The Fencibles were British regiments raised in the United Kingdom and in the colonies for defence against the threat of invasion during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Temporary units, composed of local recruits and commanded by Regular Army officers, they were confined to garrison and patrol duties, freeing Regular Army units to perform offensive operations. Most fencible regiments had no liability for overseas service, they included naval forces known as "River Fencibles", made up of boatmen on the Thames and other southern English towns and cities, as well as Sea Fencibles, among their other duties, manned small commercial vessels converted to coastal defence. The first regiments were raised in Scotland in 1759. In England county militia regiments were raised for internal defence in the absence of the regular army. Groundless as the reasons for this caution undoubtedly were in regard to the Lowlands, it would have been hazardous at a time when the Stuarts and their adherents were still plotting a restoration to have armed the clans.
Unlike the militia regiments which were raised by ballot, the Fencibles were to be raised by the ordinary mode of recruiting, like the regiments of the line, the officers were to be appointed, their commissions signed by the king. Most fencible regiments had no liability for overseas service however there were exceptions. Ireland while not united with the Kingdom of Great Britain until 1801 was the destination for several British fencible regiments during the Rebellion of 1798 where they fought in some minor pitched battles; the 3rd Argyllshire Regiment, who like some other fencible regiments had terms of service that extended to any part of Europe, garrisoned Gibraltar The Dumbarton Fencibles Regiment was raised in Scotland, garrisoned Guernsey, fought in Ireland, detachment escorted prisoners to Prussia. The Ancient Irish Fencibles were sent to Egypt where they took part in the operations against the French in 1801. Fencible regiments were less effective than regular troops for military duties, with problems of lack of education and disease.
In Ireland the men would take part in inter-regimental attacks on soldiers. Some regiments of Fencibles, were noted for exceptional service; the Scottish Highlands supplied fencible regiments for most of the second half of the 18th century. The first regiment raised was the Argyle Fencibles in 1759 and the last was the MacLeod Fencibles in 1779. In all over 20 regiments were created; some Highland fencibles regiments saw action in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, while other performed garrison and policing duties in Britain, the Channel Islands and Gibraltar. The Royal Fencible Americans was a Loyalist unit raised by the British in Nova Scotia in 1775, that withstood an attack by Patriot forces under Jonathan Eddy at the Battle of Fort Cumberland. Fencibles were raised for the entirety of the British Isles. In Thomas Flanagan's The Year of the French Fencibles are raised by Cornwallis and other generals to combat the Irish Rebellion of 1798. Fencible units were raised in the United Kingdom during the early years of the war.
This included not only land regiments but the Sea Fencibles. By the Peace of Amiens in 1802, all Fencible Regiments had been disbanded and those members willing to continue serving had been transferred to regular army regiments, though some Fencibles were raised again to meet the threat of Napoleon's invasion of England in 1803 to 1805. In the early years of the 19th Century, regiments of Fencibles were raised in the Canadas, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; the regiments were liable for service in North America only. All but one of these regiments saw action in the War of 1812; the regiments were disbanded in 1816 and 1817, after the War of 1812. Although the units were disbanded, several regiments in Canada continue to perpetuate their historic lineage. Most of the Fencible regiments were formed in 1803, including the Nova Scotia Fencibles, the Canadian Regiment of Fencible Infantry, the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, the New Brunswick Regiment of Fencible Infantry; the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles was formed in February 1812, several months prior to the war.
In addition to these Canadian units, the Michigan Fencibles, a small unit of 45 men was raised at Fort Mackinac in 1813. The Bombay Fencibles were raised in 1799 by the following order of the Bombay Army: "A regiment consisting of two battalions of natives to be, under the denomination of the "Bombay fencibles," raised from the inhabitants of Bombay and Caranjah, on condition of not being liable to serve out of the said bounds; the Royal Malta Fencible Regiment was in existence from 1815 to
Westfield, New Zealand
Westfield is an Auckland suburb. This was once the site of the Westfield Freezing Works, part of a large industrial zone located near the North Island Main Trunk railway at this point; the buildings were decommissioned during the 1980s and 1990s, releasing large areas of land to be redeveloped as office parks. Westfield was the location of Kempthorne Prosser Limited's large Westfield Chemical Fertiliser Works which operated from 1887-1966; the works were demolished in the 1970s. For many years the abattoirs located here were discharging large amounts of untreated waste into Manukau Harbour; this had a detrimental effect on the ecology of the harbor, which at the turn of the 20th century had been a popular and attractive place to swim, sail and gather shell fish. For most of the middle of the 20th century it was a health hazard and its shell-fish a probable source of food poisoning. Since the freezing works disappeared the water quality has improved greatly. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Māori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around North Cape.
This made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation. At one point during World War II there were plans to create a canal between the two harbours. In March 2017, Westfield Railway Station was permanently closed due to low patronage. Auckland Transport announced it would have required a costly upgrade in order to keep it in operation. Photographs of Westfield held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Great South Road, New Zealand
The Great South Road was the northern section of the earliest highway between Auckland and Wellington, in the North Island of New Zealand. Construction of the Great South Road began in 1861 during the New Zealand Wars under the orders of Governor Grey to improve supply lines through swampy and thickly forested country; the road was constructed by British Army troops, including Dominic Jacotin Gamble, provided a flow of supplies for the Waikato campaign. 12,000 soldiers were involved in the construction over two years. After the wars, more peaceful uses predominated, the road became the main social and commercial link to the growing agricultural areas south of Auckland. Much of the road between Newmarket and Drury is laid in concrete, up to 1 foot thick but is now covered with asphalt; the road was marked by milestones, but these are now all believed lost. The Auckland Southern Motorway has superseded Great South Road as a through route, but many parts of the road are still in use the urban sections.
The road begins in the central Auckland suburb of Epsom passes through the suburbs of Greenlane, Otahuhu, Manukau and Papakura. Leaving the urban sprawl, it heads south through Drury before terminating at Mill Road in Bombay and merging with the Waikato Expressway, it continued, over the Bombay Hills, followed the east bank of the Waikato River until crossing it at Ngaruawahia. A section of State Highway 3 through Ohaupo retains the road's southernmost extension. New Zealand state highway network NZ Geographic article Dominic Gamble Soldier involved in road construction Manukau timeline
Ōtāhuhu / Mount Richmond is one of the volcanoes of the Auckland volcanic field. A group of scoria mounds up to 50 m high, it has two 50 m wide craters, it was the site of a pā, retains some Māori earthworks from that time such as kumara pits and terracing. The nearby suburb of Otahuhu is named after the volcano. In the 2014 Treaty of Waitangi settlement with the Tamaki Makaurau Collective of 13 Auckland iwi, the volcano was named Ōtāhuhu / Mount Richmond and ownership was vested to the collective, it is now co-governed by the collective and Auckland Council in common benefit of the iwi "and all other people of Auckland". City of Volcanoes: A geology of Auckland - Searle, Ernest J.. D.. First published 1964. ISBN 0-582-71784-1. Volcanoes of Auckland: The Essential guide - Hayward, B. W. Murdoch, G. Maitland, G.. ISBN 9781869404796. Painting of nearby McLennan Hills from the tuff ring crest of Mt Richmond in 1861. Drawing of Mt Richmond in 1861. Photographs of Mount Richmond held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
South Auckland is an imprecisely defined urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, with a young population, a large Polynesian and Māori demographic, lower incomes than other parts of Auckland. The name South Auckland, though not an official place name, has come into common useamong New Zealanders, it appears in the names of some organisations and companies. Since the 1970s the term "South Auckland" has developed negative connotations with outsiders, being associated with deprivation and violence; when street crime occurs in the area, the mass media tend to use the generic "South Auckland" phrase, with its vague and unfortunate stereotypes, rather than a more precise name of a suburb or territorial authority. Barry Curtis, mayor of Manukau City from 1983 to 2007, tried to discourage use of the name "South Auckland" because of its negative connotations; the heart of South Auckland is the low socio-economic suburbs of the former Manukau City, typified by Otara but including Papatoetoe and Manurewa.
Broadly speaking, South Auckland is the urban area stretching from at the least the narrowing of the Auckland isthmus at Otahuhu, southwards through the Manukau City suburbs lying to the west and near east of Auckland's Southern Motorway. The area does not include the more well-to-do, eastern and northern Manukau City suburbs such as Howick, Botany Downs, or Pakuranga, nor the large rural area of Manukau City; the name does not include Franklin District. Prior to the 1970s, South Auckland encompassed the region from Otahuhu south to Mercer, from the west coast to the Firth of Thames, including the southern towns of Pukekohe and Waiuku. Auckland Airport is located in South Auckland, as well as several other places of interest, including the amusement park Rainbow's End, the Auckland Botanic Gardens and one of the oldest shopping malls in the country, now called Westfield Manukau City; some of the suburbs in South Auckland contain predominantly state housing and are the poorest suburbs of Auckland.
The area contains the industrial heartland of Auckland, with workshops and warehouses providing work for many Aucklanders. South Auckland was a part of Manukau City, amalgamated into the new Auckland Council in 2010, being covered by the extreme southernmost portion of the Maungakiekie-Tamaki Local Board, as well as the entirety of the Mangere-Otahuhu, Otara-Papatoetoe and Manurewa Local Boards. On the Auckland Council Governing Body, South Auckland is represented by Arthur Anae and Alf Filipaina; the general electorates of Mangere, Manukau East, Manurewa and the Maori electorate of Tamaki Makaurau cover the area referred to as South Auckland. All are represented by a Labour MP in the New Zealand Parliament, the strong support for this party was underlined by these electorates recording strong party vote majorities for Labour in the 2014 elections, despite Labour's support falling to a record low nationally. Candidates from the National, New Zealand First and a range of minor parties stand in the general electorates of South Auckland, though none has been won by a party other than Labour since 1975.
The Maori electorate of Tamaki Makaurau was held by the Māori Party co-leader Pita Sharples from 2005 until 2014. The area has a multiracial population including Pākehā and Asians as well as a high proportion of Polynesians and Māori; this gives it a cosmopolitan feel and a thriving culture at street level, most seen by visitors at the Saturday markets at Otara and Mangere. Manukau City, before its amalgamation, used the slogan "Face of the Future" to reflect its youthful demographic, having one of the highest proportion of people under 18. South Auckland is a major centre of hip hop culture and music in New Zealand. People who hail from South Auckland include Olympic champion John Walker, mountaineer Edmund Hillary, former Prime Minister David Lange. Many successful sportspeople are South Aucklanders.
Favona is a industry-dominated suburb of Auckland, New Zealand, is part of the Mangere area. The suburb is in the Manukau ward, one of the thirteen administrative divisions of Auckland city, is under governance of the Auckland Council; the area has a long history of habitation, due to its fertile lands, a productive harbour, proximity to the Manukau-Tamaki isthmus. Māori of Ngāti Whātua were the inhabitants until they were supplanted by European farmers in the 19th century; the development of market gardening brought more people into the area and the land remained used in this way until the 1960s when housing developments were created to service Auckland's growing population and industry in nearby Onehunga and Otahuhu. Some areas of Favona historically had large areas of greenhouses, such as for tomato production; the area is one is of relative poverty and until 2005 had one of New Zealand's largest Caravan parks. It hosts the Mangere campus of Te Wananga o Aotearoa. Numerous shipping and freight forwarding companies have premises in the industrial areas, including the national distribution headquarters of supermarket chain Progressive Enterprises.
Photographs of Favona held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
The North Island officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres, it has a population of 3,749,200. Twelve main urban areas are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Hamilton, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island. Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite articles, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use North Island without the. According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up; this great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui. The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish; until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole; the sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, the southern part being the North Island temperate forests.
The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas. Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters. Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki Manawatu-Wanganui Hawkes Bay Wellington The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city and the capital, accounting for nearly half of it. There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more: Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards. Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions. Bay of Islands Bay of Plenty Hauraki Gulf Hawke Bay Ninety Mile Beach North Taranaki Bight South Taranaki Bight Lake Taupo Waikato River Whanganui River Coromandel Peninsula Northland Peninsula Cape Palliser Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Egmont National Park Tongariro National Park Waipoua Kauri Forest Whanganui National Park and many forest parks of New Zealand Mount Ruapehu Mount Taranaki Volcanic Plateau Waitomo Caves Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu List of islands of New Zealand Media related to North Island, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons North Island travel guide from Wikivoyage