Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries. While a township may be associated with an urban area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia, Canada and the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; the term refers purely to the settlement. In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as "lots" in Prince Edward Island. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county, or regional municipality, incorporated by statute by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and do not form administrative units; these townships are nominally six miles by six miles.
Townships are designated by their township range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, the numbers increase to the north. In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties and county level cities. In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the City. In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа, посад, местечко. In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island. In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer townships. All land is part of either a "city" or a "district"; the term "municipality" has no legal status. The term "township" is, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area; the expression would equate to that of "village" in England.
In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime; the term was replaced with "municipal district". Most municipal districts would be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President. Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities; the modern and largest townships in the Philippines are Clark Green City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga.
Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport. In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township, in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto is a well-known example. However, the term township has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas. In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines. In England, the term township is no longer in official use. In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish; this use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships, subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right.
This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions, started in the 16th century. Some councils in the north of England, have revived the term. In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the Highlands and Islands, a township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands the term may describe a small agrarian community. For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire. There are two types of townships in the United States. In states that ha
Montgomery County, New York
Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,219; the county seat is Fonda. The county was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 at the Battle of Quebec. Occupied by the Mohawk people, one of the original Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, the county was created in 1772 during the period of British colonial rule as Tryon County. In 1784, after the Americans gained independence in the War, it was renamed Montgomery County for one of the heroes. Montgomery County comprises NY Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders the south banks of the Mohawk River. This area was occupied by the Mohawk for hundreds of years prior to European colonization. Many warriors allied with the British during the war; when the British lost, they ceded all the Iroquois territory of the Six Nations to the United States, without consulting the tribes or bringing them into negotiation. In 1784, following end of the American Revolutionary War, the European-American settlers renamed Tryon County as Montgomery County.
This change was to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died in 1775 attempting to capture the city of Quebec during the Revolutionary War. It replaced the name that honored the last provincial governor of New York. In 1789, Ontario County was split off from Montgomery; the area of the new county was much larger than the present Ontario County, as it included the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties. In 1791, Herkimer and Tioga counties were split off from Montgomery. In 1802, portions of Clinton and Montgomery counties were combined to form St. Lawrence County. In 1816, Hamilton County was split off from Montgomery. In 1838, Fulton County was split off from Montgomery. In 2012, Montgomery County voters approved a charter for government, making it the 21st county in New York state to do so. In 2013, Matthew L. Ossenfort was elected at-large as the first County Executive in the county's history.
Ossenfort took office in 2014, the same year. Under the terms of the charter, the Board of Supervisors was replaced by a nine-member County Legislature, with members elected from single-member districts. Thomas L. Quackenbush, one of the members, was elected as the first Chairman of the new legislative body, which will be a circulating position. 1789-1797 - None 1797-1803 - NY9 1803-1809 - NY13 1809-1813 - NY9 1813-1823 - NY14 1823-1833 - NY16 1833-1843 - NY15 1843-1853 - NY17 1853-1873 - NY18 1873-1875 - NY19 1875-1893 - NY20 1893-1913 -? 1913-1945 - NY30 1945-1953 - NY31 1953-1963 - NY32 1963-1971 - NY35 1971-1973 - NY28 & NY29 1973-1983 - NY28 & NY31 1983-1993 - NY23 &? 1993-2003 - NY21 & NY23 2003-2012- NY21 2013–present - NY19 & NY20 According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 410 square miles, of which 403 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water. Montgomery County is located in the central part of the state, west of the city of Schenectady and northwest of Albany.
