Wilkin County, Minnesota
Wilkin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population of Wilkin County was 6,576, its county seat is Breckenridge. The county is named for Colonel Alexander Wilkin, a lawyer who served as Minnesota’s U. S. marshal and was killed in the Civil War. Wilkin County is part of the Wahpeton, ND–MN Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Fargo-Wahpeton, ND-MN Combined Statistical Area. On March 8, 1858, Toombs County, named after Robert Toombs of Georgia, was established, he had been a member of Congress, from 1845 until 1853, was U. S. senator from 1853 to 1861. He became a Confederate secretary of state in 1861. In 1863, the county was renamed Andy Johnson County after Andrew Johnson, serving as the military governor of Tennessee at the time, to disassociate with Confederate general Robert Toombs. Dissatisfied with the county's second namesake, the name was once again changed on March 6, 1868 to Wilkin County; the name Wilkin comes from Colonel Alexander Wilkin.
Though not a native to Minnesota, he practiced law in Minnesota. From 1851 until 1853, Colonel Wilkin was the territory's secretary. Toombs County was formed in 1858 from Pembina County, it is the parental county for Traverse County, now are parts of Clay, Otter Tail, Stevens and Pope counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 751 square miles, of which 751 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Breckenridge Lake - Breckenridge Township Interstate 94 U. S. Highway 52 U. S. Highway 75 Minnesota State Highway 9 Minnesota State Highway 55 Minnesota State Highway 108 Minnesota State Highway 210 Clay County Otter Tail County Grant County Traverse County Richland County, North Dakota Cass County, North Dakota As of the 2000 census, there were 7,138 people, 2,752 households, 1,926 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 3,105 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.77% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races.
1.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 41.8% were of German and 29.2% Norwegian ancestry. There were 2,752 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,093, the median income for a family was $46,220. Males had a median income of $31,273 versus $20,925 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,873.
About 6.2% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. The population estimate for Wilkin County in 2017 was 6,324 according to the Vintage 2017 Population Estimates.. A five year survey conducted between 2012 and 2016 found the median household income to be $52,963; the median housing value was $110, 800 and 3,084 total housing units by the end of the five year span. As of 2016, 445 veterans resided in the county; this same survey showed that 92.3% of the people in the county had obtained their high school diploma or a higher education. 8.9% of people were living in poverty as of the 2016 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates. According to the 2016 Small Area Health Insurance Estimates, 4.45 of people under the age of 65 had no health insurance. As of 2012, there were 709 companies in Wilkin County. Brushvale Childs Everdell Lawndale McCauleyville Tenney National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilkin County, Minnesota Wilkin County government’s website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
U.S. Route 59
U. S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway. A latecomer to the U. S. numbered route system, US 59 is now a border-to-border route, part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U. S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than 100 miles away, until it veers southwest in Houston, Texas, its number is out of place since US 59 is either concurrent with or west of U. S. Route 71; the highway's northern terminus is nine miles north of Lancaster, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 59. Its southern terminus is at the Mexico–US border in Laredo, where it continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85D. U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. Senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway, one of the busiest sections of freeway in the United States with a vehicle count, as of 2006, over 330,000 vehicles per day just outside the Loop.
US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90% of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75 mph speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. From the southwestern suburbs of Houston to Downtown Houston, U. S. 59 is referred to as the "Southwest Freeway," sometimes derisively as the "Southwest's Best Freeway." Supporting 371,000 vehicles per day, it is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. U. S. 59 is known as the "Eastex Freeway" in the north/northeast part of the Houston region. At the Mexico -- US border, it ends at the World Trade International Bridge in Texas. In Laredo, U. S. 59 is co-signed with both Interstate 69W and Loop 20 and has an intersection with Interstate 35 which ends at the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge.
After crossing the bridge into Mexico, Interstate 35 continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85 in Nuevo Laredo which runs through Mexico and Central America and ends in Panama at the Panama Canal. In Arkansas, US 59 is concurrent with U. S. Route 71 from Interstate 30 at Texarkana to Acorn, with U. S. Route 270 from Acorn to the Oklahoma state line; the Third Loop was to be Extended on Interstate 49 from its original northern end to US-71 at the Texas state line opened on May 15, 2013 and was extended to State Line Road, where it intersects US-59 and US-71 in Texas. US 59 and U. S. Route 412 are co-signed for 10 miles in Oklahoma. US 59 is co-signed with U. S. Route 270 from the Arkansas State Line to Heavener and U. S. Route 271 from Poteau to west of Spiro, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 64 in Sallisaw. U. S. 59 runs nearly directly north across the state. U. S. 59 runs concurrently with U. S. 169 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges north again south of Garnett. The intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with stop and yield signs.
It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006. The Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety; until 2012 US 59 passed through Ottawa and had to be shut down or detoured every time the Marias Des Cygnes floodwall gates were closed across the highway. The highway now bypasses around Ottawa, running concurrently with Interstate 35 for five miles and utilizing that highway's bridges over the Marias Des Cygnes. US 59 passes through Lawrence; the street name of US 59 in Lawrence is Iowa Street 6th Street as it joins U. S. 40 and jogs east to cross the Kansas River near downtown. North of the U. S. 40 and 59 Bridges, it splits with U. S. 40 as it joins U. S. 24 and jogs back west before resuming a northerly course. It continues north to Nortonville northeast to Atchison, where it crosses the Missouri River over the Amelia Earhart Bridge. U. S. 59 has been rebuilt and rerouted just to the east between Lawrence and Ottawa as a divided highway, as the former road was one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in the state.
The project began in mid 2007 and was completed and opened to the public on October 17, 2012. In Missouri, US 59 follows the Missouri River in the northwest corner of the state, from its entrance at Winthrop. In Saint Joseph the highway is paired with Interstate 229 through downtown. US 59 departs from I-229 as Saint Joseph Avenue, joining with U. S. Route 71 at Interstate 29; the two highways separate in Savannah. US 59 follows Interstate 29 closely until turning northward at Craig, it exits the state 10 miles north of Tarkio. This section of US 59 is immortalized in the Brewer and Shipley song "Tarkio Road". In Iowa, US 59 is a main north–south artery in the western part of the state, it junctions Interstate 80 at Avoca. It passes through the county seats of Harlan, Denison and Primghar. Except for small stretches of expressway near Avoca and Holstein, the entire length of US 59 in Iowa is an undivided two-lane road. US 59 exits the state near Hawkeye Point, the highest p
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota. The boundaries of the Minnesota Territory, as carved out of Iowa Territory, included the current Minnesota region and most of what became Dakota Territory east of the Missouri River. Minnesota Territory included portions of Wisconsin Territory that did not become part of Wisconsin, located between the Mississippi River and Wisconsin, including the Arrowhead Region. At the time of its formation, the territory contained three cities: St. Paul, St. Anthony, Stillwater; the major territorial institutions were divided among the three: St. Paul was made the capital. Charles K. Smith, 1849–1851 Alexander Wilkin, 1851–1853 Joseph Rosser, 1853–1857 Charles L. Chase, 1857–1858 Lorenzo A. Babcock, 1849–1853 Lafayette Emmett, 1853–1858 Henry Hastings Sibley, 31st Congress, 32nd Congress, 1849–1853 Henry Mower Rice, 33rd Congress, 34th Congress, 1853–1857 William W. Kingsbury, 35th Congress, 1857–1858 John Catlin Historic regions of the United States History of Minnesota Interior Plains Territorial era of Minnesota Territorial evolution of the United States Territory of France that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Louisiane, 1682–1764 and 1803 Territory of Spain that would be returned to France: Luisiana, 1764–1803 Territory of the United Kingdom that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Rupert's Land, 1670–1870 U.
S. territories that encompassed land that would become part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787–1803 Territory of Indiana, 1800–1816 Louisiana Purchase, 1803–1804 District of Louisiana, 1804–1805 Territory of Louisiana, 1805–1812 Territory of Illinois, 1809–1818 Territory of Missouri, 1812–1821 Territory of Michigan, 1805–1837 Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–1848 U. S. territories that encompassed land, part of the Territory of Minnesota: Territory of Dakota, 1861–1889 U. S. states that encompass land, once part of the Territory of Minnesota: State of Minnesota, 1858 State of North Dakota, 1889 State of South Dakota, 1889 Media related to Minnesota Territory at Wikimedia Commons Minnesota historic documents Debates and proceedings of the Constitutional convention for the territory of Minnesota, to form a state constitution preparatory to its admission into the Union as a state
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers between the U. S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota, it flows northward through the Red River Valley, forming most of the border of Minnesota and North Dakota and continuing into Manitoba. It empties into Lake Winnipeg, whose waters join the Nelson River and flow into Hudson Bay. Several urban areas have developed on both sides of the Red River, including those of Fargo-Moorhead and Grand Forks-East Grand Forks in states of North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States and Winnipeg in Canada; the Red is about 885 kilometres long, of which about 635 kilometres are in the United States and about 255 kilometres are in Canada. The river falls 70 metres on its trip to Lake Winnipeg, where it spreads into the vast deltaic wetland known as Netley Marsh. In the United States, the Red River is sometimes called the Red River of the North; this distinguishes it from the so-called Red River of the South, a tributary of the Atchafalaya River that forms part of the border between Texas and Arkansas.
Long a highway for trade, the Red has been designated as a Canadian Heritage River. The watershed of the Red River was part of Rupert's Land, the concession established by the British Hudson's Bay Company in north central North America; the Red was a key trade route for the company, contributed to the settlement of British North America. The river was long used by fur traders, including the French and the Métis people, who established a community in this area before the British defeated France in the Seven Years' War. Following that, they took over French territory in Canada. Settlers of the Red River Colony established farming along the river, their primary settlement developed as Winnipeg, Manitoba. What became known as the Red River Trails, nineteenth-century oxcart trails developed by the Métis, supported the fur trade and these settlements, they contributed to further development of the region on both sides of the international border. The Red River begins at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers, on the border of Wahpeton, North Dakota and Breckenridge, Minnesota.
Downstream, it is bordered by the twin cities of Fargo, North Dakota – Moorhead and Grand Forks, North Dakota – East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It continues north to the province of Manitoba in Canada. Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg, is at the Red's confluence with the Assiniboine River, at a point called The Forks. Together with the Assiniboine, the Red River encloses the endorheic basin of Devils' Lake and Stump Lake; the Red flows further north before draining into Lake Winnipeg which drains through the Nelson River into Hudsons Bay, both part of the Hudson Bay watershed. The mouth of the Red River forms; the Netley Marsh is west of the Red and the Libau Marsh is east, forming a 26,000-hectare wetland. Southern Manitoba has a comparatively long frost-free season, between 120 and 140 days in the Red River Valley; the Red River flows across the flat lake bed of the ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, an enormous glacial lake created at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation from meltwaters of the Laurentide ice sheet.
As this continental glacier decayed, its meltwaters formed the lake. Over thousands of years, sediments precipitated to the bottom of the lakebed; these lacustrine soils are the parent soils of today's Red River Valley. The river is young; the word "valley" is a misnomer. While the Red River drains the region, it did not create a valley wider than a few hundred feet; the much wider floodplain is the lake bed of the ancient glacial lake. It is remarkably flat; the river and small in most seasons, does not have the energy to cut a gorge. Instead it meanders across the silty bottomlands in its progress north. In consequence, high water has nowhere to go, except to spread across the old lakebed in "overland flooding". Heavy snows or rains on saturated or frozen soil, have caused a number of catastrophic floods, which are made worse by the fact that snowmelt starts in the warmer south, waters flowing northward are dammed or slowed by ice; these periodic floods have the effect of refilling, in the ancient lake.
Major floods in historic times include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, 2009, 2011, there has been significant flooding many years in between. Geologists have found evidence of many other floods in prehistoric times of equal or greater size; these "paleofloods" are known from their effects on local landforms, have been the subject of scholarly studies. After the disastrous 1950 flood, which resulted in extensive property damage and losses in Winnipeg, Manitoba Province undertook flood prevention by constructing the Red River Floodway. Completed in 1968, it diverts floodwaters around the city to less settled areas further up the river. Grand Forks, North Dakota, East Grand Forks, suffered widespread destruction in the flood of 1997. 75% of the population in the former city was evacuated, all of the latter. Many of the residential areas along the rivers were inundated and all the homes had to be destroyed. Afterward a massive flood protection project was undertaken to protect both cities. On May 8, 1950 the Red River reached its highest level at Winnipeg since 1861.
Eight dikes protecting Winnipeg g