A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Le Center, Minnesota
Le Center is a city in Le Sueur County, United States. The population was 2,499 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Le Sueur County. The Le Sueur County Courthouse and Jail are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.51 square miles, all of it land. Le Center is located 62 miles from Minneapolis. Minnesota State Highways 99 and 112 are two of the main routes in the community; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $38,690, the median income for a family was $47,143. Males had a median income of $30,901 versus $22,381 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,225. About 6.6% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,499 people, 915 households, 629 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,655.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 971 housing units at an average density of 643.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.2% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 8.4% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.0% of the population. There were 915 households of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.3% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age in the city was 32.8 years. 28.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.9% male and 49.1% female. Official Website for Le Center, MN, Official Website for Le Center Schools
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Le Sueur County, Minnesota
Le Sueur County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 27,703, its county seat is Le Center. Le Sueur County is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Minnesota Territory legislature established several counties in 1853. This county was created on March 5 of that year, it was named for French explorer Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, who visited the area in 1700. The settlement of Le Sueur had sprung up on the east bank of the Minnesota River, both being platted in 1852; the combined area was named by the legislature as the first county seat. However, its remoteness from most of the county meant hardship for most of the area's residents since the county was covered with dense hardwood forest and existing roads were impassable when wet. Several efforts were made to acquire a more central location. In the early 1870s, Cleveland held a referendum to become the county seat; the referendum was challenged due to irregularities in the voting.
In 1875 another referendum was successful, Cleveland became the county seat. In 1876 another referendum approved moving the seat to the newly-created town of Le Sueur Center. In the 1870s, businessmen from Waterville gained ownership of a quarter-section of land near the county's center, cleared the timber, platted the city of Le Sueur Center; the seat was moved there. The county seat has remained in Le Sueur Center since 1876; the first railroad entered the county in 1867. This began the era of mobility; the first purpose-built courthouse in Le Sueur Center was constructed in 1896-7. It has been extensively enlarged two times since then; the Minnesota River flows northeastward along the west border of Le Sueur County, on its way to discharge into the Mississippi. The terrain consists of low rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the soil is black. The terrain slopes to the north and east, with its highest point near the midpoint of its east border, at 1,145' ASL; the county has an area of 474 square miles, of which 449 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water.
Le Sueur is one of seven Minnesota savanna region counties where no forest soils exist and one of 17 counties where savanna soils dominate. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 25,426 people, 9,630 households, 6,923 families in the county; the population density was 56.6/sqmi. There were 10,858 housing units at an average density of 24.2/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.56% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. 3.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.9 % were of 9.0 % Czech, 9.0 % Norwegian and 8.2 % Irish ancestry. 94.0 % spoke 3.5 % Spanish and 1.7 % Czech as their first language. There were 9,630 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.10. The county population contained 27.40% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,933, the median income for a family was $53,000. Males had a median income of $34,196 versus $24,214 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,151. About 4.80% of families and 6.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.50% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. Okaman Le Sueur County vote Republican. In 78% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Le Sueur County, Minnesota Le Sueur County government’s website
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railway
The Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway or Omaha Road was a railroad in the U. S. states of Nebraska, Minnesota and South Dakota. It was incorporated in 1880 as a consolidation of the Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis Railway and the North Wisconsin Railway; the Chicago and North Western Railway gained control in 1882. The C&NW leased the Omaha Road in 1957 and merged the company into itself in 1972. Portions of the C. St. P. M. and O. are part of the Union Pacific Railroad network. This includes main lines from Wyeville, Wisconsin, to St. Paul, St. Paul to Sioux City, Iowa; the West Wisconsin Railway was authorized in 1876 to build from St. Paul, Minnesota through to reach the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad at Elroy, Wisconsin. In 1878 the bankrupt West Wisconsin Railway was acquired by the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway. At the end of 1956 C. St. P. M. & O. operated 2396 miles of track. The following main lines were part of the Omaha Road
Kasota is a city within the larger Kasota Township, Le Sueur County, United States. The population was 675 at the 2010 census. Kasota is about halfway between the cities of Mankato and St. Peter on the eastern side of the Minnesota River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.00 square mile, all of it land. The city center is about two miles north of the Kasota Prairie, designated as a Scientific and Natural Area by the state Department of Natural Resources. Minnesota State Highway 22 serves as a main route in the community. U. S. Route 169 is nearby, on the western side of the Minnesota River. Kasota was platted in 1855. Kasota is a name derived from the Dakota language meaning "cleared off". On July 1, 1892, the Sontag Brothers, John Sontag and George Contant, their partner in crime, Chris Evans, tried to rob a train between St. Peter and Kasota along the Minnesota River; the bandits acquired nothing of value during this holdup, but their activities came under the review of Pinkerton detectives and both were apprehended in June 1893.
Year. Babcock was the first to begin quarrying Kasota limestone in and around the city of Kasota; the Babcock Company was the chief stone company throughout the early history of the city, according to the Kasota Historical Society the relationship between the stone company and the city was less than spectacular. At one point the Babcock Company decided to blast within the city limits; this led to the creation of the park on County Road 21 in the town center, after the company was forced to fill in the quarry near the homes of city residents. During the 1880s, the stone industry experienced an unexpected boom, it was during this time that C. W. Babcock took over the business from his father, he began applying modern quarrying methods, in 1889 he formed a partnership with Tyrrell Swan Willcox, an immigrant from Rugby, instrumental in promoting the use of polished Kasota Stone for interior and exterior residential use. Much of the industry's boom was caused by the expansion of the railroads westward, requiring large quantities of stone for trestles and culverts.
In the early 1980s, the Babcock Company went bankrupt. The Vetter Stone Company subsequently bought the Babcock quarries, further expanding the business, which operates just outside the Mankato city limits; the Vetters were former employees of the Babcock Company who left to start their own company in the 1950s. The former location of the Babcock Company plant in Kasota is now occupied by Door Engineering, a company manufacturing industrial doors. Much of the former Kasota quarry is occupied by Unimin Corporation, who mine silica sand for hydraulic fracturing. Kasota stone was selected as the primary stone in the building of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC. as well as the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art in Indianapolis, IN Kasota was the name of a wooden Great Lakes iron ore steamer, built in 1884. The Kasota sank after colliding with the passenger steamer The City of Detroit on the Detroit River on July 18, 1890; the Kasota was salvaged and rebuilt in 1892 but sank again after springing a leak during a storm off Grand Marais, Michigan, on September 19, 1903.
The USS Kasota was a naval tugboat, launched in 1944 and struck from the Navy list in 1961. It is believed; as of the census of 2010, there were 675 people, 293 households, 175 families residing in the city. The population density was 675.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 305 housing units at an average density of 305.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.7% White, 1.2% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 293 households of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.84.
The median age in the city was 36.9 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 680 people, 275 households, 196 families residing in the city; the population density was 673.4 people per square mile. There were 279 housing units at an average density of 276.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.59% White, 0.74% African American, 2.06% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. There were 275 households out of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.81.
In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi