The orange-throated whiptail is a species of lizard in the family Teiidae. It was previously placed in the genus Cnemidophorus and this lizard is native to southern California in the United States and to the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur in Mexico. A. hyperythra has five or six light-colored stripes down a black, the middle stripe may be forked at both ends. It is whitish-yellow or cream on the venter, and has an orange throat and its head is yellow-brown to olive colored, and its tongue is forked and flicked continually. It has a length of 5–7.2 centimetres, juveniles of this species have cobalt blue legs and tails. The entire ventral surface of males, including the tail, may be orange, the colors are most distinct in the breeding season. Males have larger femoral pores than females, the orange-throated whiptail has a distinctive, jerking gait. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, international Union for Conservation of Nature. Information & picture at U. S. Geological Survey website Lemm, field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the San Diego Region.
Berkeley, University of California Press
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the Presidency he was the 40th Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, before that, he served as Arkansas Attorney General from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideogically a New Democrat, Clinton is married to Hillary Clinton, who served as United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013 and U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and served the Democratic nominee for President in 2016, Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham both earned degrees from Yale Law School, where they met and began dating. As Governor of Arkansas, Clinton overhauled the states education system, Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992, defeating incumbent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he was the third-youngest president and the first from the Baby Boomer generation, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history and signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement.
After failing to pass health care reform, the Democratic House was ousted when the Republican Party won control of the Congress in 1994. Two years later, in 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second term, Clinton passed welfare reform and the State Childrens Health Insurance Program, providing health coverage for millions of children. Clinton was acquitted by the U. S. Senate in 1999, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus between the years 1998 and 2000, the last three years of Clintons presidency. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. President since World War II, since then, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes, such as the prevention of AIDS, in 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, Clinton was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti, since leaving office, Clinton has been rated highly in public opinion polls of U. S.
Presidents. Clinton was born on August 19,1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas and he was the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4,1943, but this proved to be bigamous. Soon after their son was born, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing, leaving her son in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the Southern United States was segregated racially, in 1950, Bills mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks. The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950, although he immediately assumed use of his stepfathers surname, it was not until Clinton turned fifteen that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St.
Johns Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School—where he was a student leader, avid reader
The species is known from about ten occurrences in northern Baja California state and adjacent southern San Diego County, California. However, it has most recently been confirmed to exist in two of those locales currently. In 1993, fewer than 100 individuals were thought to exist, in the United States it is a federally listed endangered species. The shrub grows generally on alluvial plains, in California montane chaparral and woodlands and temperate coniferous forest habitats, Fremontodendron mexicanum is an erect, flowering shrub or multi-trunked small tree reaching 6–15 feet high, with branches spreading to 10 feet wide. The leathery and furry olive green leaves are up to 5 centimeters long, the solitary flowers, each about 6 centimeters wide, appear spread along the branches. The showy flowers are made up of five bright orange sepals and have no true petals, cultivated plants need good drainage, and no supplemental summer water when established. It is the winner of the Award of Garden Merit from the California Horticultural Society in 1965, Fremontodendron Ken Taylor — golden flowers with a darker orange outside petals in the spring and summer, and grows to only 5 feet in height by 8–10 feet in width.
Fremontodendron Daras Gold — golden flowers over a period from late winter through early summer. A hybrid between Fremontodendron decumbens and Fremontodendron mexicanum
Endangered Species Act of 1973
The U. S. Supreme Court found that the plain intent of Congress in enacting the ESA was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost. The Act is administered by two agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species are treated as threatened species on land, for consultation purposes. The near-extinction of the bison and the disappearance of the passenger pigeon helped drive the call for wildlife conservation starting in the 1900s, the public was introduced to a new concept, extinction. Market hunting for the trade and for the table was one aspect of the problem. The early naturalists killed birds and other wildlife for study, personal curio collections, while habitat losses continued as communities and farmland grew, the widespread use of pesticides and the introduction of non-native species affected wildlife. One species in particular received widespread attention—the whooping crane, the species historical range extended from central Canada South to Mexico, and from Utah to the Atlantic coast.
