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Otrera

In Greek mythology, Otrera was the creator and first Queen of the Amazons. She was the daughter of Eurus, consort of Ares, mother of Hippolyta, Antiope and Penthesilea, she is credited with being the founder of the shrine of Artemis in Ephesus. Otrera is sometimes considered the mythological founder of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, connected with Amazons, she is sometimes considered the founding mother of the Amazon nation and the first mortal woman to lure Ares off of Mount Olympus. She was the unknown Amazon, slain by Bellerophon in Lycia. Otrera was born north of modern-day Greece, parentage unknown, she was a housewife during the Bronze age in an arranged marriage. She was treated horribly by her husband and decided to train herself in secret and learn how to defend herself with a sword and a bow and arrow. Once confident in her abilities, she began to teach the housewives in her town to fight. Otrera taught the other women the hunting skills of Artemis, but they prayed to Ares for strength.

One day and her women rebelled and took over the entire town and the surrounding towns. Otrera and her women would march into neighboring towns, liberate the women, slaughter and enslave the men. Otrera fled the country with her people and founded the capital city Sinope, where she trained her armies and gathered recruits while expanding her territory. Otrera and her people became known as the Amazons; this name derives from the Greek word amazos, which means without a breast due to the rumor that the Amazons would remove their right breasts so they could more fire an arrow or throw a spear. Otrera attracted the attention of the god Ares through acts of praise for the god. Ares came down from Olympus and told Otrera to build him a temple surrounding a big rock that he made fall from the sky. Ares told Otrera to bring her Amazons to the temple every year and sacrifice their most important animals, in return he would continue to bless them in battle. Ares and Otrera got married and from on, she was known as the bride of Ares.

Ares and Otrera would have two daughters and Penthesilelia, who would later on become Amazon queens. Otrera built the temple for Ares, but she did not want to upset the god Artemis, from whom she had received blessings, so Otrera decided to build another temple dedicated to Artemis in the city of Ephesus, close enough so that the Greek could visit; the temple was built on a high hill. A festival was held every year at this temple, the Amazons would spend the whole day celebrating and perform war dances through the streets; the people would sacrifice jewelry to Artemis by draping it over her statue. The temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Dionysus, the god of wine, was traveling through the mortal world with his followers known as the maenads. While on his way to invade India, he came upon the land of the Amazons. Upon meeting the Amazon scouts, he decided to add them to his group of followers. Otrera heard of his presence and despised the thought of her troops joining his forces, so she ordered an attack against him.

In this battle, Dionysus defeated the Amazons. The remaining Amazons fled to the Temple of Artemis. Grimal, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. "Hippolyta" Hyginus, Fabulae 225 Smith, William. "Otre'ra", "Hippo'lyte" The Theoi Project, "OTRERA" Florence Mary Bennett, Religious Cults Associated with the Amazons:: Chapter III: Ephesian Artemis Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica

Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon

The Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon is a chameleon native to woodland habitat in the inland Midlands area of the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Its length is 7.6 centimetres small for its genus, it has bulbous scales of varying colors scattered around the body. The head crest is yellow, with white skin on its throat. Males have a short orange stripe around the middle of their bodies and red-spotted eyelids, whereas females are brown with smaller helmet-like protrusions, they otherwise have considerable variation in their colouration. Its specific name thamnobates means "bush-walker". In addition to the common name Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon, it is known under the longer common name of KwaZulu-Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon; this is a close relative of the black-headed dwarf chameleon, which looks different due to adaptation to low forest and fynbos on the slopes and cliffs seawards from the B. thamnobates range. B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, but juveniles of both species were raised under identical conditions and developed into what was phenotypically expected of their original populations, indicating they are separate species.

An undescribed dwarf chameleon population from Gilboa and Karkloof Forests in KwaZulu-Natal seems related to both B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates. It appears as if they radiated quite from a common ancestor, much like the Midlands form in appearance. Indeed, ongoing gene flow or incomplete lineage sorting is indicated between these populations, thus it is not certain whether they constitute one, three, or more species, more research is required. Another undescribed dwarf chameleon, the bright green emerald dwarf chameleon, found in the Drakensberg between of 29°15′S and 29°45′S, is now known to be related to the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon and may yet be described as a separate species; the range of the Midlands and Gilboa Forest populations and that of the Drakensberg dwarf chameleon require delimitation, as they appear to touch in eastern Lesotho and adjacent South Africa. The Drakensberg species is not related to the KwaZulu-Natal group, no significant gene flow between them seems to occur.

The Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon is classified as an Endangered species by the IUCN. It is used in local folk medicine. Da Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 2037–2049. Doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0 Tolley, Krystal A.. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 354–365. Doi:10.1016/S1055-790300211-2 PDF fulltext World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Bradypodion thamnobates". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996. Retrieved 11 May 2006.old-form url Search for Distribution of Bradypodion thamnobates

North Gondar Zone

Semien Gondar is a Zone in the Ethiopian Amhara Region. This Zone is named for the city of the capital of Ethiopia until the mid-19th century. North Gondar is bordered on the south by Lake Tana, West Gojjam, Agew Awi and the Benishangul-Gumuz Region, on the west by Sudan, on the north by the Tigray Region, on the east by Wag Hemra and on the southeast by South Gondar. Towns and cities in North Gondar includes Arbaya, Debarq, Feres Megria, Musebamb Town, Sanja Armachiho, Tekeldengy and Metemma. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, renal Zone has a total population of 2,929,628, an increase of 40.26% over the 1994 census, of whom 1,486,040 are men and 1,443,588 women. While 462,700 or 15.79% are urban inhabitants, a further 2,148 or 0.07% are pastoralists. A total of 654,803 households were counted in this Zone, which results in an average of 4.47 persons to a household, 631,509 housing units. The main ethnic group reported in North Gondar was the Amhara.

Amharic was spoken as a first language by 98.32%. 95.38% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 4.29% of the population said they were Muslim. The 1994 national census reported a total population for this Zone of 2,088,684 in 434,297 households, of whom 1,059,698 were men and 1,028,986 women; the three largest ethnic groups reported in North Gondar were the Amhara, the Qemant, the Tigrayan. Amharic was spoken as a first language by 98.24%, 0.81% spoke Tigrinya. 95.32% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 4.54% of the population said they were Muslim. According to a May 24, 2004 World Bank memorandum, 7% of the inhabitants of North Gondar have access to electricity, this zone has a road density of 21.2 kilometers per 1000 square kilometers, the average rural household has 1.2 hectares of land and the equivalent of 0.8 heads of livestock. 24.6% of the population is in non-farm related jobs, compared to the national average of 25% and a Regional average of 21%. 50% of all eligible children are enrolled in primary school, 13% in secondary schools.

62% of the zone is exposed to malaria, none to tsetse fly. The memorandum gave this zone a drought risk rating of 506. Alatash National Park