United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
North Island Main Trunk
The North Island Main Trunk is the main railway line in the North Island of New Zealand, connecting the capital city Wellington with the country's largest city, Auckland. The line is 682 kilometres long and passes through Paraparaumu, Palmerston North, National Park, Taumarunui, Te Kuiti and Pukekohe. Most of the NIMT is single track with frequent passing loops, built to the New Zealand rail gauge of 1,067 mm; the line is double track between Wellington and Waikanae, between Hamilton and Te Kauwhata, between Meremere and Auckland Britomart. Around 460 kilometres of the line is electrified in three separate sections: one section at 1600 V DC between Wellington and Waikanae, two sections at 25 kV AC: 412 km between Palmerston North and Te Rapa and 34 km between Papakura and Auckland Britomart; the first section of what became the NIMT opened in 1873 in Auckland. Construction at the Wellington end began in 1885; the line was completed in 1908 and was operational by 1909. It is credited for having been an economic lifeline for the young nation, for having opened up the centre of the North Island to European settlement and investment.
In the early days, a passenger journey between Wellington and Auckland could take more than 20 hours. The NIMT has been described as an "engineering miracle", with numerous engineering feats such as viaducts, tunnels and a spiral built to overcome large elevation differences with grades suitable for steam engines. Auckland's first railway was the 13 km line between Point Britomart and Onehunga via Penrose, opened in 1873, it was built by Brogdens. The section from Penrose to Onehunga is now called the Onehunga Branch; the line was continued south from Penrose into the Waikato to support the Invasion of the Waikato, a 3.5 mi tramway being built from Maungatawhiri to Meremere in 1864, though turning of the first sod of the Auckland and Drury Railway took place in 1865, a year after the last major battle. This line reached Mercer by 20 May 1875, with 29 km from Ngaruawahia being constructed by the Volunteer Engineer Militia and opened on 13 August 1877, it was extended to Frankton by December 1877, to Te Awamutu in 1880.
An economic downturn stalled construction for the next five years, Te Awamutu remained the railhead. There were protracted negotiations with local Māori, the King Country was not accessible to Europeans until 1883; the Wellington-Longburn section was constructed between 1881 and 1886 by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company. The company was acquired by the New Zealand Railways Department in 1908. From Te Awamutu it was proposed that the line be built via Taupo or via Taumarunui, the eventual route. Four options were considered before the Minister of Public Works decided on the present route in 1884, when it was realised just how difficult that route was, further surveys considered two other options in 1888. Construction of the final central section began on 15 April 1885, when paramount chief Wahanui of Ngāti Maniapoto turned the first sod outside Te Awamutu, it was 23 years before the two lines met, as the central section was difficult to survey and construct. The crossing of the North Island Volcanic Plateau with deep ravines required nine viaducts and the world-famous Raurimu Spiral.
By the beginning of 1908, there was a 39 km gap between Erua and Ohakune, with a connecting horse-drawn coach service. From Ohakune south to Waiouru the Public Works Department operated the train, as this section had not yet been handed over to the Railways Department; the gap was closed on 7 August 1908 for the first through passenger train, the 11-car Parliamentary Special carrying the Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward and other parliamentarians north to see the American Great White Fleet at Auckland. But much of the new section was temporary, with some cuttings north of Taonui having vertical batters and some unballasted sections of track. Ward drove the last spike on 6 November 1908, the'Last Spike' monument is at Manganui-o-te-Ao 39°16.44′S 175°23.37′E, near Pokaka. A two-day NIMT service started on 9 November, with an overnight stop at Ohakune. On 14 February 1909 the first NIMT express left Auckland for Wellington, an overnight trip scheduled to take 19 hours 15 minutes, with a sleeping car, day cars with reclining seats, postal/parcels vans.
The dining car went on the north express from Wellington to Ohakune transferred to the southbound express, so avoiding the heavy gradients of the central section. Several sections of the line have been upgraded and deviated: In 1913 the maximum speed limit on the NIMT was raised to 45 mph, reducing the journey time by 1 hour 25 minutes Auckland-Wellington or to 17 hours and between 30 and 45 minutes. Under T. Ronayne, the Railways Department general manager from 1895 to 1913, the section south to Parnell was duplicated and improvements made to the worst gradients and tight curves between Auckland and Mercer. Under his successor E. H. Hiley the second Parnell Tunnel with two tracks and an easier gradient was completed in 1915-1916. On the Kakariki bank between Halcombe and Marton a deviation reduced the 1 in 53 grade to 1 in 70. A 1914 Act authorised spending on the Westfield Deviation, new stations at Auckland and Wellington, track doubling, grade easements from Penrose to Te Kuiti, but the war delayed most of these works for over a decade.
In 1927 automatic co
New Zealand DE class locomotive
The New Zealand DE class locomotive is a New Zealand class of shunting diesel-electric locomotives. The New Zealand Railways intended to replace steam locomotives for shunting duties with this class, they are physically similar to the Tasmanian Government Railways X class, which were of English Electric design. Although NZR intended to use the class as a heavy transfer shunter, four of the DEs were used in pairs on 1953—1954 Royal Train tour when Queen Elizabeth II visited New Zealand; the DEs was trialled for use on suburban passenger trains in Auckland and Wellington as well as on lesser regional passenger services and branch line freight. The class was the first to use the new Murupara Branch; this has given the DE class an unofficial status of the first mainline diesel-electric locomotive in NZR service, a title applied to another English Electric class, the DF class of 1954. The class was based in the North Island, but four of the class were sent to the South Island in 1981; the class was dispersed to secondary yards on the New Zealand network, such as Napier and Invercargill.
In the early 1980s, two DE class members received English Electric 6SRKT Mk 2 engines. As part of the New Zealand Railways Corporation plan to reduce the number of first-generation diesels in the late 1980s, a number of the class were scrapped or sold for preservation. Seven DE class locomotives have survived out of the original fifteen. All have operated in preservation at least once time: DE 504/DE 1337 was sold to the Otago Polytechnic not long after being withdrawn, it was intended to use the engine in the locomotive for a recreation of a ships engine room. This never happened and the became surplus to their requirements in 1993 when it was sold to the Taieri Gorge Railway who restored it to working order as DE 1337 and repainted in the TGRs Bahama Blue livery, it was repainted in 2006 to the original red livery with Larch Yellow nose stripes and wasp stripes on the headstocks as per the 1970s. DE 504 is not mainline certified, it sees occasional use pulling work trains and sometimes passenger excursions, but can be see shunting in Dunedin Railways yard.
It was put up for sale or leasing in mid-2015, but is still operational and can be seen being used for shunting around their depot occasionally. DE 505/DE 1343 was sold to the Silver Stream Railway in 1984, it was one of two class members that did not receive the International Orange livery, instead bearing its original red livery with its head-stocks painted yellow until withdrawal. It is still in service on the SSR, albeit in its original livery but with the head-stocks repainted to black. DE 507/DE 1372/GVR No.8 was sold to the Glenbrook Vintage Railway in 1988. It has since been repainted into its original livery and wears its original identity as DE 507 and GVR NO 8 in preservation. DE 508/DE 1389 was brought to Wellington after withdrawal and restored by NZ Rail to become DE 508 in their Heritage Fleet. During this time it did some shunting work at Wellingtons carriage and wagon depot, undertook some railfan trips. In 2003, Tranz Rail decided to disperse the Heritage Fleet with the result that the loco was given to the Rail Heritage Trust and moved to the Silver Stream Railway.
The locomotive is still operational, runs on SSR open days. It was fitted with a replica of its original cow-catcher in early 2014. DE 509/DE 1395 was sold to the Glenbrook Vintage Railway in 1988, it kept its TMS identity as DE 1395 and its International Orange livery as it did not spend much time in service for its new owners, but instead ended up in storage by 1990 without carrying its new identity as GVR NO 9. This locomotive is the last surviving Royal Train DE. DE 511/DE 1412 was sold to the Diesel Traction Group in 1988, it was restored as DE 511 and journeyed with DG 772 to Springfield on an excursion as part of the Rail 125 celebrations in 1988. The locomotive is undergoing repairs after being in storage. DE 512/DE 1429 was sold to the Diesel Traction Group in 1988, it was restored as DE 1429, has been the only operational DE to wear the International Orange livery in preservation. The locomotive still saw occasional use at Ferrymead, has in the past attended the famous Waipara Vintage Festivals hosted by the Weka Pass Railway.
The locomotive has been on long-term loan to the WPR since September 2015. Diesel Traction Group, Christchurch
New Zealand DM class electric multiple unit
The New Zealand DM/D class were a class of electric multiple units used on the suburban rail network of Wellington, New Zealand. Formed of DM power cars and D trailer cars, the first units were ordered from English Electric in 1936 and introduced on 2 July 1938 operating the electrified Johnsonville Line service. Additional units were ordered in 1946 as other Wellington suburban lines were electrified; the units were relegated to peak services and the Johnsonville Line after the arrival of the "Ganz Mavag" EM/ET units in 1982-83, before being replaced by the "Matangi" FP/FT units in 2011-12. The units operated their last revenue service on 25 June 2012, from Wellington to Melling and return. Five complete units and six trailer cars have been preserved. Following its decision to build the Tawa Flat deviation to replace the original Wellington & Manawatu Railway portion of the North Island Main Trunk alignment out of Wellington, the New Zealand Railways Department decided to convert the remaining 10.49km of track between Wellington and Johnsonville into an electrified suburban branch line.
Six two-car trains comprising one driving motor car and one driving trailer were ordered from English Electric in 1936 to work the future Johnsonville Line, which formally'opened' as a branch line on 2 July 1938 with the new electric trains inaugurating the service. The new trains were allocated as the D class. Due to traffic growth both on the Johnsonville Branch and with further electrification in the Wellington suburban area, two further orders were placed with English Electric for further trains of this type. Due to the limited number of these trains, NZR were required to run additional locomotive-hauled carriage trains until the arrival of the first Ganz Mavag EM/ET units in 1982; the class operated in two principle configurations: Two-car unit. Used on the steep Johnsonville Line until March 2012, as four-car trains for peak and two-car trains off-peak and weekend. Two car units were operated on the Melling line; until March 2012 there were 11 two-car units in service. Three-car unit. Used on the Wellington to Taita line, the Wellington to Paekakariki line.
Up to 1983 when electrification was extended to Paraparaumu some units were hauled from Paekakariki by diesel locomotives the DA class. They were fitted with extra storage batteries for other electrics. At the time of their withdrawal, the D/DM sets were among the oldest rolling stock operated by KiwiRail. By this time all trains were composed of 1946 stock, the'36 and'42 stock having been eliminated from service in the early 1980s; as built, the DM class motor cars seated 56 passengers and D class trailer cars seated 72. However, during renovation of these trains in the late 1970s-early 1980s, two seats located next to the driver's cabs in each car were removed and a barrier was installed level with the cab, reducing the seating in each car to 54 passengers per DM car and 70 passengers per D car; some DM cars had the double seats in the rear section in front of the luggage compartment removed and the seats parallel with the sides extended to provide space for prams. As built, the DM class motor cars had a second driver's cab located in the luggage compartment at one end of the car allowing them to operate as single car units.
The second cabs were progressively removed to provide spare parts giving increased luggage space. Prior to this, the all-night service on the Johnsonville Branch was operated by one of the 1942 stock DM cars, an arrangement, considered for use on a similar service on the Melling Branch; each car had ten 150 V electric heaters in series run off the 1500 V supply, so a 1500 V connection was required between motor cars and trailers. 46 stock differed from 36/42 stock in some respects: 36/42 stock motor cars had a 120 V DC motor-generator set supplying power for lights, signal circuits and brake & door operation. The bogie wheelbase on 36/42 stock was 7 ft 6 in; the 36/42 stock had ventilation louvres in the doors. The 36/42 stock had one coach-mounted brake cylinder only; because of their shorter wheelbase and the smaller motor-generator set designed for one trailer only, 36/42 stock units were kept for the Johnsonville line as much as possible. The three-car sets of 1946 stock were kept for use on the Paekakariki and Upper Hutt services due to their greater passenger-carrying capacity and reduced brake capacity on steep lines.
The introduction of the EM/ET class units from 1982 onwards saw a large number of the class become redundant, namely all of the'36 and'42 stock. Ten two-car units of'46 stock were refurbished at the now closed East Town Railway Workshops in Wanganui between 1984 and 1986 for continued operation on the Johnsonville Branch where EMs did not have running rights due to their being over-gauge and having insufficient braking capacity, for peak-hour running on the
Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century and by Europeans in the early 19th century and was constituted as a city in 1963. Tauranga City is the centre of the fifth largest urban area in New Zealand, with an urban population of 141,600; the city lies in the north-western corner of the Bay of Plenty, on the south-eastern edge of Tauranga Harbour. The city extends over an area of 168 square kilometres, encompasses the communities of Bethlehem, on the south-western outskirts of the city. Tauranga is one of New Zealand's main centres for business, international trade, culture and horticultural science; the Port of Tauranga is New Zealand's largest port in terms of gross export efficiency. Tauranga is one of New Zealand's fastest growing cities, with a 14 percent increase in population between the 2001 census and the 2006 census, 11% between the 2006 census and the 2013 census; this rapid population growth has seen Tauranga overtake Dunedin and the Napier-Hastings urban areas to become New Zealand's fifth-largest city.
The earliest known settlers were Māori who arrived at Tauranga in the Takitimu and the Mataatua waka in the 13th century. At 9 am on Friday 23 June 1826 Herald was the first European ship to enter Tauranga Harbour; the Revd. Henry Williams conducted a Christian service at Otamataha Pā. In December 1826 and again on March 1827 the Herald travelled to Tauranga from the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies of potatoes and flax. In 1835 a Church Missionary Society mission station was established at Tauranga by William Wade. Rev. Alfred N. Brown arrived at the CMS mission station in 1838. John Morgan visited the mission in 1838. Europeans trading in flax were active in the Bay of Plenty during the 1830s; the first permanent non-Maori trader was James Farrow, who travelled to Tauranga in 1829, obtaining flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for muskets and gunpowder. Farrow acquired a land area of 2,000 square metres on 10 January 1838 at Otumoetai Pā from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu, the earliest authenticated land purchase in the Bay of Plenty.
In 1840, a Catholic mission station was established. Bishop Pompallier was given land within the palisades of Otumoetai Pā for a presbytery; the mission station closed in 1863 due to land wars in the Waikato district. The Tauranga Campaign took place in and around Tauranga from 21 January to 21 June 1864, during the New Zealand Wars; the Battle of Gate Pa is the best known. The battle of Gate Pā was an attack on the well fortified Pā and its Māori defenders on 29 April 1864 by British forces made up of 300 men of the 43rd Regiment and a naval brigade, it was the single most devastating loss of life suffered by the British military in the whole of the New Zealand Wars. The British casualties were 31 dead including 80 wounded; the Māori defenders abandoned the Pā during the night with casualties estimated at 25 dead and an unknown number of wounded. Under the Local Government Order 2003, Tauranga became a city for a second time, from 1 March 2004. In August 2011, Tauranga received Ultra-Fast Broadband as part of the New Zealand Government's rollout.
Here is a list of suburbs by electoral ward: Tauranga is located around a large harbour that extends along the western Bay of Plenty, is protected by Matakana Island and the extinct volcano of Mauao. Ngamuwahine River is located 19 kilometres southwest of Tauranga. Situated along a faultline and the Bay of Plenty experience infrequent seismic activity, there are a few volcanoes around the area; the most notable of these are White Mauao, nicknamed "The Mount" by locals. Tauranga is the antipode of Jaén, Spain. Tauranga has an maritime temperate climate, it can be described as subtropical due to high summer humidity. During the summer months the population swells as holidaymakers descend on the city along the popular white coastal surf beaches from Mount Maunganui to Papamoa. Tauranga surpassed Dunedin in 2008 as the sixth largest city in New Zealand by urban area, the ninth largest city by Territorial Authority area, it has now surpassed the Napier-Hastings area to become the fifth largest city.
The city was growing at a rate of 1.5% in 2008. Tauranga is set to surpass Dunedin in Territorial Area by the next Census in 2018. In 1976, Tauranga was a medium-sized urban area, with a population of around 48,000, smaller than Napier or Invercargill; the completion of a harbour bridge in 1988 brought Tauranga and The Mount closer and promoted growth in both parts of the enlarged city. In 1996 Tauranga's population was 82,092 and by 2006 it had reached 103,635. In 2006, 17.4% of the population was aged 65 or over, compared to 12.3% nationally. The city hosts five major head offices – Port of Tauranga, Zespri International, Ballance Agri-Nutrients Ltd and Craigs Investment Partners. Tauranga is home to a large number of migrants from the UK, attracted to the area by its climate and quality of life. Tauranga is located in the administrative area of the Tauranga City Council; the council consists of ten councillor