Joseph Marius Babo
Joseph Marius Babo. As a dramatist, Babo preferred action based on history. In Otto von Wittelsbach, written in 1781, he followed the path blazed by Goethe in Götz von Berlichingen. Sometimes one could see, he filled a variety of bureaucratic roles related to the theater over his life. Arno Das Lustlager Das Winterquartier in Amerika Dagobert der Franken König Reinhold und Armida Die Römer in Teutschland Otto von Wittelsbach, a play based on the life of Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine Die Maler Die Fräulein Wohlerzogen Ueber Freymaurer. Erste Warnung Nöthige Beylage zur Schrift: Über die Freymaurer „erste Warnung“ Gemälde aus dem Leben der Menschen Vollständiges Tagebuch der merkwürdigsten Begebenheiten und Revolutionen in Paris Die Strelitzen Bürgerglück Anleitung zur Himmelskunde in leichtfaßlichen astronomischen Unterhaltungen Schauspiele Neue Schauspiele Der Puls Albrechts Rache für Agnes Pfeuffer, Ludwig: Joseph Marius Babo als Leiter des Münchener Nationaltheaters 1799–1810.
München, Univ. Diss. 1913 Wurst, Jürgen: Joseph Marius Babo. In: Wurst, Jürgen und Langheiter, Alexander: Monachia. München: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, 2005. S. 163. ISBN 3-88645-156-9 Joseph Kürschner, "Babo, Joseph Marius Freiherr von", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 726–727 Portions of this article are based on translations from the German Wikipedia. Carl Schurz, Lebenserinnerungen bis zum Jahre 1852, Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1906 and 1911; as a student in a gymnasium in Cologne, Schurz was in the care of a locksmith who took him to plays occasionally. Schurz writes: “The taste of my friend the locksmith ran to knight dramas... The first piece I saw at the side of my locksmith was Otto von Wittelsbach, at that time a famous knight play in which the hero meets King Philipp of Swabia, who cheats him in a chess game. With an armored fist, the hero strikes the chess board so the pieces fly over the stage, strikes the king down with a blow from his sword.” Joseph Marius Babo in the German National Library catalogue Bürgerglück in Google Books.
Anleitung zur Himmelskunde in leichtfaßlichen astronomischen Unterhaltungen in Google Books
Otto I, Duke of Bavaria
Otto I, called the Redhead, was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death. He was called Otto VI as Count Palatine of Bavaria from 1156 to 1180, he was the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach, a dynasty which reigned until the abdication of King Ludwig III of Bavaria in the German Revolution of 1918. Duke Otto I was born at Kelheim, the son of Count Palatine Otto IV of Wittelsbach and Heilika of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld, a grandson of the Hohenstaufen duke Frederick I of Swabia, he was the brother of Archbishop Conrad I of Salzburg. Upon the death of his father in 1156, he succeeded him as Count palatine of the Bavarian duchy under the rule of Henry the Lion, a scion of the Welf dynasty; as one of the best knights in the employ of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1155 he had prevented a defeat of the Emperor near Verona, where the army caravan was ambushed on the way back to Germany after the coronation at Rome. In the Dominium mundi conflict between emperor and pope culminating at the 1157 Reichstag of Besançon, fiery Otto could only be kept from smiting the papal legate Cardinal Rolando Bandinelli with his battleaxe by the personal intervention of Frederick.
He was rewarded with the duchy of Bavaria on 16 September 1180 at Altenburg in Thuringia, after the deposition of Duke Henry the Lion. But he was so little regarded by many of the Bavarian aristocracy that they are said to have refused him the customary homage, they went so far as to refuse to attend his first court assembly at Regensburg. With the separation of Styria under Duke Ottokar IV in the same year, Bavaria lost the last of her southeastern territories. With the support of the emperor and his brother Conrad, Otto was able to secure the rule of his dynasty from the wary Bavarian nobility, his descendants ruled Bavaria for the next 738 years. In 1182 or 1183, Duke Otto bought Dachau castle, the ministeriales, all other appurtenances for a large sum of cash from the widow of the last duke of Dachau and Merania, Conrad II, Duke of Merania. In 1183 Otto accompanied Emperor Frederick to sign the Peace of Constance with the Lombard League and died on the way back at Pfullendorf in Swabia, he was succeeded by his only surviving son Louis.
Otto's mortal remains are buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey. About 1169 Otto married a daughter of Count Louis I of Loon. Agnes and Otto had the following children: Otto Ulrich Agnes Heilika I, married in 1184 to Hallgrave Dietrich of Wasserburg Agnes, married Count Henry of Plain Richardis, married in 1186 to Count Otto I of Guelders and Zutphen Louis I, married in 1204 to Ludmilla of Bohemia Heilika II, married Count Adelbert III of Dillingen Elisabeth, married Count Berthold II of Vohburg Mechtild, married in 1209 to Count Rapoto II of Ortenburg. Sophia, married Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia Citations Bibliography
Philip of Swabia
Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated. Philip was born in or near Pavia in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, the fifth and youngest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his second wife Beatrice, daughter of Count Renaud III of Burgundy, thereby younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip's great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138 against the fierce resistance by the rivalling House of Welf. During the time of Philip's birth, his father Emperor Frederick was able to settle the longstanding conflict with Pope Alexander III and the Italian cities of the Lombard League by concluding the Treaty of Venice; the newborn was named after Frederick's valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne.
Young Philip prepared for an ecclesiastical career, he entered the clergy of Adelberg Abbey and in April 1189 was made provost at the collegiate church of Aachen Cathedral, while his father left Germany for the Third Crusade and drowned in the Göksu River in Anatolia the next year, succeeded by Henry VI. In 1190 or 1191 Philip was elected Prince-bishop of Würzburg, though without being consecrated, his brother Henry had expanded the Hohenstaufen domains on behalf of his wife Queen Constance of Sicily whom he married in 1186, suspiciously eyed by the Roman Curia. Having accompanied his brother Henry to Italy in 1191, Philip forsook his ecclesiastical calling, travelling again to Italy, was appointed Margrave of Tuscany in 1195 and received an extensive grant of lands. In his retinue in Italy was the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim. On 26 December 1194, Queen Constance gave birth to a son, the Emperor Frederick II. To secure his succession, his father Henry had the two-year-old elected King of the Romans before he prepared for the Crusade of 1197.
To improve relationships with the Byzantine Empire, Henry betrothed Philip to Irene Angelina, a daughter of Emperor Isaac II and the widow of Roger III of Sicily, a lady, described by Walther von der Vogelweide as "the rose without a thorn, the dove without guile". In early 1195, Philip received the disputed Matildine lands, his rule there earned him the enmity of Pope Celestine III. In 1196 his brother Conrad was assassinated and he succeeded him as Duke of Swabia, his marriage to Irene took place in 1197 near Augsburg. Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a great extent, appears to have been designated as guardian of Henry's minor son Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king. While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany, he appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henry's death, but was overtaken by events.
Meanwhile, a number of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire hostile to the ruling Hohentaufen dynasty under the leadership of Prince-Archbishop Adolph of Cologne took the occasion to elect a German anti-king in the person of the Welf Otto of Brunswick, the second surviving son of the former Saxon duke Henry the Lion and a nephew of King Richard I of England. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, after Philip had been chosen as defender of the empire during Frederick's minority he consented to his own election, he was elected German king at Mühlhausen in Thuringia on 8 March 1198, backed by Duke Leopold VI of Austria, Duke Ottokar I of Bohemia, Duke Berthold V of Zähringen, Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia, however, in the absence of the Archbishops of Cologne and Trier. His rival Otto was not elected king until June 9 by the Cologne archbishop, the Bishop of Paderborn, Bishop Thietmar of Minden, three Prince-Provosts. Philip hesitated to assert himself, but at least he received the support of further German princes, forged an alliance with King Philip II of France and was crowned by Archbishop Aymon of Tarentaise at Mainz on 8 September of the same year.
He knew that he had to settle the conflict with Otto and his supporters. A first attempt to mediate by the Mainz archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach in 1199 was rejected by the Welf. Both sides strived for the coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III; the pope himself acted tactically, trying to wrest the affirmation of the sovereignty of his Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicily from the candidates. Several ecclesiastical and secular princes loyal to Philip reacted with a protestation in 1199, whereby they rejected any papal exertion of influence on the Imperial line of succession In the war that followed, who drew his principal support from his Swabian home territories, met with considerable success. In 1199 he received further accessions to his party and carried the war into his opponent's Saxon territory, although unable to obtain the support of the papacy, only feebly assisted by his ally King Philip II of France; the following year was less favourable to his arms. The pope began
Otto II, Duke of Bavaria
Otto II of Bavaria known as Otto the Illustrious was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. Otto was born at Kelheim. At the age of sixteen, he was married to Agnes of the Palatinate, a granddaughter of Duke Henry the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen. With this marriage, the Wittelsbach inherited Palatinate and kept it as a Wittelsbach possession until 1918. Since that time the lion has become a heraldic symbol in the coat of arms for Bavaria and the Palatinate. Otto acquired the rich regions of Bogen in 1240, Andechs and Ortenburg in 1248 as possessions for the Wittelsbach and extended his power base in Bavaria this way. With the county of Bogen the Wittelsbach acquired the white and blue coloured lozenge flag which since that time has been the flag of Bavaria. After a dispute with emperor Frederick II was ended, he joined the Hohenstaufen party in 1241, his daughter, was married to Frederick's son Conrad IV. Because of this, Otto was excommunicated by the pope.
He died in Landshut in 1253. Like his forefathers, Otto was buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey. Otto married Agnes, the daughter of Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Agnes of Hohenstaufen, in Worms in 1222, their children were: Ludwig Duke of Upper Bavaria. Henry I, Duke of Lower Bavaria (19 November 1235, Landshut – 3 February 1290, Burghausen. Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany, married to: September 1246 in Vohburg to Conrad IV of Germany. Sophie, married 1258 to Count Gerhard IV of Sulzbach and Hirschberg. Agnes. Citations Bibliography
Otto III, Duke of Bavaria
Otto III, a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 to 1312 and the King of Hungary and Croatia between 1305 and 1307. His reign in Hungary was disputed by Charles Robert of the Angevin dynasty. Otto was born in Burghausen, the son of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria, Elizabeth of Hungary. Otto succeeded his father in 1290 as duke of Lower Bavaria, together with his younger brothers, Louis III and Stephen I, he was in opposition to Habsburg and tried to regain Styria which Bavaria had lost in 1180. Otto supported Adolf, King of Germany against Habsburg and fought on his side in the Battle of Göllheim; the Hungarian crown was offered to Otto, a grandson of Béla IV of Hungary, in 1301 but he did not accept before 1305. In August 1305, his opponent, Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, who had inherited Bohemia from his father, renounced his claim to Hungary on behalf of Otto III. Since the Habsburg Albert I of Germany was blocking the way through Austria, Otto disguised himself as a merchant, reached Buda in November 1305.
He was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár by the Bishops of Veszprém and Csanád on 6 December. He named himself Béla V after his grandfather. However, Otto was not able to strengthen his rule. In the course of 1306, Otto's second opponent Charles of Anjou occupied Esztergom, Szepes Castle, Zólyom and some other fortresses in the northern parts of the kingdom, in the next year he occupied Buda. In June 1307, Duke Otto III visited the powerful Voivode of Transylvania, Ladislaus Kán, but the latter imprisoned him. On 10 October 1307, the magnates presented at the assembly in Rákos proclaimed Charles king, but the most powerful aristocrats ignored him as well. At the end of the year, Ladislaus Kán set Otto free who left the country, but the Voivode of Transylvania still denied to hand over the Holy Crown of Hungary to Charles, whose legitimacy could be questioned without the coronation with the Holy Crown. Otto abdicated the Hungarian throne in 1308. Otto's involvement in Austrian and Hungarian affairs weakened his position in Bavaria and led to failure due to financial problems.
In Hungarian historiography he is noted as an anti-king during the interregnum of 1301–1310. During his presence in Hungary 1305–1308 Lower Bavaria was ruled by his brother Stephen I. In 1310 a new war against Habsburg devastated Burghausen. Otto died in 1312 and was succeeded in Lower Bavaria by his son Henry XV, who shared power with his cousins, Henry XIV and Otto IV, both sons of Stephen I. John I, a son of Henry XIV, was the last duke of Lower Bavaria before Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor inherited the country and reunited the duchy in 1340. In January, 1279, Otto married Catherine, a daughter of Rudolph I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenburg, their twins and Rudolph, were born in 1280 and died the same year. Catharine died on 4 April 1282. Otto remained a widower for twenty-three years. On 18 May 1309, Otto married his second wife Agnes of Glogau, she was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Silesia-Glogau, Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg. They had two children: Agnes of Wittelsbach. Henry XV, Duke of Bavaria.
Otto died in Landshut. Historisches Lexikon Bayerns: Ungarisches Königtum Ottos III. von Niederbayern, 1305–1307 Cawley, Listing of Henry XIII along with his wife. The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments.", Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy A listing of descendants of Otto I, Count of Scheyern, including Henry XIII and his children