in 1714, the revenue from tolls enabled an all-weather metaled road surface of compacted gravel to be laid down. This constant movement of people along the road, brought about the establishment of coaching inns along the road as it crossed the River Brent and passed through the parish of Hanwell. In these inns, travellers could stable their horses, place their carts or goods in storage and secure board. The first inn on crossing the River Brent is The Viaduct which is on the north side, named after the Wharncliffe Viaduct, its original name was the Coach and Horses. At the back of the pub, some of the stable building can be seen. Early in the 20th century, The Viaduct received a new faïence façade which Nikolaus Pevsner succinctly described as a jolly tiled Edwardian pub, today the profusion of street furniture detracts somewhat from the original impact that these rich mid-browns and mid-cream glazed tiles gave the building.
Next was the Duke of Wellington which lay approximately 400 m closer to London on the side of the road. However, this had been demolished by the 1920s and was not rebuilt, established in the 18th century, it has been subsequently rebuilt in the Tudorbethan style. The next pub occupies the site of what was probably the very first inn to be established on the Oxford Road as it ran through Hanwell and it lies on the south side of the road
Fall of man
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience. Although not named in the Bible, the doctrine of the fall comes from an interpretation of Genesis chapter 3. At first and Eve lived with God in the Garden of Eden, but the serpent tempted them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God had forbidden. After doing so, they became ashamed of their nakedness and God expelled them from the Garden to prevent them from eating from the tree of life, for many Christian denominations, the doctrine of the fall is closely related to that of original sin. Calvinist Protestants believe that Jesus gave his life as a sacrifice for the elect, judaism does not have a concept of the fall or original sin and has varying other interpretations of the Eden narrative. Lapsarianism, the order of Gods decrees in relation to the Fall, is the distinction, by some Calvinists.
The story of the Garden of Eden and the Fall of Man represents a tradition among the Abrahamic peoples, with a more or less symbolical of certain moral. The doctrine of the fall of man is extrapolated from Christian exegesis of Genesis 3, according to the narrative, God creates Adam and Eve, the first man and woman. God places them in the Garden of Eden and forbids them to eat fruit from the tree of knowledge of good, the serpent tempts Eve to eat fruit from the forbidden tree, which she shares with Adam and they immediately become ashamed of their nakedness. Subsequently, God banishes Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden and it states that they were removed from the Garden on the new moon of the 4th month of that year. Christian exegetes of Genesis 2,17 have applied the principle to explain how Adam died within a day. Psalms 90,4,2 Peter 3,8 and Jubilees 4, 29–31 explained that, to God, one day is equivalent to a thousand years, the Greek Septuagint, on the other hand, has day translated into the Greek word for a twenty-four-hour period.
According to the Genesis narrative, during the age, human longevity approached a millennium. Thus, to die has been interpreted as to become mortal, the grammar does not support this reading, nor does the narrative and Eve are expelled from the Garden lest they eat of the second tree, the tree of life, and gain immortality. Catholic exegesis of Genesis 3 claims that the fall of man was a primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man. This first sin was transmitted by Adam and Eve to all of their descendants as original sin, causing humans to be subject to ignorance and the dominion of death, and inclined to sin. Baptism is considered to erase original sin, though the effects on human nature remain, even children partake in the guilt or sin of Adam, but not in the responsibility of original sin, as sin is always a personal act. Traditionally, the fall of Adam and Eve is said to have brought “four wounds” to human nature and these are enumerated by St Bede and others, especially St Thomas Aquinas They are Original sin, Physical frailty and death, and a darkened intellect and ignorance
The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom. Major towns and cities along the route include Slough, Swindon, Newport, Cardiff, a new Severn bridge, known as the Second Severn Crossing, was opened in 1996 with the M4 rerouted to use it. The M4 runs close to the A4 from London to Bristol, after crossing the River Severn it follows the A48 through South Wales, using the Brynglas Tunnels at Junction 25a, Newport and terminates just north of Pontarddulais. It is one of three motorways in Wales, the other two, the A48 and M48, branch off it. The area of land along the M4, with its towns, european route E30 includes most of the M4, although it is not signed as such. The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965, the stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened in 1966, including the Severn Bridge. The Port Talbot by-pass, built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was originally the A48 motorway, the English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile stretch between Junctions 9 and 15 was opened to traffic.
The Welsh section was completed in 1993, when the Briton Ferry motorway bridge opened, the Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, in June 1999 the section of the third lane between Junctions 2 and 3 was converted to a bus lane, first as a pilot scheme and permanently in 2001. A lower speed limit was introduced along the bus lane section at the same time, between 2007 and January 2010 the section from Castleton to Coryton was widened to six lanes. The scheme was opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales. During 2009 the Newport section of the motorway between Junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. A similar claim was made for a 30-mile section of road in Scotland close to Aberdeen in September 2009 with refuelling points at Bridge of Don and Peterhead. Between 2008 and 2010, Junction 11, near Reading, was remodelled with a new four-lane motorway junction.
It involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, and the construction of a footbridge network, a new bus-lane. Sound barriers for nearby areas were installed. In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox, the table below shows the timeline for the construction of the motorway on a section by section basis. Tolls are charged in one only, westbound
Southall is a large suburban district of west London and part of the London Borough of Ealing. It is situated 10.7 miles west of Charing Cross, neighbouring places include Yeading, Hanwell, Hounslow and Northolt. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Southall is located on the Grand Union Canal which first linked London with the rest of the growing canal system. It was one of the last canals to carry significant commercial traffic and is open to traffic and is used by pleasure craft. The district of Southall has many other Anglo-Saxon place-names such as Elthorne and its earliest record, from ad 830, is of Warberdus bequeathing Norwood Manor and Southall Manor to the archbishops of Canterbury. Southall formed part of the chapelry of Norwood in the ancient parish of Hayes, for Poor Law it was grouped into the Uxbridge Union and was within Uxbridge Rural Sanitary District from 1875. The chapelry of Norwood had functioned as a parish since the Middle Ages.
On 16 January 1891 the parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858, in 1894 it became the Southall Norwood Urban District. In 1936 the urban district was granted a charter of incorporation and became a municipal borough, in 1965 the former area of the borough was merged with that of the boroughs of Ealing and Acton to form the London Borough of Ealing in Greater London. The southern part of Southall used to be known as Southall Green and was centred on the historic Grade II* listed Tudor-styled Manor House which dates back to at least 1587. A building survey has much of the building is original. Minor 19th and 20th century additions exist in some areas and it is currently used as serviced offices. The extreme southernmost part of Southall is known as Norwood Green and it has few industries and is mainly a residential area, having remained for many years mainly agricultural whilst the rest of Southall developed industrially. Norwood Green borders, and part is inside, the London Borough of Hounslow, the main east west road through the town is Uxbridge Road, though the name changes in the main shopping area to The Broadway and for an even shorter section to High Street.
In 1877, the Martin Brothers set up a factory in an old soap works next to the canal and until 1923, produced distinctive ceramics now known. A branch railway line from Southall railway station to the Brentford Dock on the Thames was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1856 and it features one of his engineering works, the Three Bridges. Brunel died shortly after its completion, sections of his bell-section rail can still be seen on the southern side being used as both fencing posts and a rope rail directly under the road bridge itself. It is listed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument, otto Monsted, a Danish margarine manufacturer, built a large factory at Southall in 1894
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.
George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio dwelling, the English word manse originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would remain there—hence it is easy to see how the word Mansion came to have its meaning, within an ancient Roman city, patrician dwellings might be very extensive, and luxurious. Such mansions on one hill in Rome became so extensive that the term palatial was actually derived from the name Palatine hill and is the origin of palace. Following the fall of Rome the practice of building unfortified villas ceased, the oldest inhabited mansions around the world usually began their existence as fortified castles in the middle ages. As social conditions slowly changed and stabilised fortifications were able to be reduced and it became fashionable and possible for homes to be beautiful rather than grim and forbidding allowing for the development of the modern mansion.
In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments designed for the appearance of grandeur, in many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion refers to a block of apartments. In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, a combination of politics, as a result, many were transformed into mansions without defences or demolished and rebuilt in a more modern, undefended style. Due to intermarriage and primogeniture inheritance amongst the aristocracy, it common for one noble to often own several country houses. These would be visited throughout the year as their owner pursued the social. Many owners of a house would own a town mansion in their countrys capital city. These town mansions were referred to as houses in London, hotels in Paris and it might be noted that sometimes the house of a clergyman was called a mansion house. This was a period of social change, as the educated prided themselves on enlightenment. The uses of these edifices paralleled that of the Roman villas and it was vital for powerful people and families to keep in social contact with each other as they were the primary moulders of society.
The rounds of visits and entertainments were a part of the societal process. State business was discussed and determined in informal settings. Times of revolution reversed this value, in the great houses of Italy, the number of retainers was often even greater than in England, whole families plus extended relations would often inhabit warrens of rooms in basements and attics. It is doubtful that a 19th-century Marchesa would even know the number of individuals who served her
Ealing is a major suburban district of west London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing. It is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically a village in the county of Middlesex. Improvement in communications with London, culminating with the opening of the station in 1838. As part of the growth of London in the 20th century, Ealing significantly expanded and increased in population and it now forms a significant commercial and retail centre with a developed night time economy. Ealing has the characteristics of both suburban and inner-city developments, Ealings town centre is often colloquial with Ealing Broadway, the name of both a rail interchange & a shopping centre. Most of Ealing, including the district, South Ealing, Ealing Common, Pitshanger. Areas to the north-west of the centre such as Argyle Road. A small section north-east of the centre, near Hanger Hill. The population of Ealing, comprising the Ealing Broadway, Ealing Common, Walpole, the area of Hanwell is strongly associated with Ealing, however, it is a separate district with its own postcode.
Northfields on the hand, despite sharing postcodes with Ealing is generally considered to be a separate area in its own right. The Saxon name for Ealing was recorded c.700 as Gillingas, meaning place of the associated with Gilla, from the personal name Gilla. Over the centuries, the name has changed, and has known as Illing,1130, Gilling,1243. Archaeological evidence shows that parts of Ealing have been occupied for more than 7,000 years Iron Age pots have been discovered in the vicinity on Horsenden Hill. A settlement is recorded here in the 12th century amid a great forest that carpeted the area to the west of London, the earliest surviving English census is that for Ealing in 1599. This list was a tally of all 85 households in Ealing village giving the names of the inhabitants, together with their ages and occupations. It survives in form at The National Archives, and was transcribed and printed by K J Allison for the Ealing Historical Society in 1961. Settlements were scattered throughout the parish, many of them were along what is now called St.
Marys Road, near to the church in the centre of the parish
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London and his literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto and his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. He was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, as Horace Walpole was childless, on his death his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, who was created the new Earl of Orford. Walpole was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, like his father, he received early education in Bexley, he was educated at Eton College and Kings College, Cambridge. Walpoles first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became strongly attached, at Eton he formed with Charles Lyttelton and George Montagu the Triumvirate, a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the Quadruple Alliance, Thomas Gray, Richard West, at Cambridge Walpole came under the influence of Conyers Middleton, an unorthodox theologian.
Walpole came to accept the nature of Middletons attitude to some essential Christian doctrines for the rest of his life, including a hatred of superstition. Walpole ceased to reside at Cambridge at the end of 1738, according to one biographer his love for his mother was the most powerful emotion of his entire life. the whole of his psychological history was dominated by it. Walpole did not have any relationships with women, he has been called a natural celibate. Walpoles sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation, many contemporaries described him as effeminate. Biographers such as Timothy Mowl explore his possible homosexuality, including a passionate, some previous biographers such as Lewis and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, have interpreted Walpole as asexual. Upon coming of age he became Comptroller of the Pipe and Clerk of the Estreats which gave him an income of £300 per annum, Walpole decided to go travelling with Thomas Gray and wrote a will whereby he left Gray all his belongings.
They left Dover on 29 March and arrived at Calais that day and they travelled through Boulogne and Saint-Denis, arriving at Paris on 4 April. Here they met many aristocratic Englishmen, in early June they left Paris for Rheims, in September going to Dijon, Dauphiné, Aix-les-Bains and back to Lyons. In October they left for Italy, arriving in Turin in November, going to Genoa, Parma, Modena, and in December arriving at Florence. Here he struck up a friendship with Horace Mann, an assistant to the British Minister at the Court of Tuscany and wrote Epistle from Florence to Thomas Ashton, tutor to the Earl of Plymouth, a mixture of Whig history and Middletons teachings. In February 1740 Walpole and Gray left for Rome with the intention of witnessing the papal conclave upon the death of Pope Clement XII, Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. At social occasions in Rome he saw the Old Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart and Gray returned to Florence in July
Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
Sarah Sophia Child Villiers, Countess of Jersey, was an English noblewoman, and through her marriage a member of the Villiers family. She was the eldest daughter of John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland and her mother was the only child of Robert Child, the principal shareholder in the banking firm Child & Co. Under the terms of his will, the Countess of Jersey was the primary legatee and her husband, George Villiers, added the surname Child by royal licence. Lady Jersey married George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, on 23 May 1804 and her husbands mother, Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, was one of the more notorious mistresses of King George IV when he was Prince of Wales. Her sister Maria married John Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, the 4th Earl of Bessborough and her own affairs, though conducted discreetly, were said to be numerous, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, was thought to be one of her lovers. When asked why he had never fought a duel to preserve his wifes reputation, Lady Jersey was one of the patronesses of Almacks, the most exclusive social club in London, and a leader of the ton during the Regency era.
She was immortalized as Zenobia in Disraelis novel Endymion, Caroline Lamb ridiculed her in Glenarvon, in revenge Lady Jersey had her barred from Almacks, the ultimate social disgrace. This, was unusual since she was notable for acts of kindness and generosity, in politics she was a Tory, although she lacked the passion for politics shown by her cousin Harriet Arbuthnot. On hearing that the Duke of Wellington had fallen from power in 1830 and she reportedly moved heaven and earth against the Reform Act 1832. Lady Jersey was known by the nickname Silence, the nickname was ironic since, famously,38, Berkeley Square, Middlesex now London. The Honourable Frederick William Child Villiers, married Elizabeth Maria van Reede, the Honourable Francis John Robert Child Villiers. Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers, married Nicholas Paul, 9th Prince Esterházy, Lady Clementina Augusta Wellington Child Villiers. Lady Adela Corisande Maria Child Villiers, married Lt. -Col, charles Parke Ibbetson, and had one daughter Adele.
She outlived not only her husband, but six of her seven children, archival material relating to Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey