Ostrya carpinifolia, the European hop-hornbeam, is a tree in the family Betulaceae. It is the only species of the genus Ostrya, native to Europe; the specific epithet carpinifolia means "hornbeam-leaved", from carpinus, the Latin word for "hornbeam". Ostrya carpinifolia is found in Lebanon, France, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Greece, southern Switzerland and Turkey, it is found in the medium elevations, in southern Italy and Sicily, in the South Apennine mixed montane forests ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests and scrub Biome. Ostrya carpinifolia is a broadleaf deciduous tree, it has a conical or irregular crown and a scaly, rough bark, alternate and double-toothed birch-like leaves 3–10 cm long. The flowers are produced with male catkins 5 -- 10 cm long and female catkins 2 -- 5 cm long; the fruit form in pendulous clusters 3–8 cm long with 6–20 seeds. The wood is heavy and hard, was used to fashion plane soles. Ostrya are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species.
GRIN database: Ostrya carpinifolia Scheda botanica: Ostrya carpinifolia Ostrya carpinifolia - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed; the translation of "nut" in certain languages requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous. Most seeds come from fruits that free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary; the general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, many nuts, such as almonds, pistachios and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Nuts are an nutrient-rich food source. A nut in botany is a simple dry fruit in which the ovary wall becomes hard as it matures, where the seed remains unattached or free within the ovary wall. Most nuts come from the pistils with inferior ovaries and all are indehiscent. True nuts are produced, by some plant families of the order Fagales.
Order Fagales Family Fagaceae Beech Chestnut Oak Stone-oak Tanoak Family Betulaceae Hazel, Filbert Hornbeam A small nut may be called a "nutlet". In botany, this term refers to a pyrena or pyrene, a seed covered by a stony layer, such as the kernel of a drupe. Walnuts and hickories have fruits, they are considered to be nuts under some definitions, but are referred to as drupaceous nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for hickory fruits. In common use, a "tree nut" is, as the name implies; this most comes up regarding allergies, where some people are allergic to peanuts, others to a wider range of nuts that grow in trees. A nut in cuisine is a much less restrictive and older meaning of the word than the narrow meaning of nut in botany. Any large, oily kernels found within a shell and used in food are called nuts. Nuts are an important source of nutrients for wildlife; because nuts have a high oil content, they are a prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible by humans and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted as a snack food, or pressed for oil, used in cookery and cosmetics.
Nuts used for food, are among the most common food allergens. Some fruits and seeds that do not meet the botanical definition but are nuts in the culinary sense are: Almonds are the edible seeds of drupe fruits – the leathery "flesh" is removed at harvest. Brazil nut is the seed from a capsule. Candlenut is a seed. Cashew is the seed of a drupe fruit with an accessory fruit. Chilean hazelnut or Gevuina. Macadamia is a creamy white kernel of a follicle type fruit. Malabar chestnut. Mongongo nut. Peanut is a seed and from a legume type fruit. Pecan is the seed of a drupe fruit. Pili nut is the seed of the tropical tree Canarium ovatum which grows in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Pine nut is the seed of several species of pine. Pistachio is the dehiscent seed of a thin-shelled drupe. Walnut is the seed of a drupe fruit. Yeheb nut is the seed of a desert bush, Cordeauxia edulis. Nuts are the source of energy and nutrients for the new plant, they contain a large quantity of calories, essential unsaturated and monounsaturated fats including linoleic acid and linolenic acid and essential amino acids.
Many nuts are good sources of vitamin E, vitamin B2, folate and the essential minerals magnesium, potassium and selenium. Nuts are most healthy in their raw unroasted form because roasting can damage and destroy fats during the process; this table lists the percentage of various nutrients in four unroasted seeds. Nuts are under preliminary research to assess whether their consumption may lower risk for some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nuts have a low glycemic index due to their high unsaturated fat and protein content and low carbohydrate content; the nut of the horse-chestnut tree, is called a conker in the British Isles. Conkers are inedible to many animals because they contain toxic glucoside aesculin, they are used in a popular children's game, known as conkers, where the nuts are threaded onto a strong cord and each contestant attempts to break their opponent's conker by hitting it with their own. Horse chestnuts are popular slingshot ammunition. List of culinary nuts List of edible seeds List of foods Nutmeg Achene Albala, Ken 2014.
Nuts A Global History. The Edible Series. ISBN 978-1-78023-282-9
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage". A leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. Most leaves have distinct upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, the number of stomata, the amount and structure of epicuticular wax and other features. Leaves can have many different shapes and textures; the broad, flat leaves with complex venation of flowering plants are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, the leaves are simple and are known as microphylls.
Some leaves, such as bulb scales, are not above ground. In many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines. Furthermore, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not homologous with them. Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin; some structures of non-vascular plants function much like leaves. Examples include the phyllids of liverworts. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants. Green plants are autotrophic, meaning that they do not obtain food from other living things but instead create their own food by photosynthesis, they capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and water. The sugars are stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls, or metabolised by cellular respiration to provide chemical energy to run cellular processes.
The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through openings called stomata in the outer covering layer of the leaf, while leaves are orientated to maximise their exposure to sunlight. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem; the phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much of the leaf as possible, ensuring that cells carrying out photosynthesis are close to the transportation system. Leaves are broad and thin, thereby maximising the surface area directly exposed to light and enabling the light to penetrate the tissues and reach the chloroplasts, thus promoting photosynthesis.
They are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications. For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows and eucalyptss; the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to carrying out photosynthesis, the leaf is the principal site of transpiration, providing the energy required to draw the transpiration stream up from the roots, guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and frost; these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. Some leaf forms are adapted to modulate the amount of light they absorb to avoid or mitigate excessive heat, ultraviolet damage, or desiccation, or to sacrifice light-absorption efficiency in favour of protection from herbivory.
For xerophytes the major constraint drought. Some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides. Leaves function to store chemical energy and water and may become specialised organs serving other functions, such as tendrils of peas and other legumes, the protective spines of cacti and the insect traps in carnivorous plants such as Nepenthes and Sarracenia. Leaves are the fundamental structural units from which cones are constructed in gymnosperms and from which flowers are constructed in flowering plants; the internal organisation of most kinds of leaves has evolved to maximise exposure of the photosynthetic organelles, the chloroplasts, to light and to increase the absorption of carbon dioxide while at the same time controlling water loss. Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is controlled by minute openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapour into
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are uncertain; the name Oligocene was coined in 1854 by the German paleontologist Heinrich Ernst Beyrich. The Oligocene is followed by the Miocene Epoch; the Oligocene is the final epoch of the Paleogene Period. The Oligocene is considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene. Major changes during the Oligocene included a global expansion of grasslands, a regression of tropical broad leaf forests to the equatorial belt; the start of the Oligocene is marked by a notable extinction event called the Grande Coupure. By contrast, the Oligocene–Miocene boundary is not set at an identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer late Oligocene and the cooler Miocene.
Oligocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A deeper 8.2 °C, 400,000-year temperature depression leads the 2 °C, seven-million-year stepwise climate change 33.5 Ma. The stepwise climate change began 32.5 Ma and lasted through to 25.5 Ma, as depicted in the PaleoTemps chart. The Oligocene climate change was a global increase in ice volume and a 55 m decrease in sea level with a related temperature depression; the 7-million-year depression abruptly terminated within 1–2 million years of the La Garita Caldera eruption at 28–26 Ma. A deep 400,000-year glaciated Oligocene Miocene boundary event is recorded at McMurdo Sound and King George Island. During this epoch, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Antarctica became more isolated and developed an ice cap. Mountain building in western North America continued, the Alps started to rise in Europe as the African plate continued to push north into the Eurasian plate, isolating the remnants of the Tethys Sea.
A brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. Marine fossils from the Oligocene are rare in North America. There appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe, since the faunas of the two regions are similar. Sometime during the Oligocene, South America was detached from Antarctica and drifted north towards North America, it allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow cooling the Antarctic continent. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by temperate deciduous forests. Open plains and deserts became more common and grasses expanded from their water-bank habitat in the Eocene moving out into open tracts; however at the end of the period, grass was not quite common enough for modern savannas. In North America, subtropical species dominated with cashews and lychee trees present, temperate trees such as roses and pines were common; the legumes spread, while sedges and ferns continued their ascent.
More open landscapes allowed animals to grow to larger sizes than they had earlier in the Paleocene epoch 30 million years earlier. Marine faunas became modern, as did terrestrial vertebrate fauna on the northern continents; this was more as a result of older forms dying out than as a result of more modern forms evolving. Many groups, such as equids, rhinos and camelids, became more able to run during this time, adapting to the plains that were spreading as the Eocene rainforests receded; the first felid, originated in Asia during the late Oligocene and spread to Europe. South America was isolated from the other continents and evolved a quite distinct fauna during the Oligocene; the South American continent became home to strange animals such as pyrotheres and astrapotheres, as well as litopterns and notoungulates. Sebecosuchians, terror birds, carnivorous metatheres, like the borhyaenids remained the dominant predators. Brontotheres died out in the Earliest Oligocene, creodonts died out outside Africa and the Middle East at the end of the period.
Multituberculates, an ancient lineage of primitive mammals that originated back in the Jurassic became extinct in the Oligocene, aside from the gondwanatheres. The Oligocene was home to a wide variety of strange mammals. A good example of this would be the White River Fauna of central North America, which were a semiarid prairie home to many different types of endemic mammals, including entelodonts like Archaeotherium, running rhinoceratoids, three-toed equids, nimravids and early canids like Hesperocyon. Merycoidodonts, an endemic American group, were diverse during this time. In Asia during the Oligocene, a group of running rhinoceratoids gave rise to the indricotheres, like Paraceratherium, which were the largest land mammals to walk the Earth; the marine animals of Oligocene oceans resembled today's fauna, such as the bivalves. Calcareous cirratulids appeared in the Oligocene; the fossil record of marine mammals is a little spotty during this time, not as well known as the Eocene o
In North America, "winter moth" denotes the invasive species Operophtera brumata, but may mean refer to a native species, Erannis tiliaria or Operophtera bruceata. The winter moth is a moth of the family Geometridae, it is an abundant species of Europe and the Near East and a famous study organism for evaluating insect population dynamics. It is one of few lepidopterans of temperate regions in which adults are active in late fall and early winter; the adults use endothermy for movement in these cold temperatures. The female of this species is wingless and cannot fly, but the male is winged and flies strongly. After the initial frosts of late fall, the females emerge from their pupa, walk to and up trees, there emitting pheromones in the evening to attract males. Fertilized, she ascends to lay, around 100 eggs; the larger the female moth is the more eggs she lays. Winter moths are considered an invasive species in North America. Nova Scotia, experienced the first confirmed infestations in the 1930s.
It was accidentally introduced to Oregon in the 1950s and the Vancouver area of British Columbia around 1970. Defoliation by the moth was first noted in eastern states of the United States in the late 1990s, is now well established in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine. Winter moth is confirmed present in British Columbia and Oregon. In Massachusetts, the moths have attracted the attention of several media outlets due to the severity of the infestation. Efforts at biological control are underway; the forewing ground colour of the winged males varies from grey-yellow to beige-brown or slightly reddish-tinted. The patterns are band-shaped dark brownish indistinct; the fringe is yellowish. The hindwings are yellow grey; the antennae are finely hairy. The flightless female has a brownish-grey body with rudimentary wing stubs that are brown to grey and have dark bands. Body length for both sexes 1.0 centimeters. Larvae at hatching will grow to 3/4 inch over a six-week period. In North America, winter moth can be confused with the related native species Bruce spanworm.
In fact, the two species hybridize. Native to Northern and Central Europe: In the South, its range extends to Northern Italy; the genetic populations of winter moth in Europe are a result of recolonization following the last glacial period. As an invasive species, this moth is found in Nova Scotia, coastal New England and the Pacific northwest. In New England, expansion inland and north appears to be curtailed by cold winter temperatures, so for example, coastal Maine but not inland. Locally milder winters, as part of global climate change, may be allowing expansion of afflicted territory. A study conducted in Massachusetts documented that winter moth defoliation reduced the annual trunk diameter growth rate of oak trees by an average of 47% while not impacting growth rates of the less defoliated maple trees. Winter moth larvae emerge in early spring from egg masses laid near leaf buds after a series of days in which the daytime high temperatures reach into the 50s Fahrenheit. Research conducted in the Netherlands indicated that as climate warming is causing spring temperatures to become warmer sooner, some of the winter moth eggs were hatching before tree leaf buds - first food for the caterpillars - had begun to open.
Early hatchlings starved. Late hatchlings survived; because hatch timing is genetically controlled, the moths are evolving to resynchronize with bud opening by delaying the response to the temperature trigger by 5 to 10 days. The larvae, like the adults, can withstand below freezing temperatures at night. Larval dispersal is the dominant source of density-dependent larval mortality and regulates high density population dynamics of winter moth in New England. Larvae prefer Oak and Apple, but feed on Maple, Hornbeam, Hazel, Beech, Poplar, Pear, Raspberry, Willow and other leafy trees and shrubs. Hatched larvae feed on expanding leaf buds after having burrowed inside the bud, on foliage, for six weeks. In addition to feeding on the tree where they hatched, young larvae will product silk strands to'balloon' to other trees. Defoliation can approach 90%. By mid-May the larvae, green in color and about an inch long, descend to the ground. Little mortality due to disease has been noted in winter moth larvae in North America.
Pupation occurs in the soil in late May. Adults emerge from the soil in late fall to early winter, upon mating, the flightless female lays eggs in bark crevices and on branches. With such a long pupal period, winter moth is vulnerable to numerous pupal predators and parasitoids. In Europe, where winter moths are native, two parasitic species, a wasp and a fly prey on winter moth caterpillars; the wasps insert eggs into the larvae. The flies lay eggs on leaves; as a biological control, the wasp was introduced in Canada but is not being pursued in the United States because there is not sufficient evidence that the wasp would not lay eggs in larvae of other moth species. Introduction of C. albicans, species-specific to preying on winter moths, has proven successful in reducing, although not eliminating, winter moth infestation in Nova Scotia, Canada. Test introduc
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Ostrya virginiana, the American hophornbeam, is a species of Ostrya native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Manitoba and eastern Wyoming, southeast to northern Florida and southwest to eastern Texas. Populations from Mexico and Central America are regarded as the same species, although some authors prefer to separate them as a distinct species, Ostrya guatemalensis. Other names include eastern hophornbeam, hardhack and leverwood. American hophornbeam is a small deciduous understory tree growing to 18 m tall and 20–50 centimetres trunk diameter; the bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. Young twigs are sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy; the leaves are ovoid-acute, 5–13 cm long and 4–6 cm broad, pinnately veined, with a doubly serrated margin. The upper surface is hairless, while the lower surface is sparsely to moderately fuzzy; the flowers are catkins produced in early spring at the same time.
The staminate catkins are 2–5 cm long, arranged in groups of 1–4. The pistillate catkins are 8 -- 15 mm long -- 30 flowers each. Pollinated female flowers develop into small nutlets 3–5 mm long enclosed in a papery sac-shaped involucre 10–18 mm long and 8–10 mm wide; the involucre changes from greenish-white to dull brown as the fruit matures. American hophornbeam is similar to its close relative American hornbeam, which can be distinguished by its smooth bark and nutlets enclosed in open, three-lobed bracts. There are two subspecies: Ostrya virginiana subsp. Guatemalensis A. E. Murray – central and southern Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador Ostrya virginiana subsp. Virginiana – eastern half of United States, eastern CanadaPopulations along the Atlantic coast have smaller leaves, are sometimes separated as O. virginiana var. lasia Fernald. The buds and catkins are important source of winter food for some birds, notably ruffed grouse, it is sometimes used as a street tree. Its wood is resilient and is valued for making tool handles and fence posts.
Being a diffuse porous hardwood and having high density and resistance to compression, it is an excellent material for the construction of wooden longbows. Metzger, F. T.. "Ostrya virginiana". In Burns, Russell M.. Silvics of North America. Washington, D. C.: United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 2 – via Southern Research Station. Bioimages: Ostrya virginiana. University of Wisconsin – Green Bay. Trees of Wisconsin. Ostrya virginiana. Virginia Tech Dendrology. Ostrya virginiana Fact Sheet. University of Connecticut. Plants Database. Ostrya virginiana. Trees and Woody Vines of North Carolina. Hophornbeam. Yale University. Cyber Flora. Ostrya virginiana