It would be eight years before the first national law regulating wildlife commerce was signed. The whooping crane population by 1941 was estimated at about only 16 birds still in the wild, the Lacey Act of 1900 was the first federal law that regulated commercial animal markets. It prohibited interstate commerce of animals killed in violation of state game laws, other legislation followed, including the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929, a 1937 treaty prohibiting the hunting of right and gray whales, and the Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940. These laws had a low cost to society–the species were relatively little opposition was raised. Whereas the Lacey Act dealt with game management and market commerce species. The predecessor of the ESA was the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966, passed by Congress, this act permitted the listing of native U. S. animal species as endangered and for limited protections upon those animals. It directed federal agencies to preserve habitat on their lands.
The Act consolidated and even expanded authority for the Secretary of the Interior to manage, other public agencies were encouraged, but not required, to protect species. The act did not address the commerce in endangered species and parts, in March,1967 the first list of endangered species was issued under the act. It included 14 mammals,36 birds,6 reptiles and amphibians and 22 fish and it included only vertebrates because the Department of Interiors definition of fish and wildlife was limited to vertebrates. However, with time, researchers noticed that the animals on the species list still were not getting enough protection
The mule deer is a deer indigenous to western North America, it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. There are believed to be several subspecies including the black-tailed deer, unlike the related white-tailed deer, mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River, and more specifically with the Rocky Mountain region of North America. Mule deer have introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii. The most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are the size of their ears, the color of their tails, in many cases, body size is a key difference. The mule deers tail is black-tipped, whereas the whitetails is not, mule deer antlers are bifurcated, they fork as they grow, rather than branching from a single main beam, as is the case with white-tails. Each spring, a bucks antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed, shedding typically takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale.
Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting, the mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m. Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm, adult bucks normally weigh 55–150 kg, averaging around 92 kg, although trophy specimens may weigh up to 210 kg. Does are rather smaller and typically weigh from 43 to 90 kg, an exception to this is the subspecies, the Sitka black-tailed deer. This race is smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg and 36 kg in males and females. In addition to related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior. The rut or mating season begins in the fall as does go into estrus for a period of a few days and males become more aggressive. Does may mate more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring, staying with their mothers during the summer, mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. A bucks antlers fall off during the winter, to again in preparation for the next seasons rut.
The annual cycle of growth is regulated by changes in the length of the day. For a guide to identify the sex and age class of Rocky Mountain mule deer at various seasons see S1 File, for more information see the main article on deer. The size of mule deer groups follow a seasonal pattern
United States Department of Homeland Security
Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. It was created in response to the September 11 attacks, in fiscal year 2017, it was allocated a net discretionary budget of $40.6 billion. With more than 240,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department, after the Departments of Defense, Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Departments of Health and Human Services and its stated goal is to prepare for and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism. On March 1,2003, DHS absorbed the Immigration and Naturalization Service, in doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies and Customs Enforcement and Citizenship and Immigration Services. The investigative divisions and intelligence gathering units of the INS and Customs Service were merged forming Homeland Security Investigations, the border enforcement functions of the INS, including the U. S.
Border Patrol, the U. S. Customs Service, the Federal Protective Service falls under the National Protection and Programs Directorate. The Department of Homeland Security is headed by the Secretary of Homeland Security with the assistance of the Deputy Secretary, the Department contains the components listed below. Agencies, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services and examines citizenship, residency, U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Law enforcement agency divided into two bureaus, An agency that enforces U. S. It investigates crimes against the U. S. monetary system including the crime of counterfeiting U. S. currency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, agency that oversees the federal governments response to natural disasters like earthquakes, tornadoes, forest fires, etc. National Protection and Programs Directorate, risk-reduction, encompassing both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements, Federal Protective Service, Federal law enforcement and security agency that protects and investigates crimes against U. S. federal buildings, properties and federal government interests.
National Cybersecurity Center In an August 5,2002 speech, President Bush said, to secure freedom in the homeland. Prior to the creation of DHS, American presidents had referred to the U. S. as the nation or the republic, unprecedented was the use, from 2002, of the phrase the homeland by White House spokespeople. In 2011 the Department of Homeland Security phased out the old Homeland Security Advisory System with a two-level National Terrorism Advisory System, the system has two types of advisories and Bulletins. Alerts are issued when there is specific and credible information of a terrorist threat against the United States, Alerts themselves have two levels and Imminent. An Elevated Alert is issued when there is information about an attack. An Imminent Alert is issued when the threat is very specific, many procedures at government facilities are tied in to the alert level, for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he did not always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Coast horned lizard
The coast horned lizard is a species of phrynosomatid lizard which can be found from Baja California north to Californias Sacramento Valley. It is a widely divergent species with over 6 subspecies in their small range. As a defense the lizard can shoot high pressure streams of blood out of its eyes if threatened, the coast horned lizard appears rough and spiky but is actually smooth-skinned, although it has sharp spikes along its sides and head. It is a species, and can reach 10 cm excluding the tail. It is less rounded than other horned lizards and it has two large dark blotches behind its head, followed by three broad bands on its body, with several smaller bands along the tail. Its colour can be shades of brown, with cream accents around the blotches
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies, the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Bureau of Land Management. As of 2015, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, during the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow. A conservation movement began to place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956 and it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was finally passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B.
Johnson on September 3,1964, the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968, Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Services Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since then, as of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas, there have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. The Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation, Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions, human activities are limited to non-motorized recreation, scientific research, and other non-invasive activities. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the Leave No Trace policy and this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, and leaving the area as it was before usage. When closely observed, the Leave No Trace ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction, Wilderness areas fall into IUCN protected area management category Ia or Ib. Wilderness areas are parts of parks, wildlife refuges, national forests. Initially, the NWPS included 34 areas protecting 9.1 million acres in the national forests, there are 762 wilderness areas in the NWPS, preserving 108,916,684 acres
The arroyo toad is a species of true toad in the Anaxyrus genus, endemic to California and Baja California state. It is currently classified as an Endangered species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species because of habitat destruction, the arroyo toad is a stocky, blunt-nosed, warty-skinned species of toad,5 to 7.5 cm long. It has horizontal pupils, and is greenish, grey or salmon on the dorsum with a stripe across the head. It has light sacral and mid-dorsal patches, large and widely separated parotoid glands, the juvenile of this species are ashy-white, olive or salmon on the dorsal side, with or without black spotting. It has red-tipped tubercles on its back, an arroyo, in the desert called a wash, is a predominantly dry creek or river bed. It fills and flows after sufficient rain, but only temporarily during specific seasons, the arroyo toad inhabits these areas alongside creeks and rivers with shallow pebble-like rocks near sandy terrains. Adults take refuge into the soil for protection and shelter.
Areas with very little to no vegetation are the primary target, the arroyo toad is nocturnal, spending most of the day underground with exception to mating season. During the mating season may be found during the day along the shallows of a pond and it travels by quickly hopping, as opposed to walking or striding. When hunting for food the toad lunges towards the targets, usually ants, during the dry season the arroyo toad goes into a state of hibernation called aestivation to prevent dehydration. This dormant state normally takes place within the soil or clay-like sand and is from August to January, the breeding season of the arroyo toad revolves around the months of late winter and early spring after seasonal rains. The male toad will choose a spot near a river or water bank where he will make mating calls to attract a female toad and they mate in an amplexus position, and the female toad returns to the location to lay her eggs by the water. The eggs are laid in a formation with an average of 4,700 eggs.
The eggs that hatch in between four and six days. Once the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on microbes found in the sand by the water where they hatch, for the most part, young arroyo toads feed on ants and other small insects. When they grow their diet changes to include small beetles, the diet of an adult toad usually consists of caterpillars, crickets, and in some instances eggs and larvae of other Arroyo toads. A. californicus defends itself with a toxin found on its skin, the toxin is released from the parotoid glands which can be identified as pale spots found towards the head. The main component found in the venom is called bufotoxin, all of the venom found on the toad’s skin is enough to cause serious symptoms or even death in the attacker