Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Harrison County, Indiana
Harrison County is located in the far southern part of the U. S. state of Indiana along the Ohio River. The county was established in 1808; as of the 2010 census, the county's population was 39,364, an increase of 6.6% from 2000. The county seat is the former capital of Indiana. Harrison County is part of KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county has a diverse economy with no sector employing more than 13% of the local workforce. Horseshoe Southern Indiana is the largest employer, followed by Tyson Foods and the Harrison County Hospital. Tourism is centered on the county's many historic sites. County government is divided among several bodies including the boards of the county's three school districts, three elected commissioners who exercise legislative and executive powers, an elected county council that controls the county budget, a circuit and superior court, township trustees in the county's 12 townships; the county has 10 incorporated towns with a total population of over 5,000, as well as many small unincorporated towns.
One Interstate highway and one U. S. Route run through the county, as do eight Indiana State Roads and two railroad lines. Migratory groups of Native Americans inhabited the area for thousands of years, but the first permanent settlements in what would become Harrison County were created by American settlers in the years after the American Revolutionary War; the population grew during first decade of the 19th century. Corydon was platted in 1808 and became the capital of the Indiana Territory in 1813. Many of the state's early important historic events occurred in the county, including the writing of Indiana's first constitution. Corydon was the state capital until 1825, but in the years afterward remained an important hub for southern Indiana. In 1859 there was a major meteorite strike. In 1863 the Battle of Corydon was fought, the only battle of the American Civil War to occur in Indiana. Humans first entered; this region was of particular value to the early humans because of the abundance of flint.
There is evidence of flint mining in local caves as early as 2000 BCE. Passing migratory tribes frequented the area, influenced by succeeding groups of peoples including the Hopewells and Mississippians. One flint-working and camping location is the Swan's Landing Archeological Site, one of the most important Early Archaic archaeological sites in eastern North America. Permanent human settlements in the county began with the arrival of American settlers in the last decade of the 18th century; the area became part of the United States following its conquest during the American Revolutionary War. Veterans of the revolution received land grants in the eastern part of the county as part of Clark's Grant. Daniel Boone and his brother Squire Boone were early explorers of the county, entering from Kentucky in the 1780s. Harvey Heth, Spier Spencer, Edward Smith were among the first to settle in the county beginning in the 1790s. Smith built the first home in the area of Corydon. Harrison County was part of Knox County and Clark County but was separated in 1808.
It was the first Indiana county formed by the Indiana territorial legislature instead of the Governor. Portions of the county were separated into parts of Crawford, Washington, Clark, Perry and Orange Counties; the county was named for William Henry Harrison, the first governor of Indiana Territory, a General in War of 1812, hero of Tippecanoe, the 9th U. S. President. Harrison was the largest land holder in the county at the time and had a small estate at Harrison Spring. Squire Boone settled permanently in what is now Boone Township in 1806, he is buried in a cave near his home, Squire Boone Caverns. James and Daniel Boone settled in Harrison County's Heth Township during the first decade of the 1800s; the county's first church was built by Boone east of present-day Laconia. The church, reconstructed, is known as Old Goshen. Jacob Kintner settled near Corydon in about 1810, he was one of the wealthiest settlers and amassed a 700-acre tract of land around Corydon, built a large home, maintained an inn.
Paul and Susanna Mitchem became Quakers and immigrated to Harrison County from North Carolina in 1814, bringing with them 107 slaves whom they freed after arriving. Although some of the former slaves left, the group became one of the largest communities of free blacks in the state; the first road was built in Harrison County in 1809 connecting Corydon with Mauckport on the Ohio River. A tow-and-ferry line was operated there by the Mauck family bringing settlers into the county from Kentucky; this road and ferry expanded the county's economic viability and ease of access to the outside world, leading to a rapid settlement of the area. The county's population more than doubled in the following decade. Dennis Pennington, who lived near Lanesville, became one of the county's early leading citizens and speaker of the territory's legislature. Corydon began competing with other southern Indiana settlements to become the new capital of the territory after its reorganization in 1809. Hostilities broke out in 1811 with the Native American tribes on the frontier, the territorial capital was moved to Corydon on May 1, 1813, after Pennington suggested that it would be safer than Vincennes.
For the next twelve years, Corydon was the political center of subsequent state. A state constitution was drafted in Corydon during June 1816 and after statehood the town served as the state capital until 1825; the first division of the county occurred in 1814 when t
Meade County, Kentucky
Meade County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,602, its county seat is Brandenburg. The county was founded December 17, 1823, named for Captain James M. Meade, killed in action at the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. Meade County is part of the Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Louisville/Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Madison, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 325 square miles, of which 305 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. All 56 miles of the county's northern border faces Indiana, across from the Ohio River. Doe Run Inn Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area Meade Olin Park Diana’s Park Park Down By The River Death Valley Hardin County Breckinridge County Harrison County, Indiana Perry County, Indiana Crawford County, Indiana The Regional planning group One Knox considers the largest road projects needed to support the growth from the BRAC realignment at Fort Knox to include extending Kentucky Route 313 to US 60 in Meade County and into Brandenburg creating a corridor between Radcliff and Elizabethtown running parallel to U.
S. Route 31W, building a new extension from Bullion Boulevard in Fort Knox to KY 313 in Radcliff; the group estimates that buying the right of way for the KY 313 project to Brandenburg would cost nearly $30 million. The realignment at Fort Knox is projected to bring thousands of workers and jobs, along with millions of dollars into the regions economy; the Matthew E. Welsh Bridge connects Meade County to Indiana over the Ohio River. KY 1638 connects Brandenburg, Kentucky to US 31W in Muldraugh, Kentucky which connects to Louisville, Kentucky; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,349 people, 9,470 households, 7,396 families residing in the county. The population density was 85 per square mile. There were 10,293 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.37% White, 4.13% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.83% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 2.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 9,470 households out of which 42.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.10% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.90% were non-families. Of all households 18.40% were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.80% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 32.70% from 25 to 44, 20.30% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,966, the median income for a family was $40,592. Males had a median income of $30,835 versus $22,038 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,000. About 9.30% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.
Brandenburg Ekron Muldraugh Guston Flaherty Doe Valley Fort Knox, a military base Battletown Big Spring Concordia Flaherty Garrett Guston Lickskillet Meade Payneville Rhodelia Rock Haven Wolf Creek Garnettsville National Register of Historic Places listings in Meade County, Kentucky "Ky-313 extension is well under way"—The News-Enterprise, July 24, 2011 Meade County Fiscal Court & Meade County Tourism Meade County Chamber of Commerce
Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area
Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area is a 2,600 acre riverfront park in Meade County, Kentucky. The park is located near Muldraugh and Fort Knox, along State Highway 1638, near U. S. 31W. Although it is located outside Louisville, the park was long operated by the city of Louisville and, after the 2003 merger of the city and Jefferson County, Louisville Metro Government. Both entities attempted to give or sell the park to Meade County and the Commonwealth of Kentucky at various times over the years, most in 2004; the park closed in 2009 and reopened in 2011. It is now operated by the Kentucky Department of Wildlife Resources; the park's namesake, Otter Creek, winds along the eastern side of the park. A scenic bend in the Ohio River, which divides Kentucky from Indiana, can be seen from northern overlooks within the park; the park is a popular mountain biking destination, with trails maintained by a local mountain bike organization. The park is located in the Pennyrile, a geographic division of Kentucky known for its cave-forming limestones.
An historic centerpiece of the park is Morgan's Cave, a cave with an flowing stream, reputed to be a hideaway for Morgan's Raiders during the Civil War. The cave is now kept locked for the protection of the bat population. Limestone bluffs line the Ohio River frontage; the parkland was given to Louisville by the U. S. Government in 1947, in recognition of the city's service during World War II. A master plan for the park, calling for the removal of outdated facilities and the development of new amenities, was adopted in 2001. On December 1, 2008, Louisville Metro announced that the park, which loses $500,000 annually, would close to the public on December 14, 2008 due to budget cuts; this closing date was amended to January 1. According to Louisville Metro Parks, events booked at the Conference Center would be honored through June 2009, but none after. A day the state's Department of Fish & Wildlife Resources proposed taking over the park to operate it as a wildlife-management area, which would involve lifting a ban on hunting and fishing.
On June 16, 2010, Gov. Steve Beshear and Louisville Metro Mayor Jerry Abramson announced that Otter Creek Park would reopen in 2011 as an outdoor recreational area operated by the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, an agency of the Tourism and Heritage Cabinet. Otter Creek reopened on May 11, 2011, but several facilities in need of repair and renovation, notably the Nature Center and Conference Center, remained closed. At that time, overnight cabins were not available. New cabins are now available for use. 3D Archery range Cabins and campgrounds Disc golf course Fishing in Otter Creek or the Ohio River Hunting opportunities Otter Creek Observatory, operated in partnership with Louisville's Jefferson Community and Technical College Shooting range Trails for hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking Doe Run Inn List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Official site Derby City Fly Fishers Kentucky Mountain Bike Association Louisville Metro
University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the university is mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly to be a "Preeminent Metropolitan Research University". The university enrolls students from 118 of 120 Kentucky counties, all 50 U. S. states, 116 countries around the world. The University of Louisville School of Medicine is touted for the first self-contained artificial heart transplant surgery as well as the first successful hand transplantation; the University Hospital is credited with the first civilian ambulance, the nation's first accident services, now known as an emergency department, one of the first blood banks in the US. Between 1999 and 2006 Louisville was one of the fastest growing medical research institutions according to National Institutes of Health rankings.
As of 2006, the melanoma clinic ranked third in among public universities in NIH funding, the neurology research program fourth, the spinal cord research program 10th. Louisville is known for its Louisville Cardinals athletics programs. Since 2005 the Cardinals have made appearances in the NCAA Division I men's basketball Final Four in 2005, 2012, 2013, football Bowl Championship Series Orange Bowl in 2007 and Sugar Bowl in 2013, the College Baseball World Series 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017, the women's basketball Final Four in 2009, 2013, 2018, the men's soccer national championship game in 2010; the Louisville Cardinals Women's Volleyball program has three-peated as champions of the Big East Tournament, were Atlantic Coast Conference Champions in 2015 and 2017. Women's track and field program has won Outdoor Big East titles in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and an Indoor Big East title in 2011; the University of Louisville traces its roots to a charter granted in 1798 by the Kentucky General Assembly to establish a school of higher learning in the newly founded town of Louisville.
It ordered the sale of 6,000 acres of South Central Kentucky land to underwrite construction, joined on April 3, 1798 by eight community leaders who began local fund raising for what was known as the Jefferson Seminary. It opened 15 years and offered college and high school level courses in a variety of subjects, it was headed by Edward Mann Butler from 1813 to 1816, who ran the first public school in Kentucky in 1829 and is considered Kentucky's first historian. Despite the Jefferson Seminary's early success, pressure from newly established public schools and media critiques of it as "elitist" would force its closure in 1829. Eight years in 1837, the Louisville City council established the Louisville Medical Institute at the urging of renowned physician and medical author Charles Caldwell; as he had earlier at Lexington's Transylvania University, Caldwell led LMI into becoming one of the leading medical schools west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1840, the Louisville Collegiate institute, a rival medical school, was established after an LMI faculty dispute.
It opened in 1844 on land near the present day Health sciences campus. In 1846, the Kentucky legislature combined the Louisville Medical Institute, the Louisville Collegiate Institution, a newly created law school into the University of Louisville, on a campus just east of Downtown Louisville; the LCI folded soon afterwards. The university experienced rapid growth in the 20th century, adding new schools in the liberal arts, graduate studies, engineering and social work. In 1923, the school purchased what is today the Belknap Campus, where it moved its liberal arts programs and law school, with the medical school remaining downtown; the school had attempted to purchase a campus donated by the Belknap family in The Highlands area in 1917, but a citywide tax increase to pay for it was voted down. The Belknap Campus was named after the family for their efforts. In 1926, the building that would be dedicated as Grawemeyer Hall, was built. In 1931, the university established the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes on the former campus of Simmons University, as a compromise plan to desegregation.
As a part of the university, the school had an equal standing with the school's other colleges. It was dissolved in 1951. During World War II, Louisville was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In the second half of the 20th century, schools were opened for business and justice administration. Talk of Louisville joining the public university system of Kentucky began in the 1960s; as a municipally funded school, the movement of people to the suburbs of Louisville created budget shortfalls for the school and forced tuition prices to levels unaffordable for most students. At the same time, the school's well established medicine and law schools were seen as assets for the state system. Still, there was opposition to the university becoming public, both from faculty and alumni who feared losing the small, close-knit feel of the campus, from universities in the state system who feared funding cuts.
After several years of heated debate, the university joined the state system in 1970, a move orchestrated by Kentucky governor and Louisville alumnus Louie Nunn. The first years in the public system
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven