Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Such representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist, some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, and so on. Rather confusingly, the meaning of genre, covering any particular combination of an artistic medium. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious. But history paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works, the following concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts, especially from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single figures or small groups decorated a huge variety of such as porcelain, wallpaper. Genre painting, called genre scene or petit genre, depicts aspects of life by portraying ordinary people engaged in common activities. A work would often be considered as a genre work even if it could be shown that the artist had used a known member of his family.
In this case it would depend on whether the work was likely to have intended by the artist to be perceived as a portrait—sometimes a subjective question. The depictions can be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist, because of their familiar and frequently sentimental subject matter, genre paintings have often proven popular with the bourgeoisie, or middle class. Genre themes appear in all art traditions. These were part of a pattern of Mannerist inversion in Antwerp painting, giving low elements previously in the background of images prominent emphasis. The generally small scale of these paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. Often the subject of a painting was based on a popular emblem from an Emblem book. The merry company showed a group of figures at a party, other common types of scenes showed markets or fairs, village festivities, or soldiers in camp. In Italy, a school of painting was stimulated by the arrival in Rome of the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer in 1625.
He acquired the nickname Il Bamboccio and his followers were called the Bamboccianti, whose works would inspire Giacomo Ceruti, Antonio Cifrondi, jean-Baptiste Greuze and others painted detailed and rather sentimental groups or individual portraits of peasants that were to be influential on 19th-century painting. Spain had a tradition predating The Book of Good Love of social observation and commentary based on the Old Roman Latin tradition, practiced by many of its painters and illuminators
Christian Gottlieb Vilhelm Bissen was a Danish sculptor, son of Herman Wilhelm Bissen. He is mainly known for a number of statues around Copenhagen, including the statue of Absalon on Højbro Plads. He was a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts with great influence on the generation of Danish sculptors. Vilhelm Bissen was born in 1830 as the son of Herman Wilhelm Bissen, upon his fathers death in 1868, he returned to Denmark to continue his workshop and complete his ongoing projects. These included most notably the statue of King Frederik VII for the plaza in front of Christiansborg Palace. He produced a number of animal sculptures of which the birds on the Stork Fountain on Amagertorv are the most famous. Bissen was trained in the Neoclassical tradition from Bertel Thorvaldsen but after a stay in Paris around 1880, with the equestrian statue of Absalon he turned to Neo-romanticism
Cemetery of Holmen
Holmens Cemetery is the oldest cemetery still in use in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was first located next to the naval Church of Holmen in the city centre, the cemetery originally served as a burial site for indigent sailors in royal service and their families, complementing the military Garnisons Cemetery, from 1711 located on a neighbouring site. When the anchor forge at Bremerholm was converted into a church by Christian IV in 1619. The grounds had already been in use as a cemetery since 1662 but was inaugurated as the new Holmens Cemetery in 1666, the existing layout of the cemetery was created by sær F. C. Schmidt in 1798. The chapel at Holmens Cemetery was built in 1902 to the design of architect and he favoured the Historicist styles and in Copenhagen he had already designed St. James Church in a Gothic Revival style and St. Mathews Cgurch in a Romanesque Revival style. In his design of the chapel at Holmens Cemetery he relied on traditional Nordic stave churches for inspiration, there is a memorial for naval personnel killed in the Battle of Copenhagen from 1802.
It consists of a tumulus topped by an obelisk designed by Johannes Wiedewelt and open spaces in Copenhagen Official web site
Nicolai Wilhelm Marstrand and illustrator, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Nicolai Jacob Marstrand, instrument maker and inventor, and Petra Othilia Smith. Marstrand is one of the most renowned artists belonging to the Golden Age of Danish Painting, Marstrand studied at Copenhagens Metropolitan School, but had little interest in books, and left around 16 years of age. Wilhelm had already shown talent, tackling difficult subjects such as group scenes with many figures. At 16 years of age Marstrand thus began his studies at the Academy under Eckersberg, history painting displayed what was grand – classical themes from mythology and history, rather than daily life. The traditions, and the taste of art critics, strongly favored it. At the same time Christian Waagepetersen, wine merchant to the Danish court and supporter of the arts and his painting A musical evening party, depicts such an occasion at the home of Waagepetersen, and was an important transition painting for Marstrand. Despite an unmistakably growing recognition, Marstrand never received the Academys gold medal and this medal was coveted not only for its great prestige, but because it came with a travel stipend for furthering the laureates artistic training.
Marstrands attempts at winning the medal were both in 1833 with his neoclassical Flight to Egypt and in 1835 with Odysseus and Nausikaa. This was a disappointment, as he had won both silver medals in 1833. Gold medal or not however, the Academy did award Marstrand a travel stipend, in August 1836 he began the first of his many travels, going by way of Germany to Rome in Italy, stopping on the way at Berlin, Dresden and Munich. In Italy, where he stayed for four years, he painted many idealized depictions of daily life, especially festivities. He returned to Italy several times, the last visit being in 1869, and he was enchanted with Italy and with the ways of life of the Italian people. He portrayed a colorful and romantic view of them and he painted a number of portraits during this first stay in Italy. Among these are portraits of other travelling Danish artists, such as Christen Købke and he completed sketches for a large portrait of botanist and politician, J. F. Schouw, which would be realized as a painting.
Marstrand returned to Denmark at the end of 1841, stopping in Munich, in Denmark he strove to bring back that which he learned in Italy, and allow it to develop in his home culture. He became a member of the art Academy on 19 June 1843 and he became a professor at the Academy in 1848. He endeavored to let his students according to their own skills. Among these were the two most renowned Skagen painters Peder Severin Krøyer and Michael Ancher, as well as Carl Bloch, Marstrand continued to travel regularly around Europe throughout his life, to, at times in the company of such fellow artists such as P. C
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Order of the Dannebrog
The Order of the Dannebrog is an Order of Denmark, instituted in 1671 by Christian V. In 1808, the Order was reformed and divided into four classes, the Grand Commander class is reserved to persons of princely origin. It is only awarded to royalty with close ties with the Danish Royal House. The statute of the Order was amended in 1951 by a Royal Ordinance so that men and women could be members of the Order. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Dannebrog cross with a red enamelled border, for the Knights in silver and for everyone else in gold or silver gilt. On its reverse are found the crowned royal cyphers of Valdemar II Sejr, Christian V and Frederik VI, as well as the years 1219,1671 and 1808, in each of the four angles of the cross is found a small Danish royal crown. The Grand Cross can, as an honor, be awarded with diamonds. There is a Cross of Honour, when the collar is worn the sash is not worn. The star of the Order is a silver star with straight rays with an enamelled Dannebrog cross at the centre.
The breast cross of the Order is similar to the cross on the star but larger and with faceted silver instead of white enamel, the ribbon of the Order is white silk moiré with red borders, the national colours of Denmark. The Order originally had a distinctive habit worn by the knights on very solemn occasions, over this red mantle was worn a short white shoulder cape with a standing collar embroidered in gold, upon which was worn the collar of the Order. The habit had a hat with a plume of white. This habit was almost identical to that worn by the knights of the Order of the Elephant, each Danish ministry has a quota of Knights and Knights 1st class that they may use at their discretion. It is most often given to high-ranking officers of the police, armed forces, used for politicians in Folketinget after 8 years of elected service. Ministers are given the rank of Knight 1st Class, the rank of Commander is given to Colonels and other high-ranking officials as a retirement-decoration after long service.
Commander 1st class is given for Admirals, Supreme-court judges, Grand Cross is most often used for admirals, Supreme-court judges and similar as a reward for very meritorious service to Denmark. Grand Cross with Breaststar with Diamonds is most often given to high-ranking officers of the Royal Court, the Grand Commander grade is only given to 8 people. The reigning monarch is always a Grand Commander, and he/she may give the grade to 7 others - most often close family, the Order of the Dannebrog is often used as a tool of diplomacy
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life
Eric V of Denmark
Eric V Klipping was King of Denmark and son of Christopher I. Until 1264 he ruled under the auspices of his mother, the competent Queen Dowager Margaret Sambiria, between 1261 and 1262, Eric was a prisoner in Holstein following a military defeat. Afterwards, he was brought up in Brandenburg, the king’s nickname ”Klipping” or ”Glipping” refers to a medieval coin that has become ”clipped” or cut in order to indicate devaluation. A former popular explanation—that Eric blinked more than usual —is now generally rejected, the nickname is an unkind reference to his lack of trustworthiness. He short-changed his people and the monarchy, when his father Christopher was murdered, Prince Eric was too young to rule in his own right. The Danish court appointed his mother, Queen Margaret Sambiria as regent and she was the daughter of Count Sambor II of Pomerania and was a clever and intelligent woman. Taking advantage of the situation Chief Jarimar II of Rügen gathered an army of Wends, Queen Margaret raised an army but was soundly defeated in 1259 near Ringsted.
Jarimar went on to attack and pillage Copenhagen that year and he shipped his army to Skåne to continue his campaign. Unfortunately for him, he encountered the wrath of a farmers wife, the Wends fled back to Rűgen. Believing the Wendish incursion showed the Queen was weak, Duke Valdemar rebelled, the queen was forced to raise another army and march to Jutland to put the duke in his place. She defeated the duke, and while he negotiated a truce with her, the combined forces defeated Queen Margaret at the Battle of Lo Heath. She and her son Eric were captured and she was forced to cede all royal properties in southern Jutland to secure her release. Margaret released Archbishop Erlandsen from prison thinking he would be grateful, in 1263, acting as regent of Denmark, the queen wrote to Pope Urban IV asking him to intervene with Archbishop Erlandsen. After several years of quibbling, the agreed to several items the queen wanted. Urban IV issued a dispensation to alter the terms of the Danish succession that would permit women to inherit the Danish throne.
This would make it possible for one of Erics sisters to become the reigning Queen of Denmark in the event of Eric Vs death because he had no children, although Urban IV gave his consent, it never became an issue. Erics son, Eric Menved eventually succeeded to the Danish throne, as an adult ruler, Eric tried to enforce his power over the church and nobility. In the 1270s, Eric Glipping attacked Småland and his conflict with the church was brought to a satisfying result, with the help of the pope
Roskilde, located 30 km west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality. With a population of 50,046, the city is a business and educational centre for the region, Roskilde is governed by the administrative council of Roskilde Municipality. Roskilde has a history, dating from the pre-Christian Viking Age. Its UNESCO-listed Gothic cathedral, now housing 39 tombs of the Danish monarchs, was completed in 1275, among the largest private sector employers today are the IT firm BEC and GPI, specializing in plastics. The Risø research facility is becoming a major employer, extending interest in sustainable energy to the clean technology sphere. The local university, founded in 1972, the historic Cathedral School, Roskilde has a large local hospital which has been expanded and modernized since it was opened in 1855. It is now active in the research sphere. The Sankt Hans psychiatric hospital serves the Capital Region with specialized facilities for forensic psychiatry, the cathedral and the Viking Ship Museum, which contains the well-preserved remains of five 11th-century ships, attract more than 100,000 visitors annually.
The city is home to the FC Roskilde football club play in the Danish 1st Division, the Roskilde Vikings RK rugby club. In the 1970s, the city benefited from the opening of the university, Roskilde has the oldest operational railway station in Denmark, with connections across Zealand as well as with Falster and Jutland. The local airport opened in 1973, mainly serving light aircraft for business use, from the 11th century until 1443, it was the capital of Denmark. By the Middle Ages, with the support of kings and bishops, the Saxo Grammaticus and other early sources associate the name Roskilde with the legendary King Roar who possibly lived there in the 6th century. According to Adam of Bremen and the Saxo Grammaticus, Roskilde was founded in the 980s by Harald Bluetooth, on high ground above the harbour, he built a wooden church consecrated to the Holy Trinity as well as a royal residence nearby. Although no traces of buildings have been discovered, in 1997 archaeologists found the remains of Viking ships in the Isefjord.
At the time, there were two churches in the area, St Jørgensbjerg, an early stone church, and a wooden church discovered under todays St Ibs Church. Harald was buried in the church he had built on the site of todays Roskilde Cathedral. In 1020, King Canute elevated Roskilde to a bishopric, giving it high national status, the Danish bishop, had a brick church built on the site of Haralds church in 1170. Todays cathedral was completed in 1275 after five of Absalons successors had contributed to its construction, as a result of Absalons influence, many other churches were built in the vicinity, making Roskilde the most important town in Zealand
Ferdinand Meldahl was a Danish architect best known for the reconstruction of Frederiksborg Castle after the fire in 1859. Meldahl was one of the proponents of historicism in Denmark. As a member of the council of Copenhagen Municipality for 27 years from 1866. In 1857, he became a member of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and he was its manager from 1873 to 1890. In 1904, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order on the occasion of the visit of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. At the time he was Chamberlain to the King Christian IX of Denmark, city Hall of Fredericia Alþingishúsið in Reykjavík Reconstruction of Frederiksborg Palace after the fire in 1859 Completion of Frederiks Church in Copenhagen Ferdinand Meldahl. Schiødte, Erik Meldahl, Ferdinand in Bricka, Carl Frederik Dansk Biografisk Lexikon, tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537-1814, XI. bind, Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, pp. 250–53