The concept of an otherworld in historical Indo-European religion is reconstructed in comparative mythology. Its name is a calque of orbis alius, a term used by Lucan in his description of the Celtic Otherworld. Comparable religious, mythological or metaphysical concepts, such as a realm of supernatural beings and a realm of the dead, are found in cultures throughout the world. Spirits are thought to travel between worlds, or layers of existence in such traditions along an axis such as a giant tree, a tent pole, a river, a rope or mountains. Many Indo-European mythologies show evidence for a belief in some form of "Otherworld" and in many cases such as in Persian, Germanic, Celtic and Indic mythologies a river had to be crossed to allow entrance to it and it is an old man that would transport the soul across the waters. In Greek and Indic mythology the waters of this river were thought to wash away sins or memories whereas Celtic and Germanic myths feature wisdom-imparting waters, suggesting that while the memories of the deceased are washed away a drinker of the waters would gain inspiration.
The wayfarer will encounter a dog either in the capacity of a guardian of the Otherworld or as the wanderer's guide. Examples of this are the Greek Cerberus, the three-headed hound of Hades, the Indic सर्वरा "sarvarā, one of the hounds of Yama, whose names may derive from an Indo-European *ḱerberos meaning "spotted". In Indo-European mythologies the Otherworld is depicted in many ways, including peaceful meadows and buildings making it hard to determine how the original Proto-Indo-European Otherworld was viewed; the ruler of the dead was Yemo, the divine twin of Manu, the first man. The Chinvat Bridge or the Bridge of the Requiter in Zoroastrianism is the sifting bridge which separates the world of the living from the world of the dead. All souls must cross the bridge upon death; the bridge is guarded by two four-eyed dogs. A related myth is that of Yama, the Hindu ruler of Hell who watches the gates of Hell with his two four-eyed dogs. Many Celtic Immrams or "voyage stories" and other medieval texts provide evidence of a Celtic belief in an otherworld.
One example which helps the reader understand the Celtic concept of the otherworld is The Voyage of Saint Brendan. Another Classic example of a Celtic "otherworld" is the Voyage of Bran; because Celtic life was based upon nourishment from the sea and around the wet and foggy weather of Northern Europe the otherworld is portrayed as an island to the west in Celtic oral tradition and shown on some maps of Ireland during the medieval era. The otherworld in the idea of Celtic people became hard to distinguish and sometimes overlapped with the Christian idea of hell or heaven as this was an analogy made to the Celtic idea of an otherworld or Scandinavian idea of a world tree; this is because of Roman and Scandinavian influences on Celtic cultures. An example of Scandinavian influence is apparent in the Voyage of Saint Brendan from the likeness of Lasconius the serpent to the Scandinavian Midgard Serpent. Red and white are the colors of animals in the Celtic Otherworld, these colors still animate transcendent religious and political symbols today.
As was the case in the Celtic mythologies, in Germanic myths apples were associated with the Otherworld. In the Scandinavian tradition mythological localities are featured, as in Irish mythology. In the Edda many locations are named including the dwellings of the gods such as Odin's hall of Valhalla or Ullr's dwelling of Ydalar; the Gylfaginning and the Norwegian poem the Draumkvaede feature travels into the Otherworld. The Early Slavs believed in a mythical place where birds flew for the winter and souls went after death, it was said that spring arrived on Earth from Vyraj. The gates of Vyraj stopped mortals from entering, they were guarded by Veles, who sometimes took the animal form of a raróg, grasping in its claws the keys to the otherworlds. Vyraj was sometimes connected to the deity known as Rod - it was located far beyond the sea, at the end of the Milky Way, it was imagined as a garden, located in the crown of the cosmic tree. Whereas the branches were said to be nested by the birds, who were identified as human souls.
When the Slavic populations were turning to Christianity, a new version of this belief became widespread in which there were two of these realms - one analogous to the original myth, a heavenly place where birds departed, the other an underworld for snakes and zmeys associated with the Christian idea of hell. This second variant bears many similarities to Nav, another representation of the Slavonic underworld. In Greco-Roman mythology the Gods were said to dwell on Mount Olympus whereas the dead went to the Underworld or Fortunate Isles after death
With less than 0.1 percent of the population estimated to be HIV-positive, Bangladesh is a low HIV-prevalence country. The country faces a concentrated epidemic, its low HIV-prevalence rate is due to prevention efforts, focusing on men who have sex with men, female sex workers, intravenous drug users. Four years before the disease's 1989 appearance in the country, the government implemented numerous prevention efforts targeting the above high-risk populations as well as migrant workers. Although these activities have helped keep the incidence of HIV down, the number of HIV-positive individuals has increased since 1994 to 7,500 people in 2005 according to the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. UNAIDS estimates the number to be higher at 11,000 people. While HIV prevalence is low in the general population, among most at risk populations it rises to 0.7%. In some cases it is as high as 3.7%, for instance among casual sex workers in Hili, a small border town in northwest Bangladesh.
Many of the estimated 11,000 people living with HIV are migrant workers. The 2006 National AIDS/STD programme estimated that 67% of identified HIV positive cases in the country were returnee migrant workers and their spouses; this is similar to findings from other organisations. According to the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 47 of 259 cases of people living with HIV during the period 2002–2004 were identified during the migration process. Other data from 2004 shows. While HIV prevalence among male homosexuals and sex workers has remained below 1 percent, unsafe practices among drug users needle sharing, have caused a sharp increase in the number of people infected. Measurements at one central surveillance point showed that between 2001 and 2005, incidence of HIV in IDUs more than doubled – from 1.4 percent to 4.9 percent, according to UNAIDS. In 2004, 9 percent of IDUs at one location in Dhaka were HIV-positive. Compounding the risk of an epidemic, a large proportion of IDUs reported buying sex, fewer than 10 percent of whom said they used a condom.
HIV/AIDS prevention programs have reached 71.6 percent of commercial sex workers in Bangladesh, according to the 2005 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Country Report. However, only 39.8 percent of sex workers reported using a condom with their most recent client, just 23.4 percent both identified ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV and rejected major misconceptions about HIV transmission. Other factors contributing to Bangladesh's HIV/AIDS vulnerability include cross-border interaction with high-prevalence regions in Burma and northeast India, low condom use among the general population, a general lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. For instance, a study in 2008 found poor HIV knowledge among female migrant workers who were flying for an overseas job. Research performed by Islam & Conigrave found that there were substantial gaps between current needs and the ongoing prevention efforts; the authors stressed the importance of developing a pre-departure and post-departure program for international migrants.
Bangladesh has a high tuberculosis burden, with 102 new cases per 100,000 people in 2005, according to the World Health Organization. HIV infects about 0.1 percent of adult TB patients in Bangladesh and HIV-TB co-infections complicate treatment and care for both diseases. Bangladesh's HIV/AIDS prevention program started in 1985, when the Minister of Health and Family Welfare established the National AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program under the overall policy support of the National AIDS Council, headed by the President and chaired by the Minister of Health and Family Welfare; the National AIDS/STD Program has set in place guidelines on key issues including testing, blood safety, sexually transmitted infections, prevention among youth, migrant populations, sex workers. In 2004, a six-year National Strategic Plan was approved; the country's HIV policies and strategies are based on other successful family planning programs in Bangladesh and include participation from schools, as well as religious and community organisations.
The AIDS Initiative Organization was launched in 2007 to fund for those without proper medication to combat the virus. The National HIV and AIDS Communication Strategy was developed and launched. Since 2000, the Government of Bangladesh has worked with the World Bank on the HIV/AIDS Prevention Project, a $26 million program designed to prevent HIV from spreading within most-at-risk populations and into the general population; the program is being integrated into the country's Health and Population Program, supported by the government and external donors. In 2003, a national youth policy was established on reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS awareness. Since 2006, students in 21,500 secondary and upper-secondary schools have been taught about HIV/AIDS issues; the educational program introduces a "life skills" curriculum, including a chapter on HIV/AIDS drafted with assistance from the United Nations Children's Fund. Bangladesh developed its first Antiretroviral Therapy treatment guidelines in 2006, with PLHIV able to buy subsidised antiretroviral drugs from specified pharmacies.
Most HIV diagnostic facilities are provid
Canterbury RFC is an English rugby union football club based in Canterbury, Kent. The club play in the third tier of English club rugby, participating in National League 1 following their promotion from National League 2 South via the play-offs at the end of the 2018–19 season; the club runs five senior sides, Canterbury Hellfire wheelchair rugby team, a ladies team, a touch rugby section and a full range of junior teams. Founded in 1929 Canterbury is the first East Kent club to achieve National League status; that milestone was reached when they became champions of London and South East Division One in 2005/06. In the most rewarding season in the club's history they won the Kent Cup for a second successive year and gained further recognition when named rugby's Team of the Year by Rugby World magazine. Times have changed from when the founding fathers, many of them involved with agriculture, first took their post-match pints and pies in a local pub and played on a hired pitch. Modern players might envy them in that the season started in earnest before October when all the fruit picking in the area was over and farmer/rugby players could start thinking about a free Saturday afternoon.
However, the club's first skipper was no son of the soil. Dudley Hallwood went on to become a successful businessman and newspaper cartoonist and the club's principal Sevens trophy still bears his name. Apart from the interruption of the Second World War, Canterbury built over the years and boasted one of the strongest fixture lists in the county, they produced a number of fine players who represented Kent but the only tangible reward came in the 1974/75 season when the club beat old rivals Maidstone to win the County Cup. Some indeterminate years followed but the advent of leagues in the late 1980s was, like the experience of so many other clubs, a culture shock. After first being placed in London 3 South East, Canterbury went downhill, they fell as low as Kent Division 2 at the start of the 1990s but from that unpromising position a revival was born, which included the expansion of the junior and colts section. Throughout the next decade they climbed up the league ladder and made it their ambition to be a London Division One club by the millennium.
They would have achieved it, had it not been for the administrators. Having won the London 2 South championship in 2000 they were told there was no promotion because of re-organization of the leagues. Lesser sides may have crumbled but they won a place in the top London division two years later. Since the club has become stronger at every level. After the initial success in the county competition in 1975 the club had to wait another 30 years before winning the cup again; when they did get their hands on the trophy in 2005 the victory over Westcombe Park inspired a dominant four-year run. In the following three seasons they met the same opponents, Blackheath, in the final and each time Canterbury were the victors. In 2008/09 the county committee decreed that Kent's National League clubs must enter their second teams in the competition and the club's grip on the cup was loosened, it was four years before the trophy returned to Canterbury when they defeated Westcombe Park in 2012. After an outstanding promotion season Canterbury made a tentative start to their first venture into National League rugby but exceeded all expectations by ending 2006/07 in fourth position in National 3 South.
The demands of the higher league, which subsequently became National 2 South, increased every season but Canterbury responded to the challenge and were in the top half of the table, despite the presence of many clubs with heavy financial backing. The 2010/11 season, proved to be a bridge too far and the team was relegated on the final day of the season, they responded in positive fashion to win back their place in National 2 South at the first attempt and since have re-established themselves. The 2018/19 season saw the club's best performance in National 2 South to date, finishing in second place and earning a home play off against their counterparts in National 2 North, Chester RUFC; the race for the play off spot was a thrilling one with Henley Hawks and local rivals Tonbridge Juddians pushing hard until an away victory over Barnes RFC guaranteed the opportunity. In front of a record attendance of 2000 spectators, the club won a tight match 19-10; the club's commitment to its community responsibilities continues to grow.
One of the major achievements has been the successful establishment of a Wheelchair Rugby section. In the space if just eighteen months its members achieved a place in the national competitions; the club was rewarded in the 2015 RFU Presidents Awards when named as winner of the Community Engagement category, following success the previous year when Canterbury won the Best Managed Club accolade. Canterbury RFC play at The Marine Travel Ground, named after a sponsorship deal starting in 2008, is situated on Merton Lane on the southern outskirts of Canterbury, it is about 2.5 miles from Canterbury East railway station and 3.3 miles from Canterbury West railway station but is most reached by car as it is located next to the A2, there is on-site parking. The Marine Travel Ground consists of a main pitch next to a small stand and the club-house, with four additional pitches for reserve and junior fixtures; the main pitch ground capacity includes 75 seats in the stand, along with around 1,000 standing pitchside, bringing total capacity to 1,075.
Kent Cup winners: 1975, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012 Kent Plate winners: 2002, 2019 London Division 2 South champions: 1999–00, 2001–02 National League 3 London & SE champions: 2005–06, 2011–12 National League 2 Runner-Up