London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
32nd Berlin International Film Festival
The 32nd annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 12–23 February 1982. The Golden Bear was awarded to the West German film Veronika Voss directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder. A new section was introduced at the festival by Manfred Salzgeber, renamed Panorama in 1986; the retrospective dedicated to German film director Curtis Bernhardt titled Insurrection of Emotions along with East German children’s films were shown at the festival. The following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Joan Fontaine Vladimir Baskakov Brigitte Fossey Joe Hembus László Lugossy Gian Luigi Rondi Helma Sanders-Brahms Mrinal Sen David Stratton The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear award: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: Veronika Voss by Rainer Werner Fassbinder Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize: Dreszcze by Wojciech Marczewski Silver Bear for Best Director: Mario Monicelli for Il Marchese del Grillo Silver Bear for Best Actress: Katrin Saß for Bürgschaft für ein Jahr Silver Bear for Best Actor: Michel Piccoli for Une étrange affaire Stellan Skarsgård for Den Enfaldige Mördaren Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement: Zoltán Fábri for Requiem Honourable Mention: Muzhiki!
Absence of Malice The Killing of Angel Street Golden Bear – Honorary Award: James Stewart FIPRESCI Award Dreszcze by Wojciech Marczewski 32nd Berlin International Film Festival 1982 1982 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1982 at Internet Movie Database
Echo of Moscow
Echo of Moscow is a 24/7 commercial Russian radio station based in Moscow. It broadcasts in many Russian cities, some of the former Soviet republics, via the Internet; the current editor-in-chief is Alexei Venediktov. Echo of Moscow became famous during the events of 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt - it was one of the few news outlets that spoke against the State Committee on the State of Emergency; the Committee's decree number 3 on the suspension of Echo's broadcast is now regarded as a prestigious state award by the station's journalists. According to editor-in-chief Alexei Venediktov, the special KGB Alfa group made several attempts to cut the radio's access to the transmitter, but its employees managed to connect the studio directly to the transmitter through the telephone line and continue broadcasting. From the first day of its existence Echo of Moscow adhered to one rule: «All significant points of view about events should be presented». Journalists have been jokingly calling the station «Ear of Moscow».
Most of Echo of Moscow's content consists of news and talk shows focusing on social and political issues, where the station tries to represent different points of view. Alexey Venediktov has been the station's chief editor since 1998. Radio hosts of the station include Victor Shenderovich, Yulia Latynina, Sergey Parkhomenko, Alexander Nevzorov, Yevgenia Albats, Vladimir Kara-Murza, Vladimir Ryzhkov, Yevgeny Yasin and Sophie Shevardnadze; as of April 2014 Yulia Latynina is the most popular presenter at the radio station. In addition to broadcasting, Echo of Moscow runs a website that publishes analytical and factual materials in a variety of fields including international and domestic political affairs, social developments and cultural trends; the articles are written by well-known political analysts, academic researchers and public figures. Among the website's authors are Dmitrii Bykov, Matvey Ganapolsky, Alexey Navalny, Victor Shenderovich, a number of others, who have sustained national and international acclaim in their areas of expertise.
The Echo of Moscow site is an authoritative source of information, its publications are cited, relied on and reproduced by major Russian internet publications and other media sources. As of 2018 Echo of Moscow is majority owned by Gazprom Media which holds 66% of its shares, the remaining 34% are held by journalist staff. 900,000 people in Moscow and 1,8 million in other Russian regions listen to Echo of Moscow daily. According to TNS Global, the most common listeners are middle class and upper middle class Russians 40 years and older with a higher education, residing in the city of Moscow, they make up one third of the total listeners of the radio station. The radio's programs can be streamed online and are available in text and video formats at the station's website; the website itself attracts an average of 700.000 visitors daily. In October 2017, the station was broken into by an assailant who pepper-sprayed a security guard and soon afterwards stabbed Tatyana Felgengauer, one of Echo's top presenters, in the neck.
