Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
Albaida, Province of Valencia
Albaida is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Palace of Milà i Aragó Segrelles Museum Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Daniel Olcina, footballer
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Pinet is a municipality located in the north-east of the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the south of the province of Valencia, Valencian Community and some 82.6 km from the regional capital, Valencia. Pinet borders with the following municipalities: Barx, Quatretonda and Llutxent, all of which lie within the province of Valencia; the name of the municipality is derived from the Valencian term “pi”, meaning “pine tree”. The village belonged to the barony of Llutxent, under the authority of the Maza family, subsequently the houses of Mandas and Dos Aguas. In 1530, Pope Clement VII created the Vicariate of Pinet, run under the authority of the Dominicans of Llutxent until 1835. By 1646, only 20 inhabitants were recorded as living in the municipality following the expulsion of the Moriscos, implemented was particular intensity in Valencia. Towards the end of the 18th century, the population had risen to around 150 inhabitants, before reaching some 300 hundred at the beginning of the 20th century. By 1920, the population had reached 434 inhabitants, from which point it entered a progressive decline in consonance with the rural flight experienced in many areas throughout Spain during the 20th century.
The local economy was traditionally based on a combination of dryland and irrigation agriculture, dry stone walling and the production of baskets, espadrilles and other articles made from esparto and palm leaves. In common with other rural areas throughout Spain, these activities have been in decline since the mid-20th century, their place having been taken by livestock farming, services and tourism. Pinet is located in the north-east of the Valle de Albaida comarca and covers an area of 11.9 km2. It is situated at the head of a horse-shoe shaped valley, the surface of, composed of reddish marl deposited by water erosion originating in the mountains that lie at its north-easterly and northern extremes; the municipality’s altitude ranges from 466 metres above sea level in its most southerly point, to 700 metres above sea leval in the area known as Alto del Collado dels Caragols, located in its north east. The village of Pinet lies at an altitude of 348 metres. Pinet is located on the poorly-defined Pinet Syncline, which runs from North-North West to South-South East.
This structure would appear to have been formed by two vertical faults. The River Pinet runs through the municipality from north to south, running into the River Vernisa, in turn an affluent of the River Serpis; as is characteristic with the rivers and streams in the comarque, the River Pinet is a wash, that is, a stream bed, dry during the summer months and which carries abundant water following the typical heavy rains known as cold drop which fall in autumn and spring. The municipality enjoys a Mediterranean climate, characterised by hot summers and cold winters, with an average of two snowfalls per year; the climate is rated Csa in accordance with the Köppen climate classification system. The average annual temperature is around 17 °C, with maximums in summer of 45 °C and minimum in winter of -7 °C. Rainfall averages around 600 mm per year, although recent years have seen volumes of more than 1000 mm due to the large downpours to which the area is subject during the autumn as a result of the weather phenomenon known as cold drop.
The predominant vegetation in the lower valley is that associated with dryland fruit farming, whilst the surrounding mountains host pine and cork forests and shrubland, interspersed with holly oak and wild herbs and plants such as silene diclinis, snapdragon, rosemary, oregano, etc. The forested areas are home to such animal species as Bonelli's eagle, golden eagle, short-toed snake eagle, common bent-wing bat and greenfinch, whilst the fruit trees are host to such species as titmice, blackbird, golden oriole, nightingale, Cetti's warbler and wagtail, among others. There are wild boar and rabbit present in the area. El Surar, the southernmost cork oak forest in Valencia, is a Municipal Natural Park located in the municipalities of Pinet and Llutxent. Declared a Municipal Natural Park by Generalitat Valenciana on March 4, 2005, it can be accessed on foot, by bicycle, on horseback or by car via signposted roads and tracks from the village of Pinet. Pinet lies on the Route of the Monasteries of Valencia, a religious and cultural route that connects five monasteries located in central region of the Province of Valencia.
Of the Route’s four different itineraries, three cross through Pinet, with a separate variant passing through El Surar. The 18th-century parish church of St. Peter the Apostle has a single nave with chapels set between masonry buttresses. Pinet celebrates its main festivities during the last weekend of June in honour St. Peter and the Christ of the Mountain. A fair held in late summer in celebration of Pinet’s traditional craft of manufacturing products from esparto and palm leaves. Includes practical demonstrations, workshops and a culinary fair with local gastronomic dishes; the only road within the municipality is the CV-608, which connects the village of Pinet with the village of Llutxent, which lies on the CV-610 regional road, joining the towns of Gandia and Xàtiva. Route of the Monasteries of Valencia El Surar
Beniatjar is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Benigànim is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain