Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Ottawa is a city located at the confluence of the navigable Illinois River and Fox River in LaSalle County, United States. The Illinois River is a conduit for river barges and connects Lake Michigan at Chicago, to the Mississippi River, North America's 25,000 mile river system; the population estimate was 18,562 as of 2013. It is the county seat of LaSalle County and it is part of the Ottawa-Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Ottawa was the site of the first of the Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858. During the Ottawa debate Stephen A. Douglas, leader of the Democratic Party accused Abraham Lincoln of forming a secret bipartisan group of Congressmen to bring about the abolition of slavery; the John Hossack House was a "station" on the Underground Railroad, Ottawa was a major stop because of its rail and river transportation. Citizens in the city were active within the abolitionist movement. Ottawa was the site of a famous 1859 extrication of a runaway slave named Jim Gray from a courthouse by prominent civic leaders of the time.
Three of the civic leaders, John Hossack, Dr. Joseph Stout and James Stout stood trial in Chicago for violating the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Ottawa was important in the development of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which terminates in LaSalle, Illinois, 12 miles to the west. On February 8, 1910, William Dickson Boyce a resident of Ottawa, incorporated the Boy Scouts of America. Five years also in Ottawa, Boyce incorporated the Lone Scouts of America. Boyce is buried in Ottawa Avenue Cemetery; the Ottawa Scouting Museum, on Canal Street, opened to the public on December 6, 1997. The museum features the history of Girl Scouting and Camp Fire. In 1922, the Radium Dial Company moved from Peru, Illinois to a former high school building in Ottawa; the company employed hundreds of young women who painted watch dials using a paint called "Luna" for watch maker Westclox. RDC went out of business in 1936, two years after the company's president, Joseph Kelly Sr. left to start a competing company, Luminous Processes Inc. a few blocks away.
According to the 2010 census, Ottawa has a total area of 12.799 square miles, of which 12 square miles is land and 0.799 square miles is water. Because of numerous silica sand deposits Ottawa has been a major sand and glass center for more than 100 years. Transportation of the sand is facilitated by the navigable Illinois river and the Illinois Railway Ottawa Line. One of its largest employers is Pilkington Glass works, a successor to LOF. Concentrated in automotive glass, the plant now manufactures specialty glass and underwent a $50 million renovation in 2006. Ottawa sand continues to be extracted from several quarries in the area, is recognized in glass-making and abrasives for its uniform granularity and characteristics. Sabic purchased GE Plastics, a successor to Borg Warner automotive glass manufacture, operates a large plastics facility in Ottawa, is a major employer. Ottawa sand is a standard testing medium in geotechnical engineering; as of the 2010 Census, there were 18,768 people residing in the city with a population density of 1,563.9 people per square mile.
The age distribution consisted of 23.3 % persons under 16.6 % aged 65 or over. Females made up 51.2% of the population. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 2.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 1.5% from two or more races, 3.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,841 households occupying 8,569 housing units; the average household size was 2.39 persons. Per capita income was $25,414 and the median household income was $47,480; the median value of owner-occupied housing units was $132,900. Ottawa has registered historic landmarks. Recent additions to Ottawa have included renovations to its historic mansion, Reddick Mansion, artistic murals throughout the central business district. Ottawa is known as the scenic gateway to Starved Rock State Park, the most popular state park in Illinois, with some 2 million visitors per year; the Fox River, which flows through communities like Elgin and Aurora, empties into the Illinois in downtown Ottawa. Ottawa is home to one of the largest skydiving operations in the country, Skydive Chicago.
Ottawa Scouting Museum honors Ottawa resident William D. Boyce, the founder of the Boy Scouts of America. Once an old Norwegian Lutheran Church, Norsk Museum is located 9 miles northeast of Ottawa, on Highway 71; the museum is dedicated to the Scandinavian settlers who founded the area around neighboring Norway, Illinois, in the 1800s. Jacob C. Zeller founded the Zeller Court Place Tavern in 1871, at 615 Columbus Street; the original Zeller Inn was demolished in 1982. The Zeller Inn tavern known as the Court Place, still remains, now called Zeller Inn; the courtyard patio area on Columbus street is. The tavern contains the original mahogany bar built by the Sanders Bros in Ottawa, marble counters, tiled floors and walls, stained glass door and light fixtures, it was known for its Gilded Age brilliance — tiled mahogany bar, carved gargoyles, pressed-tin ceiling and solid oak backbar. The mirror on the bar is the same since its establishment in 1871, brought over from the 1800s era European Worlds Fair.
Zeller's initials, JCZ, are still visible in a tiled mosaic on the side of the bar and in the glass light domes that hang from the ceiling. This is one of the oldest taverns in Illinois, with original features which remain intact and displays the arc
SS Germanic (1874)
SS Germanic was an ocean liner built by Harland and Wolff in 1875 and operated by the White Star Line. She was operated by other lines under the names Ottawa, Gul Djemal and Gulcemal. Germanic was launched on 15 July 1874, fitting out was completed in early 1875, but delivery was delayed until May of that year, so that she would arrive in time for the summer transatlantic season. Germanic was powered by steam, although she carried four masts, three of which were square-rigged, she departed on her maiden voyage on 20 May 1875 from Liverpool to New York. In doing so, she replaced Oceanic, the White Star's first post-Ismay steamship, sold out of White Star service in the same year. In July during an eastbound run, Germanic set a transatlantic speed record of 15.76 knots, crossing the ocean in seven days, 11 hours, 17 minutes, winning the coveted Blue Riband. In February, 1876, she beat her own record. On a subsequent trip, when the ship was south of Ireland, the propeller shaft sheared, she had to limp into Waterford on sail power alone.
In 1895, Germanic underwent a major refit, during which a larger triple-expansion steam engine was installed, the square rigging was removed from the masts. On 13 February 1899, while being coaled at the White Star's New York City pier, a blizzard blanketed her decks with a heavy layer of snow. Now top heavy, she listed to port so much that water began to enter doors opened for coaling, Germanic settled on to the shallow harbour bottom, she was raised, determined to be worth saving, so she returned to Belfast for repairs that lasted four months. On 3 September 1903, Germanic left on her final run as a White Star liner, she was laid up for the winter, in 1904, Germanic was sold to the American Line, one of White Star's sister companies under the International Mercantile Marine Co. umbrella. There, still named Germanic, she served the Southampton for only six voyages, she was transferred yet again to another IMM company, the Dominion Line, a niche company that served the immigrant trade. On 5 January 1905, Germanic was renamed Ottawa.
For the next four years, Ottawa plied the Canadian waters, sailing only in the summer, between Quebec City and Montreal. With the summer sailing itinerary for 1909 now over, Ottawa was laid up for winter. In 1910, the Government of the Ottoman Empire bought the ship from IMM, it became part of a five-ship transport fleet, leaving Liverpool for the last time on 15 May 1911, carrying the name Gul Djemal, operated by the Administration de Nav. A Vapeur Ottomane. In a few months, she was carrying Turkish soldiers to war duty in Yemen; when World War I began, Ottoman Empire joined forces with Germany, she again became a troop ship, ferrying fighters to the Gallipoli Peninsula. On 3 May 1915, Gul Djemal was on this run, carrying over 4,000 soldiers, when she was torpedoed by the British submarine HMS E14. Though she sank in shallow waters, only up to her superstructure, the British claimed that most of those on board lost their lives. Turkish and German sources mention a limited number of casualties.
Since Gul Djemal had not sunk, it was determined that she could be raised and repaired, afterwards she continued to serve the war effort. In 1918, she carried 1,500 German troops to Dover, to the Allied control point there, where the soldiers were disarmed and sent home. With the war over, Gul Djemal went to work for the Ottoman American Line, again carrying immigrants to new lives in America, making her first trip in this role on 10 October 1921, she did duty in the Black Sea. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, she became a ship of Turkey, it was one of the ships responsible in transporting Turks from Crete, Greece to Turkey during the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey after the Turkish War of Independence. After this mission it began its regular navigation services in the Black Sea. In 1928, she was transferred to Turkiye Seyrisefain Idaresi, became the Gulcemal. In 1931, she was grounded in the Sea of Marmora, but managed to live on beyond that mishap, survived World War II, although she played no notable part in it.
By 1949, she was a storage ship, in 1950 she was converted to a floating hotel. On 29 October of that year, the end had arrived, she was moved to Messina for scrapping, having survived 75 years, three major mishaps and two World Wars; as the scrappers cut up her hull, her original White Star Line gold stripe could still be seen along her hull. Only Cunard's SS Parthia served a longer time afloat than Germanic, ending her days as a lumber tug in 1956. Parthia's record as longest serving floating palace, in any capacity, still holds today; the Ships List Media related to Germanic at Wikimedia Commons
HMCS Ottawa (DDH 229)
HMCS Ottawa was a St. Laurent-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Forces from 1956 to 1992. Ottawa was the first bilingual ship to serve in the Canadian navy; the need for the St. Laurent class came about in 1949 when Canada joined NATO and the Cold War was in its infancy; the Royal Canadian Navy was assigned responsibility for anti-submarine warfare and controlling sea space in the western North Atlantic. The St Laurent class were built to an operational requirement much like that which produced the British Type 12, were powered by the same machinery plant; the rounded deck-edge forward was adopted to prevent ice forming. The vessels were designed to operate in harsh Canadian conditions, they were built to counter nuclear and chemical attack conditions, which led to a design with a rounded hull, a continuous main deck, the addition of a pre-wetting system to wash away contaminants. The living spaces on the ship were part of a "citadel" which could be sealed off from contamination for the crew safety.
The ships were sometimes referred to as "Cadillacs" for their luxurious crew compartments. As built, the ships were 366 feet long overall with a beam of 42 feet and a draught of 13 feet 2 inches; the destroyer escorts displaced 2,800 tonnes at deep load. The destroyer escorts had a crew of 237 enlisted; the St. Laurent class was fitted with twin 3-inch /L50 caliber guns in two mounts for engaging both surface and air targets; the ships were fitted with two single-mounted 40 mm guns. The class's anti-submarine armament consisted of a pair of triple-barreled Mk. NC 10 Limbo ASW mortars in a stern well; the stern well had a roller top to close it off from following seas. As with the British Type 12 design, the provision for long-range homing torpedoes (in this case BIDDER or the US Mark 35 were included. However, they were never fitted; the vessels of the St. Laurent class had two Wilcox water tube boilers installed; the steam produced by these boilers was directed at two geared steam turbines which powered two shafts, providing 22,000 kilowatts to drive the ship at a maximum speed of 28.5 knots.
The ships had an endurance of 4,570 nautical miles at 12 knots. Following successful trials aboard the frigate Buckingham and Ottawa, plans to convert the St. Laurent class took shape. Th development of the beartrap, installed in Assiniboine during her 1962–63 conversion, finalized the concept. By keeping the aircraft secure, the beartrap eliminated the need for deck handling from landing to the hangar, or from hangar to takeoff. In the conversion to a helicopter-carrying vessel, Ottawa was gutted except for machinery and some forward spaces; the hull was strengthened, fueling facilities for the helicopter and activated fin stabilizers installed. The fin stabilizers were to reduce roll in rough weather during helicopter operations. All seven St Laurents were fitted with SQS 504 Variable Depth Sonar; the single funnel was altered to twin stepped funnels to permit the forward extension of the helicopter hangar. To make room for the helicopter deck, the aft 3-inch mount and one of the Limbos were removed.
The two 40 mm guns were removed. Following the conversion, the displacement remained the same at standard load but at full load, it increased to 3,051 tonnes. In the late 1970s, under the Destroyer Life Extension program was commissioned to upgrade ten of the St. Laurent-class ships with new electronics and hull upgrades and repairs. However, only enough was done to keep the ships in service into the late 1980s. For the St. Laurents, this meant machinery repairs only. Ottawa was laid down at Canadian Vickers in Montreal on 8 June 1951, the ship was launched on 29 May 1953, she was commissioned into the RCN on 10 November 1956 and carried the hull number DDE 229 as a destroyer escort. In 1957, Ottawa was used as a test ship for helicopter landing trials on a flight deck installed over the rear of the ship. Ottawa was transferred to the west coast. In February 1960, she sailed with sister ships St. Laurent and Saguenay on an operational cruise to Hong Kong and Japan, performing training exercises with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force.
In March 1961, the same three ships deployed with the United States Navy's Carrier Division 17 off the coast of Hawaii. Ottawa underwent conversion to a destroyer helicopter escort at Victoria, British Columbia, performed by Victoria Machinery Depot beginning on 24 May 1963; the ship was reclassed with pennant DDH 229 on 21 October 1964. Ottawa re-transferred to the east coast. On 15 July 1968 she became the first bilingual ship of Maritime Command. Designated a French Language Unit, this was to provide a French-speaking unit in the navy, comparable to the Royal 22nd Regiment of the Canadian Army. Ottawa remained a FLU until 1 April 1973; the ship was replaced by Skeena as the naval FLU. In 1976, Ottawa was among the escort for the royal yacht HMY Britannia during a royal visit to Canada and took part in the major NATO naval exercise Teamwork'76. In 1977, with Margaree and Athabaskan, Ottawa visited the Soviet Union. In the year, the vessel joined STANAVFORLANT, NATO's standing naval force for two months.
In 1981, while inspecting the boilers of Ottawa, cracks were found in the superheaters. This led to all the other remaining St. Laurent-class d
Ottawa is a town in Waukesha County, United States. The population was 3,758 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Ottawa is located in the town. The town is named after a Native American tribe. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.9 square miles, of which, 34.3 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,758 people, 1,375 households, 1,112 families residing in the town; the population density was 109.5 people per square mile. There were 1,436 housing units at an average density of 41.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.06% White, 0.27% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 1,375 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.0% were married couples living together, 3.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.1% were non-families.
16.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $69,493, the median income for a family was $71,850. Males had a median income of $51,886 versus $35,825 for females; the per capita income for the town was $30,977. About 0.7% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.2% of those under age 18 and 1.0% of those age 65 or over. Caleb C. Harris and politician, lived in the town. Town of Ottawa website
The Odawa, said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada. They have long had territory that crosses the current border between the two countries, they are federally recognized as Native American tribes in the United States and have numerous recognized First Nations bands in Canada, they are one of the Anishinaabeg, related to but distinct from the Potawatomi peoples. After migrating from the East Coast in ancient times, they settled on Manitoulin Island, near the northern shores of Lake Huron, the Bruce Peninsula in the present-day province of Ontario, Canada, they considered this their original homeland. After the 17th century, they settled along the Ottawa River, in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as through the Midwest south of the Great Lakes in the latter country. In the 21st century, there are 15,000 Odawa living in Ontario, Michigan and Oklahoma; the Ottawa dialect is part of the Algonquian language family.
This large family has numerous smaller tribal groups or “bands,” called “Tribe” in the United States and “First Nation” in Canada. Their language is considered a divergent dialect of Ojibwe, characterized by frequent syncope. Odawaa; the Potawatomi spelling of Odawa and the English derivative "Ottawa" are common. The Anishinaabe word for "Those men who trade, or buy and sell" is Wadaawewinini. Fr. Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary in Michigan, transliterated this and recorded it in his A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language as "Watawawininiwok," noting that it meant "men of the bulrushes", associated with the many bulrushes in the Ottawa River. But, this recorded meaning is more appropriately associated with the Matàwackariniwak, a historical Algonquin band who lived along the Ottawa River; the only American tribe, Odawa are the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, the rest are considered Ottawa. Their neighbors applied the "Trader" name to the Odawa because in early traditional times, during the early European contact period, they were noted as intertribal traders and barterers.
The Odawa were described as having dealt "chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil and skins, rugs and mats and medicinal roots and herbs."Like the Ojibwe, the Odawa identify as Nishnaabe, meaning "original people". The Odawa name in its English transcription is the source of the place names of Ottawa and the Ottawa River; the Odawa home territory at the time of early European contact, but not their trading zone, was well to the west of the city and river named after them. The tribe is the namesake for Tawas City and Tawas Point, which reflect the syncope-form of their name. Ottawa, Ohio is the county seat of Putnam County, developed at the site of the last Ottawa reservation in Ohio; the Odawa dialect is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Ojibwe language group, noted for its frequent syncope. In the Odawa language, the general language group is known as Nishnabemwin, while the Odawa language is called Daawaamwin. Of the estimated 5,000 ethnic Odawa and additional 10,000 people with some Odawa ancestry, in the early 21st century an estimated 500 people in Ontario and Michigan speak this language.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma has three fluent speakers. According to Anishinaabeg tradition, from recordings in Wiigwaasabak, the Odawa people came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, from along the East Coast. Directed by the miigis beings, the Anishinaabe peoples moved inland along the Saint Lawrence River. At the "Third Stopping Place" near what is now Detroit, the southern group of Anishinaabeg divided into three groups, the Ojibwe and Potawatomi. There is archaeological evidence that the Saugeen Complex people, a Hopewell-influenced group who were located on the Bruce Peninsula during the Middle Woodland period, may have evolved into the Odawa people; the Hopewell tradition was a extended trading network operating from about 200BCE to 500 CE. Some of these peoples constructed earthwork mounds for burials, a practice that ended about 250 CE; the Saugeen mounds have not been excavated. The Odawa, together with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi, were part of a long-term tribal alliance called the Council of Three Fires, which fought the Iroquois Confederacy and the Dakota people.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a nation which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez" near the French River mouth. Of these, he said: "Their arms consisted only of a bow and arrows, a buckler of boiled leather and the club, they wore no breech clouts, their bodies were tattooed in many fashions and designs, their faces painted and their noses pierced." In 1616, Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez," who lived westward from the lands of the Huron Confederacy. The Jesuit Relations of 1667 report three tribes living in the same town: the Odawa, the Kiskakon Odawa, the Sinago Odawa. All three tribes spoke the same language. Due to the extensive trade network maintained by the Odawa, many of the North American interior nations became known by names which their trading partners used for them, rather than by the nations’ own names. For example, these exonyms include Winnebago for t