Her injuries were life-threatening, but she was able to make a full recovery thanks to timely medical intervention. The station described the attacker as an Israeli, quoting "informed sources". Forensic medical expertise determined him to be a paranoid schizophrenic, he was sentenced to compulsory medical treatment by the court. In September 2009, numerous chief editor replies point out that Gazprom and/or other stock-holders did not interfere with informational policy and were not allowed to. On 1 November 2014, the station received an official Roskomnadzor warning that a program the station had aired about Ukraine contained "information justifying war crimes". A radio station can be closed down. Abakan — 71.06, 104.2 FM Barnaul — 69.11 FM Chelyabinsk — 70.70, 99.5 FM Chicago — 1330 AM Ekaterinburg — 67.46, 91.4 FM Izhevsk — 105.3 FM Irkutsk — 69.5 FM Kazan — 105.8 FM Krasnoyarsk — 106.6 FM Makhachkala — 105.2 FM Mirny — 102.4 FM Moscow — 91.2 FM Nizhnevartovsk — 107.0 FM Nizhny Novgorod — 107.4 FM Orenburg — 101.3 FM Omsk — 70.55, 105.0 FM Penza — 107.5 FM Perm — 91.2 FM Rostov-na-Donu — 69.44 FM Samara — 99.1 FM Saint Petersburg — 91.5 FM Saratov, Engels — 105.8 FM Tolyatti — 107.9 FM Tomsk — 105.0 FM Tyumen — 72.44 FM Tver — 107.2 FM Ufa — 91.1 FM Ukhta — 105.0 FM Vladikavkaz, Beslan — 102.8 FM Vologda — 105.7 FM Yaroslavl — 106.5 FM Zelenogorsk — 71.06 FM List of Russian-language radio stations Official website Frequencies List David Remnick.
Echo in the Dark: A radio station strives to keep the airwaves free. - The New Yorker. September 22, 2008 Online broadcast
Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, music composer, graphic artist and author regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century. Ray was born in Calcutta into a Bengali Kayastha family, prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films and shorts, he was a fiction writer, illustrator, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.
This film, along with Apur Sansar, form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting and editing, designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, an Academy Honorary Award in 1992; the Government of India honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray gained a prestigious position over his life time. In 2004, Ray was ranked number 13 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations. Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, philosopher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal, he set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic.
Ray was born to Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name'Ray' from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were'Vaishnavas' as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were'Shaktos'. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was three, the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta affiliated with the University of Calcutta,though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan, his mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art, he admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. He produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee.
His visits to Ajanta and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art. In 1943, Ray started work at D. J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design and he was treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm; the British were better paid, Ray felt that "the clients were stupid." Ray worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India, he worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu. Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was influenced by the work.
He used it as the subject of his first film, featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film. Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, they screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city, he came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films and western classical music. In 1949, Ray married his first cousin and long-time sweetheart; the couple had a son, now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir came to Calcutta to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D. J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films.
Akira Kurosawa was a Japanese film director and screenwriter, who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. He is regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Kurosawa entered the Japanese film industry following a brief stint as a painter. After years of working on numerous films as an assistant director and scriptwriter, he made his debut as a director during World War II with the popular action film Sanshiro Sugata. After the war, the critically acclaimed Drunken Angel, in which Kurosawa cast then-unknown actor Toshiro Mifune in a starring role, cemented the director's reputation as one of the most important young filmmakers in Japan; the two men would go on to collaborate on another 15 films. Rashomon, which premiered in Tokyo, became the surprise winner of the Golden Lion at the 1951 Venice Film Festival; the commercial and critical success of that film opened up Western film markets for the first time to the products of the Japanese film industry, which in turn led to international recognition for other Japanese filmmakers.
Kurosawa directed one film per year throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, including a number of regarded films, such as Ikiru, Seven Samurai and Yojimbo. After the 1960s he became much less prolific. In 1990, he accepted the Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement. Posthumously, he was named "Asian of the Century" in the "Arts and Culture" category by AsianWeek magazine and CNN, cited there as being among the five people who most prominently contributed to the improvement of Asia in the 20th century, his career has been honored by many retrospectives, critical studies and biographies in both print and video, by releases in many consumer media formats. Kurosawa was born on March 1910, in Ōimachi in the Ōmori district of Tokyo, his father Isamu, a member of a samurai family from Akita Prefecture, worked as the director of the Army's Physical Education Institute's lower secondary school, while his mother Shima came from a merchant's family living in Osaka. Akira was the eighth and youngest child of the moderately wealthy family, with two of his siblings grown up at the time of his birth and one deceased, leaving Kurosawa to grow up with three sisters and a brother.
In addition to promoting physical exercise, Isamu Kurosawa was open to Western traditions and considered theater and motion pictures to have educational merit. He encouraged his children to watch films. An important formative influence was his elementary school teacher Mr Tachikawa, whose progressive educational practices ignited in his young pupil first a love of drawing and an interest in education in general. During this time, the boy studied calligraphy and Kendo swordsmanship. Another major childhood influence was Akira's older brother by four years. In the aftermath of the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923, which devastated Tokyo, Heigo took the 13-year-old Akira to view the devastation; when the younger brother wanted to look away from the human corpses and animal carcasses scattered everywhere, Heigo forbade him to do so, instead encouraging Akira to face his fears by confronting them directly. Some commentators have suggested that this incident would influence Kurosawa's artistic career, as the director was hesitant to confront unpleasant truths in his work.
Heigo was academically gifted, but soon after failing to secure a place in Tokyo's foremost high school, he began to detach himself from the rest of the family, preferring to concentrate on his interest in foreign literature. In the late 1920s, Heigo became a benshi for Tokyo theaters showing foreign films, made a name for himself. Akira, who at this point planned to become a painter, moved in with him, the two brothers became inseparable. With Heigo's guidance, Akira devoured not only films but theater and circus performances, while exhibiting his paintings and working for the left-wing Proletarian Artists' League. However, he was never able to make a living with his art, and, as he began to perceive most of the proletarian movement as "putting unfulfilled political ideals directly onto the canvas", he lost his enthusiasm for painting. With the increasing production of talking pictures in the early 1930s, film narrators like Heigo began to lose work, Akira moved back in with his parents. In July 1933, Heigo committed suicide.
Kurosawa has commented on the lasting sense of loss he felt at his brother's death and the chapter of his autobiography that describes it—written nearly half a century after the event—is titled, "A Story I Don't Want to Tell". Only four months Kurosawa's eldest brother died, leaving Akira, at age 23, the only one of the Kurosawa brothers still living, together with his three surviving sisters. In 1935, the new film studio Photo Chemical Laboratories, known as P. C. L. Advertised for assistant directors. Although he had demonstrated no previous interest in film as a profession, Kurosawa submitted the required essay, which asked applicants to discuss the fundamental deficiencies of Japanese films and find ways to overcome them, his half-mocking view was that if the deficiencies were fundamental, there was no way to correct them. Kurosawa's essay earned him a call to take the follow-up exams, director Kajirō Yamamoto, among the examiners, took
Farewell, Home Sweet Home
Farewell, Home Sweet Home is a 1999 French comedy film directed by Otar Iosseliani. It was screened out of competition at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival. Nico Tarielashvili as Son Lily Lavina as Mother Philippe Bas as Moto driver Stephanie Hainque as Girl at bar Mirabelle Kirkland as Maid Amiran Amiranashvili as Hobo Joachim Salinger as Beggar Emmanuel de Chauvigny as Lover Otar Iosseliani as Father Farewell, Home Sweet Home on IMDb
46th Venice International Film Festival
The 46th annual Venice International Film Festival was held from 4 to 15 September 1989. The following people comprised the 1989 jury: Andrei Smirnov: Head of Jury Néstor Almendros Pupi Avati Klaus Maria Brandauer Danièle Heymann Eleni Karaindrou Mariangela Melato David Robinson Jin Xie John Landis The following feature films were selected to be screened as In Competition for this section: Koma by Nijole Adomenajte Corsa di primavera Giacomo Campiotti O Sangue by Pedro Costa Chameleon Street by Wendell B. Harris Jr. Homebound by Ilkka Järvi-Laturi Jaded by Oja Kodar The Handsome Priest by Carlo Mazzacurati Love Without Pity by Éric Rochant Lover Boy by Geoffrey Wright Golden Lion: A City of Sadness by Hou Hsiao-hsien Grand Special Jury Prize: And Then There Was Light by Otar Iosseliani Silver Lion: Recollections of the Yellow House by João César Monteiro Death of a Tea Master' by Kei Kumai Golden Osella: Best Screenplay - Jules Feiffer Best Cinematography - Giorgos Arvanitis Best Music - Claudio Mattone Volpi Cup: Best Actor - Massimo Troisi & Marcello Mastroianni Best Actress - Peggy Ashcroft & Geraldine James The President of the Italian Senate's Gold Medal: Scugnizzi by Nanni Loy Career Golden Lion: Robert Bresson Golden Ciak: Best Film - I Want to Go Home by Alain Resnais Best Actor - Massimo Troisi Best Actress - Peggy Ashcroft FIPRESCI Prize: Critics Week - Love Without Pity by Eric Rochant Competition - Dekalog by Krzysztof Kieślowski OCIC Award: What Time Is It? by Ettore Scola OCIC Award - Honorable Mention: Ek Din Achanak by Mrinal Sen UNICEF Award: Reinhard Hauff UNESCO Award: Hou Hsiao-hsien Pasinetti Award: Best Film - I Want to Go Home by Alain Resnais Best Actor - Massimo Troisi Best Actress - Peggy Ashcroft Pietro Bianchi Award: Francesco Rosi Little Golden Lion: Scugnizzi by Nanni Loy She's Been Away by (Peter Hall Elvira Notari Prize: Olga Narutskaya Filmcritica "Bastone Bianco" Award: Nanni Moretti Filmcritica "Bastone Bianco" Award - Special Mention: Otar Iosseliani Amos Gitai João César Monteiro Sergio Trasatti Award: Peter Hall Children and Cinema Award: Krzysztof Kieślowski Kodak-Cinecritica Award: Eric Rochant Official website Venice Film Festival 1989 Awards on IMDb