German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level, for example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers is regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig, duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas. A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving, since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library, the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek.
After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books already in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony, starting January 1,1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director, the Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel, the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the room of the former Rothschild library. As a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a library for the GDR. Two national bibliographic catalogues almost identical in content were published annually, with the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library.
The Law regarding the German National Library came into force on 29 June 2006, the expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germanys cultural heritage. The Librarys highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag, the law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, since then, music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration. The 210,000 works of printed music previously held by GEMA were transferred to DMA, additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications German-language exile journals 1933–1945, consisting of around 100,000 pages.
These collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most frequently visited sites of the German National Library, in June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons. The digitised versions are available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only
The Reich Chancellery was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany in the period of the German Reich from 1871 to 1945. The Chancellerys seat from 1875 was the city palace of Prince Antoni Radziwiłł on Wilhelmstraße in Berlin. Both the palace and a new Reich Chancellery building were damaged during World War II. Today the office of the German chancellor is usually called Kanzleramt, the latter is the name of the new seat of the Chancellors Office, completed in 2001. After the unification of Germany on January 18,1871 by accession of the South German states, in 1869 the Prussian state government had acquired the Rococo city palace of late Prince Radziwiłł on Wilhelmstraße No. 77, which from 1875 was refurbished as the building of the Chancellery. It was inaugurated with the meetings of the Berlin Congress in July 1878, in the days of the Weimar Republic the Chancellery was significantly enlarged by the construction of a Modern southern annex finished in 1930. The Hitler Cabinet held few meetings here, in 1935 the architects Paul Troost and Leonhard Gall redesigned the interior as Hitlers domicile.
They added a large reception hall/ballroom and conservatory, officially known as the Festsaal mit Wintergarten in the garden area, the latter addition was unique because of the large cellar that led a further one-and-a-half meters down to an air-raid shelter known as the Vorbunker. The two bunkers were connected by a set at right angles which could be closed off from each other. Devastated by air raids and the Battle of Berlin, the ruins of the Old Reich Chancellery were not cleared until 1950, Hitler commented that Bismarcks Old Chancellery was fit for a soap company but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. Old and New Chancellery shared the garden area with the underground Führerbunker. Speer claimed in his autobiography that he completed the task of clearing the site, constructing, in fact, preliminary planning and versions of the designs were already being worked on as early as 1935. To clear the space for the New Reich Chancellery, the buildings on the side of Voßstraße No. 2–10 had already demolished in 1937.
Hitler placed the northern side of the Voßstraße at Speers disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls. Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock, Speer recalls that the whole work force — masons, plumbers, etc. were invited to inspect the finished building. Hitler addressed the workers in the Sportpalast, interior fittings were not finished until the early 1940s
Neue Kirche, Berlin
The Neue Kirche, is located in Berlin on the Gendarmenmarkt across from French Church of Friedrichstadt. Its parish comprised the part of the new quarter of Friedrichstadt. The congregants native language combined with the domed tower earned the church its colloquial naming Deutscher Dom, the church is not a cathedral in the actual sense of the word. In 1701-1708 Giovanni Simonetti built the first church after a design of Martin Grünberg and it was the third church in Friedrichstadt, established in 1688, which was a town of princely domination, while the neighbouring old Berlin and Cölln were cities of town privileges. The Prince-Elector originally only provided for a Calvinist congregation, since they - the Hohenzollerns - themselves were Calvinists, but more and more Lutherans moved in. Therefore, in 1708 the New Church became a Calvinist and Lutheran Simultaneum, the original building had a pentagonal groundplan with semicircular apses. The interior was characterised by a typical Protestant combined altar and pulpit leaning against the central pillar opposite to the entrance.
In 1780 Carl von Gontard designed and started the construction of a tower, the construction of the domed towers aimed at making the Gendarmenmarkt resemble the Piazza del Popolo in Rome. Still under construction the tower of the New Church collapsed, thus Georg Christian Unger was commissioned to carry out Gontards plan. Christian Bernhard Rode created the statues, representing characters from the Old and New Covenant, the dome was topped by a statue symbolising the victorious virtue. The gable relief depicts the Conversion of Shaul Paul of Tarsus, the New Church became famous as a place of Prussian history. On 22 March 1848 the coffins of 183 Berliners, who had killed during the March Revolution, were shown on the northern side of the church. Otto Lessing designed the six statues on the attic of the new prayer hall, on 17 December 1882 the new prayer hall was inaugurated. In 1934 the congregations of the New Church had united with that of Jerusalems Church and have become - after further mergers - todays Evangelical Congregation in the Friedrichstadt, for services it uses the French Church on the opposite side of Gendarmenmarkt and Lukes Church in Berlin-Kreuzberg.
In 1943 the New Church was almost completely destroyed in the bombing of Berlin in World War II and was rebuilt from 1977 to 1988. Meanwhile, the German government acquired the building and the site, the church building was updated and reopened in 1996 as the Bundestags museum on German parliamentary history. They are located in Berlin-Kreuzberg south of Hallesches Tor, E. T. A. Hoffmann Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, originally buried in the church, translated to the cemetery south of Hallesches Tor. Antoine Pesne, originally buried within the church, transferred to the south of Hallesches Tor
Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated
Historicism or Historism comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans. This is especially prevalent in architecture, such as revival architecture, through combination of different styles or implementation of new elements, historicism can create completely different aesthetics than former styles. Thus it offers a variety of possible designs. The change is related to the rise of the bourgeoisie during. The Arts and Crafts movement managed to combine a looser vernacular historicism with elements of Art Nouveau, influences of historicism remained strong even until the 1950s in many countries
Prussian House of Lords
The Prussian House of Lords in Berlin was the upper house of the Preußischer Landtag, the parliament of Prussia from 1850 to 1918. Together with the house, the House of Representatives, it formed the Prussian bicameral legislature. A member of the House of Lords was known as a pair, the House consisted of hereditary peers, life peers appointed by the King of Prussia, peers by virtue of position, representatives of cities and universities, etc. The majority of members were nobles, although the House had commoners as members, life members, Holders of the four great court appointments of the kingdom—these were the state steward, the chancellor, the lord marshal, and the lord burgrave. Members entrusted by the king—these were both nobles and commoners, and included select generals and admirals, senior government officials, business leaders, Members called by presentation—these were primarily holders of noble estates, the university representatives, and the lord mayors of cities given the right of presentation.
According to the 1920 constitution of the Free State of Prussia it was replaced by the Staatsrat of representatives delegated by the Landtag assemblies of the Provinces, the Cologne mayor Konrad Adenauer served as president of the state council from 1921 until the Nazi Machtergreifung in 1933. Since 1856 the House of Lords met at a Baroque city palace on Leipziger Straße No,3, near Leipziger Platz, formerly owned by the merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky and seat of the Royal Porcelain Factory from 1763. It had been acquired by Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy, father of Felix and Fanny Mendelssohn, in summer 1826, young Felix Mendelssohn wrote his A Midsummer Nights Dream ouverture, which premiered at his fathers house. After the Prussian state had purchased the building in 1856, it served for the meetings of the Reichstag of the North German Federation from 1867 to 1870. No.3 and 4 buildings were demolished in 1898 to make space for a new building for the House of Lords, the Neo-Renaissance Herrenhaus building, designed by the architect Friedrich Schulze, was completed in 1904.
Schulze had had built the adjacent Abgeordnetenhaus on Prinz-Albrecht-Straße from 1892 to 1898. Both structures were connected by a functional wing in the rear. Since 1993, the Abgeordnetenhaus building is the seat of the Berlin state parliament, seat of the Prussian state council from 1921 to 1933, the former Herrenhaus building from 1933 served for Hermann Görings Preußenhaus foundation. Heavily damaged by Allied bombing and the Battle of Berlin, the building was restored after the war, since 2000, it is again the site of the parliamentary sessions of the Federal Council of Germany. One of the characters in Fyodor Dostoevskys Crime and Punishment references the Prussian Upper House when talking about the characters sister. List of Presidents of the Prussian State Council Members of the Prussian House of Lords The Bundesrat building Preußisches Herrenhaus
Albert Wolff (sculptor)
Carl Conrad Albert Wolff was a German sculptor, and medallist. His father was the architect and sculptor Christian Philipp Wolff, who died when Albert was only six, in 1844, he was sent to Carrara to produce statues for the terrace of Sanssouci. Shortly after, he opened his own workshop, in addition to his larger works, he produced many smaller figures and decorations that were widely copied. In 1866, he was appointed a Professor at the Prussian Academy of Art and had students who would become well-known. He was named a member of the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts in 1881. Equestrian statue of King Ernst August I in Hanover Equestrian statue of King Friedrich Wilhelm III with several figures, in the Lustgarten. The statue was unveiled on 16 June 1871 and it was melted down for military purposes in 1944. Die Allegorie der Wissenschaft and Clio – the Muse of History statues survived and are located near St. Nicholas Church, statue of Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I in Ludwigslust. Figure, Löwenkämpfer, at the Altes Museum, a copy may be seen at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Figure group, Der Jüngling wird von Athena in neuen Kampf geführt, marble group, Bacchus with Panther, in the Alte Nationalgalerie. Bronze relief of troops at the base of the Berlin Victory Column. Bronze group, Löwe seine Jungen gegen eine Riesenschlange verteidigend, on the square in front of the Criminal Justice Building in Moabit and it was moved to the new Court Building on Wilsnacker Straße. Digitalized online by the University and State Library Düsseldorf, thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Jutta von Simson, Der Bildhauer Albert Wolff, Berlin 1982, literature about Albert Wolff in the State Bibliography of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
The Kunstgewerbemuseum, or Museum of Decorative Arts, is an internationally important museum of the decorative arts in Berlin, part of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. The collection is split between the Kunstgewerbemuseum building at the Kulturforum and Köpenick Palace and it was founded in 1868 as the Deutsches Gewerbe-Museum zu Berlin, and was originally a teaching institute as well as a public museum. The collection grew significantly in the 1870s, and it was renamed Kunstgewerbemuseum in 1879, in 1881 it relocated into the Martin-Gropius-Bau – where Priams Treasure was on display for a time – and in 1921 it moved into the Stadtschloss. Parts of the collection were destroyed in World War II, the Eastern collection moved into Köpenick Palace in 1963, while the Western exhibits moved first into Charlottenburg Palace, into the new museum building in the Kulturforum in 1985. There is an important collection of Late Antique objects in many media. The items from the Middle Ages include a number of gold reliquaries.
The Renaissance is represented by silverware from the city councillors of Lüneburg, the Baroque era is represented by faiences from Delft, and glass items. There is European porcelain, and decorative crockery from the rococo, historicist, the New Collection of 20th century craftwork includes industrially-manufactured products. Cloth of St Gereon, the oldest European tapestry still existing
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border. It has a population of 307,755, the city is the seat of the two highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice. Its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, which was built in 1715, the city lies at an altitude between 100 m and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, the 49th parallel runs through the city centre and its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. Almost all of these survived until today. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets, the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen, the area north of the palace is a park and forest. The area west of the palace is now mostly residential, Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities.
Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, precipitation is almost evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the station in Karlsruhe, which had been operating since 1876, was closed, it was replaced by a weather station in Rheinstetten. A variation of this claims that he built the new palace in order to find peace from his wife. Charles William founded the city on June 17,1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, the founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach and in 1771 of the united Baden until 1945, built in 1822, the Ständehaus was the first parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected here. Karlsruhe was visited by Thomas Jefferson during his time as the American envoy to France, Jefferson passed to him maps of 12 European towns to consult, one of which was a sketch he had made of Karlsruhe during his visit.
In 1860, the international professional convention of chemists, the Karlsruhe Congress, was held in the city. Much of the area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II but was rebuilt after the war. Located in the American zone of the post-war Allied occupation, Karlsruhe was home to an American military base, in 1995, the bases closed, and their facilities were turned over to the city of Karlsruhe
The Tiergarten is Berlin’s most popular inner-city park, located completely in the district of the same name. The park is 210 hectares in size and is among the largest urban gardens of Germany, only the Tempelhofer Park and Munichs Englischer Garten are larger. The beginnings of the Tiergarten can be traced back to 1527 and it was founded as a hunting area for the Elector of Brandenburg, and was situated to the west of the Cölln city wall, which was the sister town of Old Berlin. It sat in the vicinity as the City Palace. In 1530 the expansion began, acres of land were purchased, the total area extended beyond the current Tiergarten, and the forests were perfect for hunting deer and other wild animals. This hobby, began to fade away as the city of Berlin began to expand, Frederick Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg, feeling the need to bring change to his private hunting grounds, built many structures that are still visible today. Der Große Stern, the square of the Tiergarten, and Kurfürstenplatz.
This is seen as the beginning of a transformation in the Tiergarten, Frederick Wilhelm Is son and successor, Frederick II did not appreciate the hunt as his predecessors did, In 1740, he opened the parks first public gardens. Unique to the period, areas of congregation called salons were established along the many different walkways in the park. Such freedom was common under the rule of Frederick II, there were even allowed to live within the Tiergarten. Refugees, Huguenots in hiding from the French, were allowed to erect tents, a pheasant house was erected, which would become the core of the Zoological Garden, a zoo founded in 1844 that lies within the greater Tiergarten. During the revolutions of 1848, the hosted the first assembly demanding the abolishment of the national censors. At the end of the 18th century, Knobelsdorffs late-baroque form had been all but replaced by ideas for a new, the castle park Bellevue and Rousseau Island were laid out by court gardener Justus Ehrenreich Sello in the late 18th century.
It was in 1818 that the king commissioned the help of Peter Joseph Lenné and his plans involved the creation of a rural Volkspark, or peoples park, that would serve as a sort of Prussian national park that would help lift the spirits of those who visited. However, the King Frederick William III rejected Lennés plan, against the opposition of a hesitant bureaucracy, Lenné submitted a modified version of his concept. This plan was accepted and realized between 1833 and 1840, the park was modeled after English gardens, but Lenné made sure to pay attention to Knobelsdorffs structures and layouts. By draining forests areas he allowed for more footpaths, several features became characteristic components of the Tiergarten. Up until 1881, the Tiergarten was owned by the monarchy, soon after Emperor William I abolished his rights to the forest, he added the boundaries to the new district of Berlin, so that the people may use and uphold it
Tiergarten is a locality within the borough of Mitte, in central Berlin. Notable for the great and homonymous urban park, before German reunification, until Berlins 2001 administrative reform, Tiergarten was the name of a borough, consisting of the current Bezirk of Tiergarten plus Hansaviertel and Moabit. A new system of road and rail tunnels runs under the park towards Berlins main station in nearby Moabit, once a hunting ground of the Electors of Brandenburg the Großer Tiergarten park of today was designed in the 1830s by landscape architect Peter Joseph Lenné. In the course of industrialization in the 19th century, a network of streets was laid out in the Hobrecht-Plan in an area that came to be known architecturally as the Wilhelmine Ring, in 1894 the Reichstag building by architect Paul Wallot opened as the seat of the German parliament. On 15 January 1919 the socialist Karl Liebknecht was shot by Freikorps soldiers within the park near the lake Neuer See, the corpse of Rosa Luxemburg, murdered on the same day, was found in the nearby Landwehrkanal on 1 June 1919.
The German national memorial to the people with disabilities murdered by the Nazis was dedicated in 2014 in Berlin at that site. As well, although the villa was destroyed, a set in the pavement on Tiergartenstraße marks its location. After 1944 the park was deforested, because it served as a source of firewood for the devastated city. In 1945, the Soviet Union built a war memorial along the Straße des 17, the Tiergartens main east-west artery, near the Brandenburg Gate. The locality houses many parliamentary and governmental institutions, among others the Bundestag in the Reichstag building, the residence of the German President, Schloss Bellevue and the Carillon are located in the Tiergarten park. In addition, the tree-lined pedestrian avenues emanating from the Victory Column contain several ceremonial sculptures of Prussian aristocrats enacting an 18th-century hunt, the Brandenburg Gate and the Potsdamer Platz are situated on the eastern rim of the locality, the former frontier between East and West Berlin.
In between are the neoclassical Saint Matthew Church, built in 1845 by Friedrich August Stüler, the Gemäldegalerie as well as the new branch of the Berlin State Library, today the building serves as second office of the Federal Ministry of Defence. The adjacent western area at the border to Charlottenburg houses the Berlin Zoo, at the Victory Column and the Straße des 17. Juni the Love parade from 1996-2003 and 2006 took place as well as the German Live 8 concert on 2 July 2005, since 1987, the annual Berlin Marathon starts here. On 24 July 2008, Barack Obama spoke at the Victory Column in front of a crowd of over 200,000 people, covering 210 hectares, the Großer Tiergarten is the largest urban park of Berlin. Elizabeth Heekin Bartels, Berlins Tiergarten, Evolution of an Urban Park, Journal of Garden History 2#2 p143+ Article about the Tiergarten 360° Panorama Tiergarten