Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum in London is the world's largest museum of applied and decorative arts and design, as well as sculpture, housing a permanent collection of over 2.27 million objects. It was named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; the V&A is located in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in an area that has become known as "Albertopolis" because of its association with Prince Albert, the Albert Memorial and the major cultural institutions with which he was associated. These include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum, the Royal Albert Hall and Imperial College London; the museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. As with other national British museums, entrance is free; the V&A covers 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. However, the art of antiquity in most areas is not collected.
The holdings of ceramics, textiles, silver, jewellery, medieval objects, sculpture and printmaking, drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world. The museum owns the world's largest collection of post-classical sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy; the departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan and the Islamic world. The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world. Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world. Since 2001 the museum has embarked on a major £150m renovation programme. New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015; these restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815. The V&A Museum of Childhood in East London is a branch of the museum, a new branch in London is being planned.
The Victoria and Albert Museum has its origins in the Great Exhibition of 1851, with which Henry Cole, the museum's first director, was involved in planning. It was known as the Museum of Manufactures, first opening in May 1852 at Marlborough House, but by September had been transferred to Somerset House. At this stage the collections covered both applied science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection. By February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive; the site was occupied by Brompton Park House. The official opening by Queen Victoria was on 20 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting; this was to enable in the words of Cole "to ascertain what hours are most convenient to the working classes"—this was linked to the use of the collections of both applied art and science as educational resources to help boost productive industry.
In these early years the practical use of the collection was much emphasised as opposed to that of "High Art" at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum. George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of wide art education through the museum collections; this led to the transfer to the museum of the School of Design, founded in 1837 at Somerset House. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the main museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the "Science Museum" had come into existence when a separate director was appointed; the laying of the foundation stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria and Albert Museum was made public. Queen Victoria's address during the ceremony, as recorded in The London Gazette, ended: "I trust that it will remain for ages a Monument of discerning Liberality and a Source of Refinement and Progress."The exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, "A Grand Design", first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999.
To accompany and support the exhibition, the museum published a book, Grand Design, which it has made available for reading online on its website. The opening ceremony for the Aston Webb building by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra took place on 26 June 1909. In 1914 the construction commenced of the Science Museum, signalling the final split of the science and art collections. In 1939 on the outbreak of World War II, most of the collection was sent to a quarry in Wiltshire, to Montacute House in Somerset, or to a tunnel near Aldwych tube station, with larger items remaining in situ, sand-bagged and bricked in. Between 1941 and 1944 some galleries were used as a school for chil
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Joan Mondale was Second Lady of the United States from 1977 until 1981 as the wife of Walter Mondale, the 42nd Vice President of the United States. She was an author and served on the boards of several organizations. For her promotion of the arts, she was affectionately dubbed Joan of Art. Joan Adams was born on August 8, 1930 in Eugene, one of three daughters of the Rev. John Maxwell Adams, a Presbyterian minister, his wife, the former Eleanor Jane Hall, she attended an integrated Quaker school in Media, Pennsylvania. In 1952, she graduated from Macalester College in St. Paul, where her father was chaplain, with a bachelor's degree in history. After graduation, she worked at the Minneapolis Institute of Art. On December 27, 1955, Joan married Minneapolis lawyer Walter "Fritz" Mondale, whom she had met on a blind date; the couple had three children: Ted Mondale, Minnesota politician, former State Senator, candidate for Governor of Minnesota Eleanor Jane Mondale Poling and radio personality who died of brain cancer at 51 William Hall Mondale, Assistant Attorney General, Office of the Minnesota Attorney General, 1990–2000 In 1964, Walter Mondale replaced Hubert Humphrey as a U.
S. Senator, held the post until 1976, when Democratic presidential candidate Jimmy Carter selected him as his running-mate in his successful bid for the Presidency. Joan Mondale became Second Lady, in succession to Happy Rockefeller, during her husband's term as Vice President from 1977 to 1981, to be succeeded by Barbara Bush. Out of office during Reagan's first administration, Walter Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984; as a prospective First Lady, Joan Mondale told Maureen Dowd of The New York Times that she would not talk about recipes or clothes during the campaign, but when her husband's political opponents made issue with this, costing him votes, she published The Mondale Family Cookbook, with recipes like Fettucine à la Pimento Mondale, declared that she was a "traditional wife and mother and supporter". Walter Mondale was not elected, the Mondales returned to Minnesota, where they lived until his term as U. S. Ambassador to Japan, after which he resumed his Minneapolis-based law practice.
Joan Mondale was a lifelong practitioner and advocate of the arts, her nickname'Joan of Art' was a sincere tribute. An accomplished potter, she studied art at college, worked in galleries, before moving to Washington as a Senator's wife in 1964, led guided tours at the National Gallery of Art. In 1972, she wrote a book'Politics in Art', examining how political commentary is reflected in artworks, she gave tours as a guide for friend Ellen Proxmire's company whirl-around. As Second Lady, she turned the Vice Presidential Mansion into a showcase of American art, with works by artists including Robert Rauschenberg, Edward Hopper, Louise Nevelson, Ansel Adams. At this time, she served as chairperson of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities; as the U. S. Ambassador's wife in Japan, she enthusiastically promoted inter-cultural understanding through art, redecorating the Embassy with American paintings and organising tours with a bi-lingual guide, she studied Japanese art, impressed the Mayor of Kyoto by presenting him with a ceramic bowl she had made herself in the traditional Mashiko style.
She was the author of Letters From Japan, a collection of essays about life overseas published in 1998. Back in Minnesota, Mondale continued to promote the arts, she served on the boards of the Minnesota Orchestra, Walker Art Center, Macalester College and the National Portrait Gallery. In 2004, the Textile Center in Minneapolis endowed an exhibition space in her honor, the Joan Mondale Gallery. On February 2, 2014, the Mondale family announced that she had entered hospice care due to Alzheimer's disease. Joan Mondale died at the hospice in Minneapolis the following day, surrounded by members of her family, her remains were cremated. Politics in Art. 1972. ISBN 978-0822501701; the Mondale Family Cookbook. 1984. ASIN B000LGQZPC. Letters from Japan. 1997. ISBN 978-0966222005. Joan Mondale at Find a Grave Appearances on C-SPAN
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
The Grace Museum
The Grace Museum is located in Abilene, United States. The museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums; the Grace Museum houses five art galleries featuring rotating art exhibitions and artwork from the permanent collection. The Abilene Fine Arts Museum was founded in 1937 by the Art League of the Abilene Woman's Club; the art museum was housed in various downtown locations and Rose Park before the current facility was renovated in 1992. Since 1992, the museum has existed as The Museums of Abilene, Grace Cultural Center and the name was changed to The Grace Museum in 1998; the Grace Museum is the cultural cornerstone of Abilene and serves Central West Texas and the state through unique exhibitions of historic and contemporary American art, local history. The permanent art collection originated with the Abilene Fine Arts Museum's first acquisitions in 1938 and has grown since its inception to over 5,000 works of art including paintings, photographs and drawings. Recent acquisitions include artwork by James Surls, Andy Warhol, Melissa Miller, David Bates, Helen Altman, Russell Lee, Bob Stuth-Wade, Beili Liu, Vernon Fisher and others.
Strengths in the art collection include the Alice and Bill Wright Photography Collection, American Depression-era Prints, the Texas Art Collection, the Clint Hamilton Collection, artwork by contemporary American artists with Texas connections. The history collection was initiated in 1976 by the Abilene Junior League; the history collection features documents. Documents and photographs from The Grace History Collection can be viewed online through The Portal to Texas and the West Texas Digital Archives; the Grace Museum creates 12 unique, temporary art exhibitions annually focused on American art of the past and present with Texas connections curated from the permanent collection and/or with loans from major institutions and collectors across the state and beyond. Recent exhibitions include Texas Modernists; the museum produces videos, exhibition publications, catalogues to accompanying art exhibitions. Recent publications include Texas Modernists, James Surls: from the Heartland, Julie Speed: Paper Cut and Selections from the Bobbie and John Nau Collection of Texas Art and David Bates: Paintings from Texas Collections.
The history galleries on the third-floor feature permanent exhibits of recreations of 1906, 1926, 1946 Abilene parlors and kitchens, a 1920 Grace Hotel guestroom, a historic bootmakers shop. Temporary exhibits of textiles and films on loan and from the history collection are featured in the history galleries. Recent history exhibitions include The West Texas Clubwoman, West Texas Cattle Country and the Working Rancher and Fabulous Fifties Fashion; the children's gallery on The Grace Museum's second floor is a hands-on discovery-based learning center for children and families. The space was renovated in 2007 and 2009; the gallery features a replica of Abilene's Paramount Theatre, an interactive sound wall, Texas tornado, life-size Operation game, children's art exhibits, a dinner, a historic Dixie Pig Restaurant sign. The Grace Museum is a 55,000-square-foot museum housed in the historic Hotel Grace, located in downtown Abilene, Texas; the Hotel Grace was built in 1909 by Col. W. L. Beckham of Greenville, Texas and is located at the corner of Cypress Street and North First Street.
The Prairie Style Hotel Grace was a three-story structure, a fourth story was added in the late 1920s. A subsequent renovation removed the main portico, bricked up several main story windows and changed the hotel's name to the Drake Hotel; the Drake Hotel ceased operation and fell into disrepair. The Abilene Preservation League and the Abilene Fine Arts Museum banded together in the late 1980s to save the neglected structure and provide a new and improved home for the Abilene Fine Arts Museum. Following major restoration in the early 1990s, the structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and opened to the public as the Museums of Abilene in 1992; the Grace Museum website Texas Fort Trail Handbook of Texas: Online Texas Association of Museums: Member Links
Peter Voulkos was an American artist of Greek descent. He is known for his abstract expressionist ceramic sculptures, which crossed the traditional divide between ceramic crafts and fine art, he established the ceramics department at UC Berkeley. Peter Voulkos was born the third of five children to Greek immigrant parents, Aristovoulos I. Voulkopoulos and shortened to Harry John Voulkos and Effrosyni Peter Voulalas. After high school, he worked as a molder's apprentice at a ship's foundry in Portland. In 1943, Peter Voulkos was drafted in the United States Army during the Second World War, serving as an airplane gunner in the Pacific. Voulkos studied painting and printmaking at Montana State College, in Bozeman, where he was introduced to ceramics. Ceramics became a passion, his 25 pounds of clay allowed by semester by the school was not enough, so he managed to spot a source of quality clay from the tires of the trucks that would stop by the Burger Inn where he worked part-time. He earned his MFA in ceramics in Oakland.
Afterwards he returned to Bozeman, began his career in a pottery business with classmate Rudy Autio, producing functional dinnerware. In 1951 Voulkos and Autio became the first resident artists at the Archie Bray Foundation for the Ceramic Arts, in Helena, Montana, it is from his time as Resident Director that the lineage of his mature work in full bloom during his tenure at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, can be traced. In 1953, Voulkos was invited to teach a summer session ceramics course at Black Mountain College in Asheville, North Carolina. After the summer at Black Mountain, he changed his approach to creating ceramics; the artist eschewed his traditional training and instead of creating smooth, well-thrown glazed vessels he started to work gesturally with raw clay marring his work with gashes and punctures. In 1954, after founding the art ceramics department at the Otis College of Art and Design, called the Los Angeles County Art Institute, his work became abstract and sculptural.
In 1959, he presented for the first time his heavy ceramics during the exhibition at the Landau Gallery in Los Angeles. This created a sismic reaction in the ceramics world, both for the grotesquerie of the sculptures' shapes and the genious marriage of arts and craft, accelerated his transfer to UC Berkeley, he moved to the University of California, Berkeley, in 1959, where he founded the ceramics program, which grew into the Department of Design. In the early 1960s, he set up a bronze foundry off-campus, anticipating the metalcasted Wurster Hall, started exhibiting his work at NY's Museum of Modern Art, he became a full professor there in 1967, continued to teach until 1985. Among his students were many ceramic artists who became well known in their own right. At a New York auction in 2001, a 1986 sculpture by Peter Voulkos was sold $72,625 to a European museum, he died of a heart attack on February 16, 2002, after conducting a college ceramics workshop at Bowling Green State University, demonstrating his skill to a live audience.
While his early work was fired in electric and gas kilns in his career he fired in the anagama kiln of Peter Callas, who had helped to introduce Japanese wood firing aesthetics in the United States. Peter Voulkos is among those who raised ceramics to the non-utilitarian, aesthetic sphere. While setting up the ceramics department at UC Berkeley, his students were authorized to make a tea pot «only if it didn't work». Voulkos started this new trend while in Los Angeles in the 1950s, saying «there was a certain energy around L. A. at the time». He is most identified as a Abstract Expressionist ceramist. Voulkos's sculptures are known for their visual weight, their freely-formed construction and their aggressive and energetic decoration. During shaping he would vigorously tear and gouge their surfaces. At some points in his career, he cast sculptures in bronze. Peter Voulkos is memorable for the live ceramics-scultping sessions he would lead in front of his students, demonstrating live the hard work being his ceramics style, his talent throughout this process.
His creativity quest sometimes led to the use of commercial dough-mixing machines to mix the clay, the development of a prototype for an electric potter's wheel. In 1979 he was introduced to the use of wood firing in anagama kilns by Peter Callas, who became his collaborator for the next 23 years. Most of Voulkos's late work was wood-fired in Callas's anagama, located at first in Piermont, New York, in Belvidere, New Jersey; this unique partnership, the resulting work, is considered by many curators and collectors to be the most exuberant period of Voulkos's career. Hall of justice, 1971, bronze Mr. Ishi, 1970, Untitled, 1980, exhibited at the Oakland Museum of California American Museum of Ceramic Art, di Rosa Honolulu Museum of Art Japanese Folk Crafts Museum National Gallery of Victoria Metropolitan Museum of Art Museum of Modern Art Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto Oakland Museum of California Philadelphia Museum of Art Smithsonian Institution Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam University of Iowa Muse
A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden