Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, situated on the Upper Rhine about 60 kilometres south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main. It had 82,000 inhabitants as of 2015. A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, was an important palatinate of Charlemagne. Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages as an Imperial Free City. Among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, the Diet of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic. Today, the city is famed as the origin of Liebfraumilch wine. Other industries include metal goods and fodder. Worms is located on the west bank of the river Rhine between the cities of Mainz.
On the northern edge of the city the Pfrimm flows into the Rhine, on the southern edge the Eisbach flows into the Rhine. Worms has 13 boroughs around the city centre, they are as follows: The climate in the Rhine Valley is temperate in winter and quite enjoyable in summer. Rainfall is below average for the surrounding areas. Winter snow accumulation is low and melts quickly. Worms was in ancient times a Celtic city named Borbetomagus meaning "water meadow", it was conquered by the Germanic Vangiones. In 14 BC, Romans under the command of Drusus captured and fortified the city, from that time onwards a small troop of infantry and cavalry were garrisoned there; the Romans renamed the city after the then-emperor and the local tribe. The name does not seem to have taken hold and the German Worms developed from Borbetomagus; the garrison grew into a small town with a regular Roman street plan, a forum, temples for the main gods Jupiter, Juno and Mars. Roman inscriptions and votive offerings can be seen in the archaeological museum, along with one of Europe's largest collections of Roman glass.
Local potters worked in the town's south quarter. Fragments of amphoras contain traces of olive oil from Hispania Baetica, doubtless transported by sea and up the Rhine by ship. During the disorders of 411–13 AD, the Roman usurper Jovinus established himself in Borbetomagus as a puppet-emperor with the help of King Gunther of the Burgundians, who had settled in the area between the Rhine and Moselle some years before; the city became the capital of the Burgundian kingdom under Gunther. Few remains of this early Burgundian kingdom survive, because in 436 it was all but destroyed by a combined army of Romans and Huns. Provoked by Burgundian raids against Roman settlements, the combined Romano-Hunnic army destroyed the Burgundian army at the Battle of Worms, killing King Gunther, it is said. The Romans led; the story of this war inspired the Nibelungenlied. The city appears on the Peutinger Map, dated to the 4th century. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, with an earlier mention in 346.
In the Frankish Empire, the city was the location of an important palatinate of Charlemagne, who built one of his many administrative palaces here. The bishops administered its territory; the most famous of the early medieval bishops was Burchard of Worms. Worms Cathedral, dedicated to St Peter, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Alongside the nearby Romanesque cathedrals of Speyer and Mainz, it is one of the so-called Kaiserdome; some parts in early Romanesque style from the 10th century still exist, while most parts are from the 11th and 12th century, with some additions in Gothic style. Four other Romanesque churches as well as the Romanesque old city fortification still exist, making the city Germany's second in Romanesque architecture only to Cologne. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages. Having received far-reaching privileges from King Henry IV as early as 1074, the city became an Imperial Free City, being independent of any local ruler and responsible only to the Holy Roman Emperor himself.
As a result, Worms was the site of several important events in the history of the Empire. In 1122 the Concordat of Worms was signed. Most important, among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, that of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms, in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic after refusing to recant his religious beliefs. Worms was the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, both Martin Luther's German Bible and William Tyndale's first complete English New Testament by 1526; the city, known in medieval Hebrew by the name Varmayza or Vermaysa, was a centre of medieval Ashkenazic Judaism. The Jewish community was established there in the late 10th century, Worms's first synagogue was erected in 1034. In 1096, eight hundred Jews were murdered by the local mob; the Jewish Cemetery in Worms, dating from the 11th century, is believed to be the oldest surviv
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Agnes of Waiblingen
Agnes of Waiblingen known as Agnes of Germany, Agnes of Poitou and Agnes of Saarbrücken, was a member of the Salian imperial family. Through her first marriage, she was Duchess of Swabia, she was the daughter of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Bertha of Savoy. In 1079, aged seven, Agnes was betrothed to a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; the couple married in 1086. They had eleven children, named in a document found in the abbey of Lorsch: Hedwig-Eilike, married Friedrich, Count of Legenfeld Bertha-Bertrade, married Adalbert, Count of Elchingen Frederick II of Swabia Hildegard Conrad III of Germany Gisihild-Gisela Heinrich Beatrix, became an abbess Kunigunde-Cuniza, wife of Henry X, Duke of Bavaria Sophia, married a count Adalbert Fides-Gertrude, married Hermann III, Count Palatine of the Rhine Following Frederick's death in 1105, Agnes married Leopold III, the Margrave of Austria. According to a legend, a veil lost by Agnes and found by Leopold years while hunting was the instigation for him to found the Klosterneuburg Monastery.
Their children were: Leopold IV Henry II of Austria Berta, married Heinrich of Regensburg Agnes, "one of the most famous beauties of her time", married Wladyslaw II of Poland Ernst Uta, wife of Liutpold von Plain Otto of Freising and biographer Conrad, Bishop of Passau, Archbishop of Salzburg Elizabeth, married Hermann, Count of Winzenburg Judith, m. c. 1133 William V of Montferrat. Their children formed an important Crusading dynasty. Gertrude, married Vladislav II of BohemiaAccording to the Continuation of the Chronicles of Klosterneuburg, there may have been up to seven other children stillborn or who died in infancy. In 1125, Agnes' brother, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, died childless, leaving Agnes and her children as heirs to the Salian dynasty's immense allodial estates, including Waiblingen. In 1127, Agnes' second son, Konrad III, was elected as the rival King of Germany by those opposed to the Saxon party's Lothar III; when Lothar died in 1137, Konrad was elected to the position. Karl Lechner, Die Babenberger, 1992.
Brigitte Vacha & Walter Pohl, Die Welt der Babenberger: Schleier, Kreuz und Schwert, Graz, 1995. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Line 45-24 I. S. Robsinson, Henry IV of Germany, 1056-1106. H. Decker-Hauff, Die Zeit der Staufer, vol. III
Scheyern Abbey also Scheyern Priory is a house of the Benedictine Order in Scheyern in Bavaria. The monastery at Scheyern was established in 1119 as the final site of the community founded in around 1077 at Bayrischzell by Countess Haziga of Aragon, wife of Otto II, Count of Scheyern, the ancestors of the Wittelsbachs; the first monks were from Hirsau Abbey, of which the new monastery was a priory, founded as it was against the background of the Investiture Controversy and the Hirsau Reforms. The original site proved unsuitable for a number of reasons, including difficulties with water supply, the monastery moved in 1087 to Fischbachau; when that site too proved unsuitable, they moved to Petersberg, in 1104. When Haziga, the widowed Countess of Scheyern, left Burg Scheyern in 1119 for Burg Wittelsbach, the castle from which the family subsequently took their name, the old castle, constructed in about 940, was given to the monks at Petersberg and became Scheyern Abbey, independent of Hirsau.
Scheyern was considered a Wittelsbach family monastery, which they used as a place of burial until 1253. The Wittelsbachs retained the office of Vogt; the dedication is to the Holy Cross and the Assumption of the Virgin Mary: the abbey has had in its possession since 1180 a relic of the Holy Cross from Jerusalem, is still today a place of pilgrimage for this reason. By the 13th century the abbey had gained a reputation for its school of illumination and its scriptorium, it suffered severely in the Thirty Years' War and did not participate afterwards in the Baroque revival to the same extent as other monasteries in Bavaria. In the 18th century however it was refurbished in the style of the Rococo. On 15 November 1802 the monastery came under the governance of the territorial rulers, on 21 March 1803 was dissolved as part of the secularisation of Bavaria; the buildings were sold, changed hands several times in a short period. In 1838 however under Ludwig I of Bavaria the monastery was re-established, re-settled by monks from Metten Abbey.
Between 1876 and 1878 the church, now serving both the community and the parish, was restored to the Romanesque style. Scheyern now possesses a Byzantine Institute, specialising in the works of Saint John of Damascus, it enjoys historical links with Hungary. Scheyern Abbey is a member of the Bavarian Congregation of the Benedictine Confederation. Shortly after the re-establishment in 1838, a grammar school was opened. In 1939 all schools run by religious orders, including Scheyern Abbey's. After World War II a humanistic Gymnasium was opened here, it was replaced however in 1970 by the Schyrengymnasium in Pfaffenhofen. Once the transfer to the new school was complete, the monastery set up a residential high school for vocational training, the Staatliche Berufsoberschule, a type of school, considered experimental at the time, it is still in operation. Otto I of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria Louis I, Duke of Bavaria Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria Scheyern Abbey website Klöster in Bayern: Scheyern
The Hirschberg is a 1,670-metre-high mountain in the Bavarian Fore-alps south of Lake Tegernsee. The summit may be reached via a gentle mountain path either from Scharling, Kreuth or Bad Wiessee, all three routes being classified as not difficult. Below the summit at a height of 1,520 m is the Hirschberghaus restaurant, open all-year; the Hirschberg is the Tegernsee's observation point with an extensive panorama in all directions of the compass. In winter it is climbed by skiers on foot from Scharling; the path is a gentle walk via the toboggan run as far as Hirschlacke becomes steep and, in places, icy as it runs along the so-called Kratzer to the Hirschberghaus and along the open ridge to the summit. The summer route should not be used at that time of year; the aforementioned Kratzer is a 1,544 m high sub-peak of the Hirschberg with a summit cross and the Hirschberghaus. Hirschberg mountain walks – route description with photographs Hirschberg ski tour – route description with photographs Steinmandl tour descrioption
Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia
Meinhard II redirects here, it can refer to Meinhard II, Count of Gorizia. Meinhard II, a member of the House of Gorizia, ruled the County of Gorizia and the County of Tyrol together with his younger brother Albert from 1258, until in 1271 they divided their heritage and Meinhard became sole ruler of Tyrol. In 1286 he was enfeoffed with the adjacent March of Carniola. Meinhard II was the son of Count Meinhard III of Gorizia and his wife Adelheid and heiress of Count Albert IV of Tyrol, his father had acquired the County of Tyrol upon the death of his father-in-law in 1253 and had attempted to gain control over neighbouring Carinthian lands against the forces of Duke Bernhard von Spanheim. However, he was defeated near Greifenburg and had to leave his minor sons Meinhard II and Albert held in hostage by Duke Bernhard's son, Archbishop-elect Philip of Salzburg. After their father's death in 1258, Meinhard II and his brother emerged from the Salzburg custody at Hohenwerfen Castle to secure their Gorizia-Tyrol heritage.
In 1259 Meinhard married Elisabeth of Wittelsbach, the widow of the Hohenstaufen king Conrad IV of Germany, about ten years his senior. The joint rule with Albert came to an end, when the inheritance rights to Gorizia and Tyrol were divided in 1271. Meinhard received the County of Tyrol, becoming the progenitor of the Gorizia-Tyrol line of the Meinhardiner dynasty, he and his wife Elisabeth founded Stams Abbey as a proprietary monastery in 1273. The count struggled to acquire the lordship over the Prince-Bishoprics of Trento and Brixen, extended his Tyrolean lands down the Adige River to Salorno, acquired several territories in the Inn valley including the important salt mines around Hall, he turned out to be a capable ruler, therefore is known as the creator of Tyrol as an autonomous Imperial State. Meinhard had roads built and coins minted the silver coin Zwainziger; the type was copied elsewhere in Europe and became known as Groschen. In 1267 Count Meinhard had once again tried to strengthen the ties with the Hohenstaufen dynasty by accompanying his stepson Conradin of Swabia on his campaign to Italy.
However, after Conradin's defeat at the Battle of Tagliacozzo and his execution in 1268, he had to seek new allies. He became a close associate of Count Rudolf of Habsburg, elected King of the Romans in 1273 and stuck in a fierce conflict with the mighty king Ottokar II of Bohemia around several "alienated" Imperial territories, which Ottokar had acquired during the preceding interregnum. In 1276 Meinhard married his daughter Elisabeth off to Rudolf's eldest son Albert. Meinhard backed Rudolf's campaign against Ottokar and in turn received Carinthia with the Carniolan march as a pledge in 1276. After Ottokar's defeat in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, King Rudolf formally elevated Meinhard to a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and vested him with the Duchy of Carinthia as a fief at the Imperial Diet of Augsburg in 1286. On September 1, Meinhard was enthroned at the Duke's Chair and thus became the first Carinthian duke of the Gorizia-Tyrol dynasty. In 1286–9 Meinhard issued a vernacular Tyrolean Landrecht, albeit only fragmentarily transmitted upon today.
As far as can be ascertained, he had no ancestry in earlier Carinthian ducal families, whereas he was a distant descendant of some early Meranian lords of Istria and Carniola. His investiture of the duchy included a provision that in extinction of his male line, the House of Habsburg would be its heir; this materialized in 1335 upon the death of his son Henry. The Habsburgs acquired the County of Tyrol from Henry's daughter Margaret in 1363. Meinhard died in 1295 at Greifenburg in Carinthia, his younger son Henry succeeded him as Carinthian duke and in 1307 was elected King of Bohemia. Meinhard's wife from 1258 was Elisabeth of Wittelsbach, the daughter of Duke Otto II of Bavaria and widow of King Conrad IV of Germany, thus he was the stepfather of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia and claimant of the Kingdom of Sicily, executed in 1268. With Elisabeth he had the following children: Elisabeth, married Albert of Habsburg, Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282, King of Germany from 1298 Otto III, Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tyrol, married Euphemia, daughter of the Piast duke Henry V of Legnica Albert II, Count of Tyrol, died 1292, married Agnes of Hohenberg in 1281, daughter of Albert II of Hohenberg-Rotenburg, Count of Hohenberg and Haigerloch, who belonged to a cadet branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
Their daughter, Margaret of Görz-Tyrol, married Frederick IV of Burgrave of Nuremberg. Louis, Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tyrol, died 1305 Henry, Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tyrol, married Anne Přemyslovna, daughter of the King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. Hermann Wiesflecker, Meinhard der Zweite. Tirol, Kärnten und ihre Nachbarländer am Ende des 13. Jhs.. Innsbruck: Wagner 1955, Reprint 1995. Eines Fürsten Traum. Meinhard II.—Das Werden Tirols. Catalogue, Dorf Tirol—Innsbruck 1995
Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. He is known as Ludwig II or Louis II as Duke of Bavaria, as Louis the Strict. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate, she was a daughter of the Welf Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, her grandfathers were Henry XII the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen. In 1246, the young Louis supported his brother-in-law King Conrad IV of Germany against the usurpation of Heinrich Raspe. In 1251, Louis was at war again against the bishop of Regensburg. Louis succeeded his father Otto as Duke of Bavaria in 1253; when the Wittelsbach country was divided in 1255 among Otto's sons, Louis received the Palatinate and Upper Bavaria making him the duke of Upper Bavaria, while his brother duke Henry XIII of Bavaria received Lower Bavaria making him the duke of Lower Bavaria. This partition was against the law and therefore caused the anger of the bishops in Bavaria who allied themselves with king Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1257.
During the German interregnum, after King William's death in 1256, Louis supported King Richard of Cornwall. In August 1257 King Ottokar invaded Bavaria, but Louis and Henry managed to repulse the attack, it was one of the rare concerted and harmonious actions of the two brothers, who argued. The main residences of Louis were at Alter Hof located at the north-eastern part of Munich and Heidelberg Castle; as one of the Prince-electors of the empire, he was involved in the royal elections for forty years. Together with his brother, Louis aided his young Hohenstaufen nephew Conradin in his duchy of Swabia, but it was not possible to enforce Conradin's election as German king; as a result of his support for the Hohenstaufen, Louis was banned by the pope in 1266. In 1267 when his nephew crossed the Alps with an army, Louis accompanied Conradin only to Verona. After the young prince's execution in Naples in 1268, Louis inherited some of Conradin's possessions in Swabia and supported the election of the Habsburg Rudolph I against Ottokar II in 1273.
On 26 August 1278, the armies of Rudolph and Louis met Ottokar's forces on the banks of the River March in the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen where Ottokar was defeated and killed. In 1289, the electoral dignity of Bavaria passed to Bohemia again, but Louis remained an elector as Count Palatine of the Rhine. After Rudolph's death in 1291, Louis could not enforce the election of his Habsburg brother-in-law Albert I against Adolf of Nassau. Louis died at Heidelberg on February 2, 1294, he was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Rudolf I who had Adolf of Nassau as his father-in-law a few months later. Louis was buried in the crypt of Fürstenfeld Abbey. Louis II was married three times, he had his first wife Maria of Brabant—a daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen—beheaded in 1256, on suspicion of adultery. Any actual guilt on her part could never be validated; as expiation, Louis founded the Cistercian friary Fürstenfeld Abbey near Munich. Different sources tell varying tales about how this happened: In 1256, Louis had been away from home for an extended time due to his responsibilities as a sovereign in the area of the Rhine.
His wife wrote two letters, one to her husband, another to the earl of Kyburg at Hunsrück, a vassal of Louis. Details about the actual content of the second letter vary, but according to the chroniclers, the messenger who carried the letter to Ludwig had been given the wrong one, Louis came to the conclusion that his wife had a secret love affair. Over time a great many tales of folklore sprang up around Louis' deed, most of them written long after his death: Ballad-mongers embellished the tale into a murderous frenzy during which Louis not only killed his wife after having ridden home for five days and nights, but stabbed the messenger who brought him the wrong letter. Several more restrained chronicles support the account of Marie's execution on January 18, 1256 at Mangoldstein Castle in Donauwörth by ducal decree for alleged adultery, but nothing beyond that. Louis married his second wife Anna of Glogau in 1260, they had the following children: a nun in Marienberg abbey at Boppard. Agnes.
Ludwig. He married his third wife Matilda of Habsburg, one of king Rudolph's daughters, on 24 October 1273, their children were: Rudolf I. Mechthild, married 1288 to Duke Otto II of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Agnes, married firstly in 1290 Landgrave Henry "the Younger" of Hesse and secondly 1298/1303 Henry I "Lackland", Margrave of Brandenburg. Anna, a nun in Ulm. Ludwig IV. Louis II was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Rudolf I. German wiki entry for Ludwig II. Genealogy of Ludwig II