Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
APA Style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences, it is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association, titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The guidelines were developed to aid reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, for "word choice that best reduces bias in language". APA Style is used, either or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals, in many textbooks, in academia. Along with AMA style and CSE style, it is one of the major styles for such work; the APA got involved in journal publishing in 1923. In 1929, an APA committee had a seven-page writer's guide published in the Psychological Bulletin. In 1944, a 32-page guide appeared as an article in the same journal; the first edition of the APA Publication Manual was published in 1952 as a 61-page supplement to the Psychological Bulletin, marking the beginning of a recognized "APA style."
In response to the growing complexities of scientific reporting, subsequent editions were released in 1974, 1983, 1994, 2001, 2009. Known for the simplicity of its reference citation style, the Manual established standards for language use that had far-reaching effects. Influential were the "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals," first published as a modification to the 1974 edition, which provided practical alternatives to "sexist" language in common usage; the guidelines for reducing bias in language have been updated over the years and presently provide practical guidance for writing about race, age, sexual orientation, disability status. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the most current, it was released in July 2009 after four years of development. The Publication Manual Revision Task Force of the American Psychological Association established parameters for the revision based on published critique. To accomplish these revisions, the Task Force appointed working groups of four to nine members in seven areas: bias-free language, graphics, Journal Article Reporting Standards, references and writing style.
The APA explained the issuing of a new edition only eight years after the fifth edition by pointing to the increased use of online source or online access to academic journals. The sixth edition is accompanied by a style website, apastyle.org as well as the APA Style Blog, which answers many common questions from users. Sample papers in the first printing of the sixth edition contained errors. APA staff posted all of the corrections online for free in a single document on October 1, 2009, shortly thereafter alerted users to the existence of the corrections in an APA blog entry; these errors attracted significant attention from the scholarly community and nearly two weeks on October 13, 2009, the article "Correcting a Style Guide" was published in the online newspaper Inside Higher Ed that included interviews with several individuals, one of whom described the errors as "egregious". All copies of the printing with errors were soon after recalled in 2009 and all manuals in circulation are unaffected.
APA style is complex. Only a sample of citation and reference formats can be listed here. APA style uses an author-date reference citation system in the text with an accompanying reference list; that means that to cite any reference in a paper, the writer should cite the author and year of the work, either by putting both in parentheses separated by a comma or by putting the author in the narrative of the sentence and the year in parentheses. Example narrative citation: Schmidt and Oh described a fear among the public that the findings of science are not real. Example parenthetical citation: In our postfactual era, many members of the public fear that the findings of science are not real. In the APA reference list, the writer should provide the author, year and source of the cited work in an alphabetical list of references. If a reference is not cited in the text, it should not be included in the reference list; the reference format varies depending on the document type, but broadly speaking always follows the same pattern of author, title, source.
For book and book chapter references, only one "locator" should be provided. If a DOI is assigned to the work, give the DOI. If the item is available online but does not have a DOI, give the URL. Otherwise, give the publisher and publisher location. Note that the title of a work may be italic or not italic. If the work stands alone, italicize the title. Citation Comparison of reference management software The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2010. ISBN 978-1-4338-0562-2; the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2001. ISBN 978-1-55798-791-4. "American Psychological Association". Apa.or
Representational state transfer
Representational State Transfer is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services. Web services that conform to the REST architectural style, termed RESTful Web services, provide interoperability between computer systems on the Internet. RESTful Web services allow the requesting systems to access and manipulate textual representations of Web resources by using a uniform and predefined set of stateless operations. Other kinds of Web services, such as SOAP Web services, expose their own arbitrary sets of operations."Web resources" were first defined on the World Wide Web as documents or files identified by their URLs. However, today they have a much more generic and abstract definition that encompasses every thing or entity that can be identified, addressed, or handled, in any way whatsoever, on the Web. In a RESTful Web service, requests made to a resource's URI will elicit a response with a payload formatted in HTML, XML, JSON, or some other format.
The response can confirm that some alteration has been made to the stored resource, the response can provide hypertext links to other related resources or collections of resources. When HTTP is used, as is most common, the operations available are GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, CONNECT, OPTIONS and TRACE. By using a stateless protocol and standard operations, RESTful systems aim for fast performance and the ability to grow, by re-using components that can be managed and updated without affecting the system as a whole while it is running; the term representational state transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation. Fielding's dissertation explained the REST principles that were known as the "HTTP object model" beginning in 1994, were used in designing the HTTP 1.1 and Uniform Resource Identifiers standards. The term is intended to evoke an image of how a well-designed Web application behaves: it is a network of Web resources where the user progresses through the application by selecting resource identifiers such as http://www.example.com/articles/21 and resource operations such as GET or POST, resulting in the next resource's representation being transferred to the end user for their use.
Roy Fielding defined REST in his 2000 PhD dissertation "Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures" at UC Irvine. He developed the REST architectural style in parallel with HTTP 1.1 of 1996–1999, based on the existing design of HTTP 1.0 of 1996. In a retrospective look at the development of REST, Fielding said: The constraints of the REST architectural style affect the following architectural properties: performance in component interactions, which can be the dominant factor in user-perceived performance and network efficiency. Roy Fielding describes REST's effect on scalability. Six guiding constraints define a RESTful system; these constraints restrict the ways that the server can process and respond to client requests so that, by operating within these constraints, the system gains desirable non-functional properties, such as performance, simplicity, visibility and reliability. If a system violates any of the required constraints, it cannot be considered RESTful.
The formal REST constraints are as follows: The principle behind the client–server constraints is the separation of concerns. Separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns improves the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms, it improves scalability by simplifying the server components. Most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains; the client–server communication is constrained by no client context being stored on the server between requests. Each request from any client contains all the information necessary to service the request, session state is held in the client; the session state can be transferred by the server to another service such as a database to maintain a persistent state for a period and allow authentication. The client begins sending requests. While one or more requests are outstanding, the client is considered to be in transition.
The representation of each application state contains links that can be used the next time the client chooses to initiate a new state-transition. As on the World Wide Web and intermediaries can cache responses. Responses must therefore, implicitly or explicitly, define themselves as cacheable or not to prevent clients from getting stale or inappropriate data in response to further requests. Well-managed caching or eliminates some client–server interactions, further improving scalability and performance. A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server, or to an intermediary along the way. Intermediary servers can improve system scalability by enabling load balancing and by providing shared caches, they can enforce security policies. Servers can temporarily extend or customize the functionality of a client by transf
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers and Dissertations is a style guide for writing and formatting research papers and dissertations and is published by the University of Chicago Press. The work is referred to as "Turabian" or by the shortened title, A Manual for Writers; the style and formatting of academic works, described within the manual, is referred to as "Turabian style" or "Chicago style". The ninth edition of the manual, published in 2018, corresponds with the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Except for a few minor differences, the style and formatting described in the ninth edition of the manual is the same as the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. While The Chicago Manual of Style focuses on providing guidelines for publishing, Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers and Dissertations is intended for the creation and submission of academic works; as such, the manual describes itself as the "authoritative student resource on'Chicago style'."
Part 1 of the manual approaches the process of writing. This includes providing "practical advice" to formulate "the right questions, read critically, build arguments" as well as helping authors draft and revise a paper. Added with the seventh edition of the manual, this part is adapted from The Craft of Research. Part 2 of the manual explores the two methods of citing/documenting sources used in authoring a work: the notes-bibliography style; the notes-bibliography style is "popular in the humanities—including literature and the arts." This style has sources cited in "numbered footnotes or endnotes" with "each note correspond to a raised number in the text." This style uses a separate bibliography at the end of the document, listing each of the sources. The more-concise author-date style is more common in the physical and social sciences; this style involves sources being "briefly cited in the text in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication" with the parenthetical citations corresponding to "an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided."The manual provides extensive examples of how to cite different types of works using both citation styles.
Part 3 of the manual "addresses matters of spelling, punctuation and treatment of numbers, special terms, titles of works." This part provides guidance on including quotations from different sources as well as the formatting of tables and figures. The appendix provides specific requirements on the formatting of research papers as well as theses and dissertations. General formatting requirements include recommendations on paper and margin sizes, options as to the choice of typeface, the spacing and indentation of text and the use of titles. Formatting requirements for specific elements include the ordering and formatting of content in the front matter, main matter, back matter of a work; the appendix includes a description on preparing and submitting files, both electronically and as hard copies. On the formatting and style, the manual notes that it "may be supplemented—or overruled—by the conventions of specific disciplines or the preferences of particular institutions, departments or instructors."
More so, the manual reminds students to "review the requirements of their university, department, or instructor, which take precedence over the guidelines presented." A Manual for Writers of Research Papers and Dissertations, Ninth Edition Turabian Home Page Turabian Formatting for LaTeX The Chicago Manual of Style Online Purdue Online Writing Lab: Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition ZoteroBib BibMe Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide
Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
A permalink or permanent link is a URL, intended to remain unchanged for many years into the future, yielding a hyperlink, less susceptible to link rot. Permalinks are rendered that is, as friendly URLs, so as to be easy for people to type and remember. Most modern blogging and content-syndication software systems support such links. Sometimes URL shortening is used to create them. A permalink is a type of persistent identifier and the word permalink is sometimes used as a synonym of persistent identifier. More though, permalink is applied to persistent identifiers which are generated by a content management system for pages served by that system; this usage is common in the blogosphere. Such links are not maintained by an outside authority, their persistence is dependent on the durability of the content management system itself. In the early years of the web, all content was static, thus all hyperlinks pointed at a filename. Soon, many web pages became dynamic, many URLs began to include query terms.
One cited early use of the term permalink in its current sense was by Jason Kottke on March 5, 2000, in a post titled: "Finally. Did you notice the". Matt Haughey had discussed a permalink style feature with Blogger co-founders Evan Williams and Paul Bausch the previous weekend, Bausch had pointed out that it was technically feasible to produce permanent links in Blogger, using a feature that allowed the ID of a post to be placed in a Blogger template. In response to Kottke's blog, on March 6, 2000, Matt Haughey posted the technical details on his own weblog, which helped open the way to widespread adoption. Permanence in links is desirable when content items are to be linked to, from, or cited by a source outside the originating organization. Before the advent of large-scale dynamic websites built on database-backed content management systems, it was more common for URLs of specific pieces of content to be static and human readable, as URL structure and naming were dictated by the entity creating that content.
Increased volume of content and difficulty of management led to the rise of database-driven systems, the resulting unwieldy and often-changing URLs necessitated deliberate policies with regard to URL design and link permanence. For example, Wikipedia's internal cgi-based URLs are made more readable by simplifying them; the internal URI for a Wikipedia article named Example, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Example, is generated via URL rewriting from the more human-readable external URL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Example. An entry in a blog with many entries is accessible from the site's front page for only a short time. Visitors who store the URL for a particular entry find upon their return that the desired content has been replaced by something new. Prominently posting permalinks is a method employed by bloggers to encourage visitors to store a more long-lived URL for reference. Permalinks consist of a string of characters that represent the date and time of posting, an identifier that denotes the author who authored the item or its subject.
Crucially, if an item is changed, renamed, or moved within the internal database, its permalink remains unaltered, as it functions as a magic cookie that references an internal database identifier. If an item is deleted altogether, its permalink can not be reused. Permalinks have subsequently been exploited for a number of innovations, including link tracing and link trackback in weblogs, referring to specific weblog entries in RSS or Atom syndication streams. Both permalink and PURL are used as a persistent URL, redirect to the location of the requested web resource; the main differences in the concepts are about domain name and time scale: PURL uses an independent domain name, is about decades. Many blogging and content management systems do not support versioning of content, that is, if an entry is updated, a uniquely accessible version is not created. Thus, in the context of these systems, a permalink may refer to different content over time. In the context of systems that support versioning, such as most wikis, a permalink is understood as a link to a specific version.
Here, both the link itself and the resource it refers to should not change over time. MediaWiki, the software that runs Wikipedia, supports this type of permanent link. In its current implementation, old versions of specific articles and templates are referenceable by unique unchanging URLs, though current entries may not use old versions of images and templates. Permanent links to specific versions are recommended for citing articles from sources such as Wikipedia and Wikinews, to ensure that the content remains unchanged for review. A reviewer can view the cited revision, the current revision, the differences between the two. Blog entries are laid out as follows: Title Date Entry Google Comments and what category the entry was posted to Permalinks are denoted by text link, but sometimes a symbol may be used; the most common symbol used is the hash sign, or #. However, certain websites employ their own symbol to represent a permalink such as an asterisk, a dash, a pilcrow, a section sign, or a unique icon.
Permalinks can be indicated within the HTML of a page so as to allow automated browsing tools to detect the permalink and use it for linking instead of the stated URL. The link element should include the following attributes: Persistent identifier Deep linking Digital object identifier Persistent uniform resource locator Purple Numbers (paragraph-level identifi