Fulton County - north Saratoga County - east Schenectady County - east Schoharie County - south Otsego County - southwest Herkimer County - westThe Erie Canal runs through Montgomery County parallel to the Mohawk River, connecting to the Wood River to the west, which leads to Lake Ontario. Overall, the canal connected Great Lakes shipping with the Hudson River and the port of New York on the Atlantic Ocean. Several towns and villages developed along the canal, as it carried much trade and passenger traffic during its peak years. After the railroad was built through the state, along the same river plain, it superseded the canal, filled in some areas. At the time of the canal's construction, Montgomery County was the only place where there was a break in the Appalachian Mountains. Called'The Noses' because of canal construction, it became known as "the gateway to the West". In the mid-twentieth century, the NYS Thruway was constructed parallel to the former east-west routes of the canal and railroad.
Today the Erie Canal and its lock system is used for recreational boat use among locals and tourists. Montgomery County is located in the heart of the state's Mohawk Valley region. Foothills of the Catskill Mountains dot the southern part of the county, while foothills of the Adirondack Mountains dot the north; as of the census of 2010, there were 50,208 people, 20,073 households, 13,131 families residing in the county. The population density was 123 people per square mile. There were 22,522 housing units at an average density of 56 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.87% White, 1.15% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.92% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.91% of the population. 19.0% identified as being of Italian, 15.9% German, 13.5% Polish, 9.8% Puerto Rican 9.1% Irish, 7.9% American and 6.4% English ancestry, according to Census 2010. 86.8% spoke English, 9.3% Spanish,1.8% Italian, 1.1% Polish as their first language.
There were 20,038 households out of which 29.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.00% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.60% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the ave
Yates County, New York
Yates County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,348, making it the third-least populous county in New York; the county seat is Penn Yan. The name is in honor of Joseph C. Yates, who as Governor of New York signed the act establishing the county. Yates County is included in NY Metropolitan Statistical Area; when counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Yates County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, again on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion.
The eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, the name of Tryon County was changed to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. On January 27, 1789, 10,480 square miles of Montgomery County was split off to create Ontario County, including the lands of the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Steuben and Yates counties, part of Schuyler and Wayne counties. On March 18, 1796, 1,800 square miles of Ontario County was partitioned to form Steuben County.
On April 3, 1801, Ontario County exchanged land with Cayuga County, lost 190 square miles as a result. On March 30, 1802, Ontario County lost 6,540 square miles of land through the partition of Genesee County, including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Niagara and Wyoming counties and parts of Livingston and Monroe counties. In 1821, Ontario County was reduced in size by combining portions of Genesee and Ontario counties to create Livingston and Monroe counties. On February 5, 1823, Yates County was formed from 310 square miles of Ontario County, including the area that included Vine Valley, Penn Yan, Dresden, New York. On January 1, 1826, 60 square miles of Steuben County was partitioned and added to Yates, which included Starkey and Lakemont, New York. On April 15, 1828, 10 square miles was partitioned from Yates, passed to Seneca and Tompkins counties in the forest. On March 17, 1860, Ontario County was authorized to gain land from Yates, but it was never put into effect. On April 18, 1946, Yates gained 10 square miles from Schuyler and Seneca counties, which produced the current borders of Yates County.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 376 square miles, of which 338 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Yates County is in the western part of New York State, northwest of Ithaca and southeast of Rochester, it is in the Finger Lakes Region. Ontario County - northwest Seneca County - east Schuyler County - south Steuben County - southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 24,621 people, 9,029 households, 6,284 families residing in the county; the population density was 73 people per square mile. There were 12,064 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.90% White, 0.56% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. 21.3% were of English, 16.5% German, 11.4% Irish, 10.7% American, 5.3% Danish and 5.3% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 5.46% of the population over 5 years old Wenger Old Order Mennonites, report speaking Pennsylvania German, German, or Dutch at home, a further 1.54% speak Spanish.
There were 9,029 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 15.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,640, the median income for a family was $40,681. Males had a median income of $29,671 versus $21,566 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,781. About 8.90% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.90% of those under age 18 and 7.10% of those age 65 or over.
Keuka College i
Steuben County, New York
Steuben County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,990, its county seat is Bath. Its name is in honor of Baron von Steuben, a German general who fought on the American side in the American Revolutionary War, though it is not pronounced the same. There is no direct link between the Baron von Steuben and modern Steuben County, which he never visited. Steuben County comprises the Corning, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Elmira-Corning, NY Combined Statistical Area. Ontario County was established in 1789 to govern lands the state of New York had acquired in the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. Steuben County, much larger than today, was split off from Ontario County in 1796. In 1823 a portion of Steuben County was combined with a portion of Ontario County to form Yates County. Steuben County was further reduced in size in 1854 when a portion was combined with portions of Chemung and Tompkins counties to form Schuyler County. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,404 square miles, of which 1,391 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Steuben County is in the southwestern part of New York State north of the Pennsylvania border; the population of Steuben County according to the 2000 U. S. census was 98,726. The county is in the Southern Tier region of New York State. Steuben County is governed by a 17-member legislature headed by a chairman Steuben County is part of: The 7th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court The 4th Department of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division As of the census of 2000, there were 98,726 people, 39,071 households, 26,216 families residing in the county; the population density was 71 people per square mile. There were 46,132 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.43% White, 1.36% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.90% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. 18.6% were of German, 15.2% English, 14.4% American, 13.6% Irish and 8.3% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.5% spoke English and 1.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 39,071 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,479, the median income for a family was $41,940.
Males had a median income of $32,155 versus $24,163 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,197. About 9.90% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.70% of those under age 18 and 5.80% of those age 65 or over. The largest employer in Steuben County is Corning, Inc. the world headquarters of a large firm which manufactures specialty glass and related products. Related is the nearby Corning Museum of Glass. There is a wine industry in Hammondsport the headquarters of the Mercury Corporation, a custom manufacturer of aircraft and aircraft components. There is a museum of the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum, in Hammondsport. Former industries in Steuben County are the Steuben Glass Works, in Corning, the Erie Railroad repair shops, in Hornell. There is one institution of post-secondary education in Steuben County: Corning Community College. Alfred University and Elmira College are nearby. Steuben County contains the following public-use airports: Corning-Painted Post Airport in the Town of Erwin, near Corning and Painted Post Hornell Municipal Airport in the City of Hornell Local bus service is provided by Hornell Area Transit.
Corning Hornell Campbell Coopers Plains Gang Mills Prattsburgh Adrian Canisteo Center Gibson South Hornell South Canisteo Steuben County Transit System Corning Museum of Glass Corning Community College List of counties in New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Steuben County, New York Corning Incorporated W. W. Clayton, History of Steuben County, New York. Philadelphia: Lewis, Peck & Co. 1879. Richard Sherer Steuben County: The First 200 Years, A Pictorial History. Virginia Beach, VA: The Donning Company, 1996. Shelton Stromquist, "'Our Rights as Workingmen': Class Traditions and Collective Action in a Nineteenth-Century Railroad Town, New York, 1869-82," in David O. Stowell, The Great Strikes of 1877. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2008. Steuben County, New York official government site Steuben County at Curlie Painted Hills Genealogy Society, Steuben County Page It contains a great deal of info on Steuben County
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Erie County, New York
Erie County is a populated county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040; the county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, it was named by European colonists for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived south and east of the lake before 1654. Since the late 20th century, Erie County has been considered part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area; the county's southern part is known as the Southtowns. When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples, it was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, they forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands. About 1800 the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight western-most counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns, began selling lots to individuals.
The state was eager to have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County; as the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek; the first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Willink. Clarence comprised the northern portion of Erie county, Willink the southern part. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was subdivided into other towns; when Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Boston, Collins, Eden, Hamburg, Holland and Wales. The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York. In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line, in the Town of Lancaster, voted 85 to 40 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.
It sent five soldiers for the Confederate Army, did not rejoin the Union until January 1946. The Town Line Fire Department supports the slogan "Last of the Rebels", due to their Confederate ties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles, of which 1,043 square miles is land and 184 square miles is water. Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area; the county lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario. The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek, Ellicott Creek; the county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is flat and rises up from the lake.
The southern half, known as the Southtowns, is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet, on Grand Island at the Niagara River; the Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County. Niagara County - north Genesee County - northeast Wyoming County - southeast Cattaraugus County - south Chautauqua County - southwest Niagara Region, Canada - northwest Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site As of the census of 2010, there were 919,040 people residing in the county; the population density was 910 people per square mile. There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13.00% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
3.27 % of the population were Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1 % spoke 3.0 % Spanish and 1.6 % Polish as their first language. There were 380,873 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.10% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $49,490.
Males had a median income of $38,703 versu
Orleans County, New York
Orleans County is a county in the western part of the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,883; the county seat is Albion. The county received its name at the insistence of Nehemiah Ingersoll though historians are unsure how the name was selected; the two competing theories are that it was named to honor the French Royal House of Orleans or that it was to honor Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans. Located on the south shore of Lake Ontario, Orleans County since the late 20th century has been considered part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area; when counties were established by the British authorities in the province of New York in 1683, the present Orleans County was part of the territory of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.
On March 12, 1772, the remaining Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the large western portion; the eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the Mohawk River valley, the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. This western area was occupied by the Onondaga and other western nations of the Iroquois Confederacy; the westernmost European settlements were in the area of present-day Herkimer. During the unrest prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, feelings ran high in the Mohawk Valley, there were local attacks by rebels against known Loyalists. Most of Tryon County's Loyalists fled to Canada before 1776, where they were granted land by the Crown to develop what is now Ontario.
In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery. He died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, it replaced the name of the now hated colonial British governor. In 1789, Ontario County split off from Montgomery. During this period, thousands of migrants settled in the western part of the state from New England and eastern New York resulting in the creation of more counties. In 1802, Genesee County was created by splitting Ontario County. Genesee County was divided into Allegany County in 1806, Cattaraugus and Niagara Counties in 1808, Ontario and Monroe Counties in 1821, Orleans County in 1824; when Orleans County was formed in 1824, a dispute arose about naming it after President Andrew Jackson or President John Adams. During and following the Napoleonic era in France, numerous French refugees came to New York, some settling in the upstate areas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 817 square miles, of which 391 square miles is land and 426 square miles is water.
The high proportion of water is due to the extension of Orleans County north into Lake Ontario to the Canada–US border. The distance from the Orleans shore north to the international border is greater than the distance from the shore south to the Genesee County line, meaning the area of Orleans under water is greater than that above water. Orleans County is in western New York State, northeast of Buffalo and west of Rochester, on the southern shore of Lake Ontario; the Erie Canal passes through the middle of the county. When its construction was completed in 1824, it attracted new settlers to the rural county. Trade and passenger traffic stimulated the development of local businesses. Monroe County - east Genesee County - south Niagara County - west New York State Route 18 New York State Route 31 New York State Route 63 New York State Route 98 New York State Route 104 Lake Ontario State Parkway Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge Lakeside Beach State Park Oak Orchard State Marine Park Oak Orchard Wildlife Management Area Tonawanda Wildlife Management Area Starting in 1824, the county government was run by a board of supervisors, consisting of elected supervisors from each township in Orleans County.
This geographic representation meant that the residents of more urbanized areas were underrepresented on the board. In 1980, the state and county established a seven-member elected legislature to replace the board of supervisors. Representatives are elected from single-member districts equal in population, it is headed by a chairman. Orleans County is Republican, it has voted Republican in every presidential election since the party's founding in 1856, except for one, 1964. It voted Whig in every election from 1828 until 1852. Orleans County is part of: The 8th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court The 4th Division of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division As of the census of 2010, there were 42,883 people, 16,119 households, 10,872 families residing in the county; the population density was 113 people per square mile. There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.8% White, 5.9% Black or African Americ