Mogoditshane is a town located in the Kweneng District of Botswana. Its population was 57,637 at the 2011 census, it is in conurbation to the capital Gaborone whose agglomeration is now home to 421,907 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The football team is the Mogoditshane Fighters. List of cities in Botswana
Serowe is a town in Botswana's Central District. A trade and commercial centre, it is Botswana's largest village. Serowe has played an important role in Botswana's history, as capital for the Bamangwato people in the early 20th century and as birthplace of several of Botswana's presidents. More it has undergone significant development as the town and Botswana continue to grow. Serowe has a memorial to Khama III, chief of the Bamangwato people in the late 19th-early 20th century, who in 1903 founded the town as a new capital of the Bamangwato, it is the birthplace of Seretse Khama, Botswana's first president, the traditional center of the Bamangwato tribe. Swaneng Hill School was the first of the Brigades Movement schools founded by educationalist Patrick van Rensburg. Serowe is located in a fertile area, well-watered by the Lotsane River, it lies west of the Gaborone–Francistown road, from which it is reached. It marks the beginning of the Serowe-Orapa road, which ends at the diamond mines in Orapa.
Construction of this road was completed several years later. There are two hills at Swaneng, called Rra-Swaneng and Mma-Swaneng – Father- and Mother-Swaneng – respectively. Notable features of the local area include a Botswana Defence Force base on the road to Paje and the Khama Rhino Sanctuary; the Rhino Sanctuary is a charitable game reserve, 25 km north of Serowe, established in 1992 by the local Ballentine and Watson families and Ian Khama. Its 4,300 hectares of Kalahari sandveld were established as a haven for black and white rhinoceroses. Serowe serves as capital of the Central District; the first president Sir Seretse Khama and the third president Festus Mogae of Botswana were born in Serowe. The Botswana Prison Service operates the Serowe New Prison. Since 2000, Serowe has undergone numerous developments and continues to expand at a steady rate, despite exponential growth from neighbouring Palapye; the Swaneng Senior Secondary School, fondly referred to as Swaneng Hill, has been upgraded by the Botswana government through contract with a Chinese construction company.
It now has modern chemistry and biology laboratories, although they lack equipment for in-depth experiments. As a result, student interest in the sciences has grown, with a number of students going overseas to continue their studies; the school's history department takes students on field trips to ancient sites around the country. Debating is encouraged, has led to a number of national championship titles. A major recent upgrade involved the construction of the new state-of-the-art Sekgoma Hospital, located 6 km to the south of the main town, replacing the old and derelict hospital of the same name, it now operates as the main medical centre in the district. The hospital was constructed at an estimated cost of P300 million and was opened to the public in late 2007, reducing a heavy burden at the Francistown Hospital, subject to overcrowding and unhygienic conditions. Another major recent development is surrounding sports complex; this project, which cost the Botswana government P30 million, was opened in mid-2003.
It provides the Central District with its only major sports facility. The town used to be served by Serowe Airport; the airport location was used to build the now completed Sekgoma Memorial Hospital and the adjacent Nursing Institute. Serowe was the adopted hometown of South African-born writer Bessie Head, inspiring her 1974 book Serowe: Village of the Rain Wind, her importance to the village is remembered in the Bessie Head Room of the Khama III Memorial Museum, established in 2007. Serowe Official Website Serowe tourist information Khama Rhino Sanctuary
Francistown is the second largest city in Botswana, with a population of about 100,079 and 150,800 inhabitants for its agglomeration at the 2011 census. And described as the "Capital of the North." It is located in eastern Botswana, about 400 kilometres north-northeast from the capital, Gaborone. Francistown is located at the confluence of the Tati and Inchwe rivers, near the Shashe River and 90 kilometres from the international border with Zimbabwe. Francistown was the centre of southern Africa's first gold rush and is still surrounded by old and abandoned mines; the City of Francistown is an administrative district, separated from North-East District. It is administered by Francistown City Council. Although evidence of habitation by humans goes back around 10,000 years, written evidence is more recent; the Matabele people colonised the area in the 1830s on their way to Bulawayo, bringing their culture and influence to the BaKalanga/Kalanga area of north-eastern Botswana. Nyangabgwe was the nearest village to Francistown to have been visited by Europeans, when it was visited by the missionary, Robert Moffat.
Moffat was followed in 1867 by a gold prospector, Karl Mauch who found the Bakalanga mining gold along the Tati River, publicised the Tati Goldfields starting the first South Africa goldrush. The present town was founded in 1897 as a settlement near the Monarch mine and named after Daniel Francis, an English prospector from Liverpool who acquired prospecting licences in the region in 1869. Francis was a director of the Tati Concessions Land; the centre of the new town was formed. The Monarch mine was not the only mine in operation at that time, it was believed that Francistown would grow rapidly. In the beginning, the town comprised one street east of, parallel to the railway line; this street featured several companies, including two hotels and wholesale shops and three banks. Prior to independence Francistown was Botswana’s largest commercial centre. In 1897, the company sold part of the land for residential and commercial purposes, one may say that this marked the birth of Francistown; the city started as a gold mining town, gold sustained the area’s economy from the late 1800s until the 1930s.
When gold was discovered nearby in 1869 it sparked the first gold rush in Africa fifteen years before the gold boom at Witwatersrand in South Africa. The industry was hard hit by the global recession of the 1930s. Between 1936 and 1980s, the economy of Francistown was supported or dependent on the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, a company that recruited labour for South African mines; the miners were recruited from many African countries, transported to South Africa through Francistown by air or railway. Haskins Street was the first tarred road in Botswana. Since 1966, the city has grown due to active cross-border trading with Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, in 1997, Francistown became a city, Botswana’s 2nd after Gaborone. With the city located astride Botswana’s main road and rail transport routes, mining and agriculture have been essential parts of its economy. Tati Nickel, The Dumela Industrial Complex and Botswana Meat Commission are the main economic drivers in the city. Both government departments and private benefit the local economy.
There are a variety of places of worship, including Catholic churches, Muslim mosques, as well as Protestant churches some of which serve traditional African congregations such as the Zionist Christian Church. Education around the city is diverse. There are several private English-medium schools and government schools such as Mater Spei College, Francistown Teacher Training College, University of Botswana Campus and several technical colleges. Transport is reliable, with railway links to Harare and Bulawayo in Zimbabwe, road links with Ramokgwebana Border in the north, Kazungula as well as Kasane, Maun via Nata; the airport has flights flying locally, to Gaborone, Maun and other points around the country. Local taxis operate through the night. Francistown is located on Botswana's main road transport routes. Principal mining companies include Tati Nickel, owned by Norilsk Nickel, which has operations at the Selkirk Mine and Phoenix Mine, producing principally cobalt and nickel; the Dumela Industrial Complex, an industrial park, is an important employer.
However, the project was halted due to high costs. The city's media fraternity is still at its infant stage; the media includes Botswana's The Voice newspaper, founded in 1993. This is a popular tabloid newspaper that had spread its wings to the capital city, Gaborone. Francistown features a hot semi-arid climate, with warm to mild winters; the city on averages sees 460 millimetres of precipitation annually. The city features a short wet season that spans from December through March and a lengthy dry season that covers the remaining eight months. Francistown receives on average only 3 millimetres of precipitation at the peak of its dry season, when it experiences its chilliest temperatures. Average low temperatures fall below 8 °C during the aforementioned months. Since the founding of Francistown as a gold mining and railway centre in the nineteenth century, the city's population has consistentl
Thamaga is a large village located in the Kweneng District of Botswana and about 40 km west of the capital city Gaborone. It is home to 19,365 inhabitants at the 2011 census, it is becoming year by year like a suburb part of the Gaborone agglomeration, home to 421,907 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The village is dominated by the largest being Thamaga Hill. Thamaga is third in the district to Molepolole and Mogoditshane in both population; the majority of the residents are from the Bakgatla-ba-ga-Mmanaana Tribe, their totem is the vervet monkey. The name Mmanaana come from the tan/white cow. A significant amount of archaeological research has taken place in the surrounding area over the last ~20 years, current research is being conducted by a team from the University of California-Berkeley and the University of Botswana; the Bakgatla-ba-ga-Mmanaana settled there in the mid-1930s and they are a break-away group and the same people as Bakgatla-ba-ga-Mmanaana in Moshupa, just 17 km to the southwest.
Most of the old village wards where the tribes men settled from Moshupa maintained the same names as the wards in Thamaga. People of any particular wards between the two villages are related and use similar surnames; the chiefs of the two villages are of the same blood and use common names of Mosielele and Gobuamang. The area was inhabited by various groups or "Bakgalagadi" and hunter-gatherers ancestral to \he people today called San and Basarwa; the history of these peoples in the Thamaga area, based on radiocarbon dating, has been traced back at least 5000 years. Government and Infrastructure Service Centre- for provision of government services. There are one primary hospital. Education There are seven government primary schools: Gobuamang Memorial School Monare Memorial School Rungwana Primary School Western Primary School Magalatladi Primary School Nkoane Primary School Kontle Primary SchoolThree junior secondary schools: Thamaga Junior Secondary School Letlole Mosielele Junior Secondary School Sekgele Junior Secondary SchoolThere is one private primary school Highridge, one private secondary school Highridge Secondary School.
There are day care centres. List of cities in Botswana Mosope River
Ötzi called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, the Hauslabjoch mummy, is the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy, he is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy. Ötzi was found on 19 September 1991 by two German tourists, at an elevation of 3,210 metres on the east ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border. The tourists and Erika Simon, were walking off the path between the mountain passes Hauslabjoch and Tisenjoch, they believed that the body was of a deceased mountaineer. The next day, a mountain gendarme and the keeper of the nearby Similaunhütte first attempted to remove the body, frozen in ice below the torso, using a pneumatic drill and ice-axes, but had to give up due to bad weather.
The next day, eight groups visited the site, among whom were mountaineers Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner. The body was semi-officially extracted on 22 September and salvaged the following day, it was transported to the office of the medical examiner in Innsbruck, together with other objects found. On 24 September the find was examined there by archaeologist Konrad Spindler of the University of Innsbruck, he dated the find to be "about four thousand years old", based on the typology of an axe among the retrieved objects. At the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1919, the border between North and South Tyrol was defined as the watershed of the rivers Inn and Etsch. Near Tisenjoch the glacier complicated establishing the watershed at the time, the border was established too far north. Although Ötzi's find site drains to the Austrian side, surveys in October 1991 showed that the body had been located 92.56 metres inside Italian territory as delineated in 1919. The province of South Tyrol therefore claimed property rights, but agreed to let Innsbruck University finish its scientific examinations.
Since 1998, it has been on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol. The corpse has been extensively examined, measured, X-rayed, dated. Tissues and intestinal contents have been examined microscopically, as have the items found with the body. In August 2004, frozen bodies of three Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed during the Battle of San Matteo were found on the mountain Punta San Matteo in Trentino. One body was sent to a museum in the hope that research on how the environment affected its preservation would help unravel Ötzi's past. By current estimates, at the time of his death Ötzi was 160 centimetres tall, weighed about 50 kilograms, was about 45 years of age; when his body was found, it weighed 13.750 kilograms. Because the body was covered in ice shortly after his death, it had only deteriorated. Initial reports claimed that his penis and most of his scrotum were missing, but this was shown to be unfounded. Analysis of pollen, dust grains and the isotopic composition of his tooth enamel indicates that he spent his childhood near the present village of Feldthurns, north of Bolzano, but went to live in valleys about 50 kilometres farther north.
In 2009, a CAT scan revealed that the stomach had shifted upward to where his lower lung area would be. Analysis of the contents revealed the digested remains of ibex meat, confirmed by DNA analysis, suggesting he had a meal less than two hours before his death. Wheat grains were found, it is believed that Ötzi most had a few slices of a dried, fatty meat bacon which came from a wild goat in South Tyrol, Italy. Analysis of Ötzi's intestinal contents showed two meals, one of chamois meat, the other of red deer and herb bread; the grain eaten with both meals was a processed einkorn wheat bran, quite eaten in the form of bread. In the proximity of the body, thus originating from the Iceman's provisions and grains of einkorn and barley, seeds of flax and poppy were discovered, as well as kernels of sloes and various seeds of berries growing in the wild. Hair analysis was used to examine his diet from several months before. Pollen in the first meal showed that it had been consumed in a mid-altitude conifer forest, other pollens indicated the presence of wheat and legumes, which may have been domesticated crops.
Pollen grains of hop-hornbeam were discovered. The pollen was well preserved, with the cells inside remaining intact, indicating that it had been fresh at the time of Ötzi's death, which places the event in the spring, or early summer. Einkorn wheat is harvested in the late summer, sloes in the autumn. High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting. By examining the proportions of Ötzi's tibia and pelvis, Christopher Ruff has determined that Ötzi's lifestyle included long walks over hilly terrain; this degree of mobility is not characteristic of other Copper Age Europeans. Ruff proposes that this may indicate that
Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected.
The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana. The term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case. However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country. These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state; these states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density. This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltops and caves. Only after 1843, when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe, did this threat subside. During th
Gumare or Gomare is a rural village located in the North-West District of Botswana, near the Okavango Delta. The population of Gumare had risen to 8,532 iby the 2011 census. Gumare is served by Gumare Airport. Four separate government institutions manage Ngamiland District: District Council. Maun serves as the administrative center of Ngamiland. Gumare is the administrative headquarters for the Okavango Delta Subdistrict, which has its own set of administrative institutions. Okavango's administrative boundary starts at Habu, including Xaixai up to Gudigwa, its political boundary starts from Etsha 1 up to Gudigwa and this is different from education and agriculture. There are twenty-seven villages in the Okavango Sub-district, although the 2011 census only enumerates six: Daonara, Jao, Katamaga and Xaxaba. Okavango is only one part of the remarkable Kalahari ecosystem. Okavango is set within a geographically unstable area of faults and experiences land movements and quakes. Hence, its natural world with a landscape, always changing and quite unpredictable.
There are arid lands, channels, grasslands and countless islands of various shape and size. The predominant ethnic groups in the sub-district are Batawana, Bayei and Bambukushu, Basubiya. There are the Banoka, Okavango's original inhabitants, the Bakgalagadi and the Herero. Most groups form their settlements along the river, which they use for subsistence fishing and watering for livestock, they plough the flood plains, growing maize and sorghum. The major economic activities in the Okavango include tourism, livestock rearing and small scale industries, some agriculture; the Okavango Sub-district is rural with a population, dependent on farming for their daily needs. In 1975 a United Nations Development Project assisted villagers in Gumare and Etsha to develop their basket weaving skills into the renowned baskets from Botswana, an exportable product. Baskets and other small, high quality crafts were driven to Gaborone and exported from there to the United States and Europe for sale. Like other districts in Botswana, the Okavango is faced with a serious challenge of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the communities