The Vandalic or Vandal War was a conflict fought in North Africa between the forces of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534. It was the first of Justinian I's wars of reconquest of the lost Western Roman Empire; the Vandals had occupied Roman North Africa in the early 5th century, established an independent kingdom there. Under their first king, the formidable Vandal navy carried out pirate attacks across the Mediterranean, sacked Rome and defeated a massive Roman invasion in 468. After Geiseric's death, relations with the surviving Eastern Roman Empire normalized, although tensions flared up due to the Vandals' militant adherence to Arianism and their persecution of the Chalcedonian native population. In 530, a palace coup in Carthage overthrew the pro-Roman Hilderic and replaced him with his cousin Gelimer; the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian took this as a pretext to interfere in Vandal affairs, after he secured his eastern frontier with Sassanid Persia in 532, he began preparing an expedition under general Belisarius, whose secretary Procopius wrote the main historical narrative of the war.
Justinian took advantage of, or instigated, rebellions in the remote Vandal provinces of Sardinia and Tripolitania. These not only distracted Gelimer from the Emperor's preparations, but weakened Vandal defences through the dispatch of the bulk of the Vandal navy and a large portion of their army under Gelimer's brother Tzazon to Sardinia; the Roman expeditionary force set sail from Constantinople in late June 533, after a sea voyage along the coasts of Greece and southern Italy, landed on the African coast at Caputvada in early September, to Gelimer's complete surprise. The Vandal king gathered his forces and met the Roman army at the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage, on 13 September. Gelimer's elaborate plan to encircle and destroy the Roman army came close to success, but Belisarius was able to drive the Vandal army to flight and occupy Carthage. Gelimer withdrew to Bulla Regia, where he gathered his remaining strength, including the army of Tzazon, which returned from Sardinia. In December, Gelimer met the Romans at the Battle of Tricamarum.
The battle resulted in the death of Tzazon. Gelimer fled to a remote mountain fortress, where he was blockaded until he surrendered in the spring. Belisarius returned to Constantinople with the Vandals' royal treasure and the captive Gelimer to enjoy a triumph, while Africa was formally restored to imperial rule as the praetorian prefecture of Africa. Imperial control scarcely reached beyond the old Vandal kingdom and the Moorish tribes of the interior proved unwilling to accept imperial rule and soon rose up in rebellion; the new province was shaken by the wars with the Moors and military rebellions, it was not until 548 that peace was restored and Roman government established. In the course of the gradual decline and dissolution of the Western Roman Empire in the early 5th century, the Germanic tribe of the Vandals, allied with the Alans, had established themselves in the Iberian peninsula. In 429, the Roman governor of the Diocese of Africa, who had rebelled against the West Roman emperor Valentinian III and was facing an invasion by imperial troops, called upon the Vandalic King Geiseric for aid.
Thus, in May 429, Geiseric crossed the straits of Gibraltar with his entire people 80,000 in total. Geiseric's Vandals and Alans, had their own plans, aimed to conquer the African provinces outright, their possession of Mauretania Caesariensis, Mauretania Sitifensis and most of Numidia was recognized in 435 by the Western Roman court, but this was only a temporary expedient. Warfare soon recommenced, in October 439, the capital of Africa, fell to the Vandals. In 442, another treaty exchanged the provinces hitherto held by the Vandals with the core of the African diocese, the rich provinces of Zeugitana and Byzacena, which the Vandals received no longer as foederati of the Empire, but as their own possessions; these events marked the foundation of the Vandalic Kingdom, as the Vandals made Carthage their capital and settled around it. Although the Vandals now gained control of the lucrative African grain trade with Italy, they launched raids on the coasts of the Mediterranean that ranged as far as the Aegean Sea and culminated in their sack of Rome itself in 455, which lasted for two weeks.
Taking advantage of the chaos that followed Valentinian's death in 455, Geiseric regained control—albeit rather tenuous—of the Mauretanian provinces, with his fleet took over Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Sicily escaped the same fate through the presence there of Ricimer. Throughout this period, the Vandals survived several Roman attempts at a counterstrike: the Eastern Roman general Aspar had led an unsuccessful expedition in 431, an expedition assembled by the Western emperor Majorian off the coast of Spain in 460 was scattered or captured by the Vandals before it could set sail, in 468, Geiseric defeated a huge joint expedition by both western and eastern empires under Basiliscus. In the aftermath of this disaster, following further Vandal raids against the shores of Greece, the eastern emperor Zeno concluded a "perpetual peace" with Geiseric; the Vandal state was unique in many respects among the Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire: instead of respecting and continuing the established Roman socio-political order, they replaced it with their own.
Whereas the kings of Western Europe continued to pay deference to the emperors and minted coinage
The Hoggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer. The mountains cover an area of 550,000 square km; this mountainous region is located about 1,500 km south of Algiers. The area is rocky desert with an average elevation of more than 900 m above sea level; the highest peak, Mount Tahat, is at 2,908 m. The mountains are composed of metamorphic rock 2 billion years old, although there are areas where more recent volcanic activity has laid down much newer rock. Several of the more dramatic peaks, such as Ilamen, are the result of erosion wearing away extinct volcano domes, leaving behind the more resistant material that plugged the volcanic cores. Assekrem is a famous and visited point where Charles de Foucauld built a hermitage in 1911; the main city near the Hoggar Mountains is Tamanrasset, built in wadi. The Hoggar Mountain range experiences hot summers, with a cold winter climate. Temperatures fall below 0 °C in the winter. Rainfall is sporadic year-round.
However, since the climate is less extreme than in most other areas of the Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains are a major location for biodiversity, including number of relict species. The Hoggar Mountains are part of the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecoregion, it is one of the national parks of the country. To the west of the Hoggar range, a population of the endangered African wild dog remained viable into the 20th century, but is now thought to be extirpated within this entire region. Analysis of collected scat in 2006 showed the presence of the Northwest African Cheetah in the region. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Hoggar Mountains until the early 20th century; the park contains a population of herbivores such as the saharan subspecies of the barbary sheep and the Dorcas gazelle Vegetation in this area includes trees such as Vachellia tortilis, Vachellia seyal and Tamarix aphylla which are scattered throughout the area. Other plants may include Calotropis procera.
Prehistoric settlement is evident from extant rock paintings dating to 6000 BC. The Hoggar Massif is the land of the Kel Ahaggar Tuareg; the tomb of Tin Hinan, the woman believed to be the matriarch of the Tuareg, is located at Abalessa, an oasis near Tamanrasset. According to legend, the Tim Lam are from the Tafilalt region in the Moroccan Atlas Mountains. France and weapons of mass destruction. 2001. Encyclopedia of World Geography, Published by Marshall Cavendish, 3456 pages ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, 9780761472896 C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Jeremy Keenan. 1977. "The Tuareg: People of Ahaggar", Published by Penguin Books Ltd.. London, 385 pages, ISBN 0-7139-0636-7 A website about the park Park data on UNEP-WPMC Ahaggar National Park - The Biodiverse Home of the Saharan Cheetah
Emirate of Abdelkader
The Emirate of Abdelkader, Emir Abdelkader Resistance, or Emir Abdelkader State, was founded by Emir Abdelkader with the allegiance of the Algerian people to resist the French invasion. The system of government was analogous to the regime of the deys of Algiers. However, it corresponded to a profound revision of the doctrine of power to a more egalitarian basis; the emir was head of the state, governed with his divan or council of ministers. He was assisted by a majlis, an advisory council of wise personalities and khalifas representing the provinces and presided over by a qâdî al qudât. Algeria was divided by the emir into eight khalifalik, themselves subdivided into aghalik which grouped several caïdats; this division took into account local influences and history on the tribal level. The emir early attached importance to the structuring of an economy perceived as necessary, for the perpetuation of his state, he set up a number of factories and industries in his new capital. Thus, the local production of the necessary goods the war effort, was accorded great importance.
The cities of Tlemcen, Miliana and Tagdemt make the necessary powder. Tagdemt and Miliana had weapon factory. There is a desire to regulate the souks with greater surveillance and security of the sites and the transportation routes to promote trade. Agriculture was encouraged, with the suppression of the kharadj to encourage the fellahs and the utilization of periods of truce; the emir set up a currency struck at Tagdempt to ensure the financial autonomy of the state in 1834 to 1841. The emir realized; the Emir used the military to enforce order and security throughout the Emirate in order to stop the chaos that spread in the country after the fall of Turkish rule in Algeria. When the Emir established the Emirate social organization in Algeria was based on tribes, so the individuals were only attached to their tribes. In war or conflict the tribes gathered together with their men and cavalry go to war. Afterwards the men returned to their tribes and continue with their daily work; the regular army of the emir was formed by volunteers.
Recruitment was meant for young people from all regions and all tribes, called for jihad against the French invaders. Recruitment is for all ages and in all regions of the Emirate; the emir organized an army to protect the Emirate because he knew that he would confront French armies that were better-trained and better-equipped,commanded by experienced officers and generals. The emir was the first leader to establish a national army in the modern history of Algeria, he built factories to manufacture weapons using the experience of the French and Italians. He called his army Jaish Al-Mohammadi divided into three divisions: infantry and artillery, he developed military law regarding discipline, policies and weapons. The Jaish Al-Mohammadi was formed of 8,000 soldiers, 2,000 cavalry, 2,240 light cannons and 20 heavy cannons. Khayala: soldiers who fought on horseback Moushat: soldiers fighting on foot Tobajiya: soldiers who have cannons; the artillery unit soldiers of the Jaish Al-Mohammadi were deserters from the French army and Kouloughlis.
They were experienced in maintaining heavy cannons. Each artillery unit had twelve soldiers. Irregular: 10,240 Regular: 5,960 Emir Abdelkader classed a unique uniform for each type of soldier, the cloth was linen and gasket, it consisted of a jacket of grey wool including a hood and trousers made from wool are in blue Sedria are in red. Every three months a soldier was given a shirt and a pair of shoes, yellow leather including a burnous; the Cavalry uniform consisted of a red jacket with black stripes on the sleeve seams and back a red vest decorated with blue hair on it. Each cavalryman was giving a haik which covered his head and shoulders, made from camel's hair including a turban. " لَا شَيْء أَكْثَرُ فَائِدَة مِنْ التَّقْوَى وَالشَّجَاعَةَ " Each soldier had a leather bag which could be worn on a belt over the right shoulder a rifle with a bayonet, pistols and a yatagan attached to his belt, the cavalryman is armed with a rifle, yatagan and a pistol. For food each soldier received 2 Kesra and a kilogram of flour and semolina to cook couscous twice a week a group of 20 men shared a sheep between them.
The wage of a soldier was paid from April to June monthly depending on rank: Agha 22 Boudjous Sayaf 12 Boudjous Rais Sayaf 8 Boudjous Jaouche 7 Boudjous Khaba 6 BoudjousBoudjou: a currency used by the Turks in Algeria 1 Boudjou = 50 Mohammadia In the garrison soldiers lived in rooms that had mats and carpets. In camp about 20 soldiers lived in a war tent; each badge of embroidered sword on attached on each shoulder of the following soldiers including silver rings on their left hand. Agha 4 Gold Badges Sayaf 2 Gold Badges Rais Sayaf 2 Silver Badges Jaouche 1 Silver Badge Khaba 1 Bronze Badge Emir's Bodyguards – 500 men – commanded by Emir Abdelkader Katiba – 1000 men – commanded by Agha Sariya – 100 men – commanded by Sayaf Fasela – 35 men – commanded by KhabaHe sought to import weapons from the only country that opposed the French invasion of A
The regency of Algiers, was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sharifian Empire in the west, the Regency extended its borders from La Calle to the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria; the Regency was governed by beylerbeys, pashas and deys, was composed of various beyliks under the authority of beys: Constantine in the east, Medea in the Titteri and Mazouna Mascara and Oran in the west. Each beylik was divided into various outan with at their head the caïds directly under the bey. To administer the interior of the country, the administration relied on the tribes said makhzen; these tribes were responsible for securing order and collecting taxes on the tributary regions of the country. It was through this system that, for three centuries, the State of Algiers extended its authority over the north of Algeria.
However, society was still divided into tribes and dominated by maraboutics brotherhoods or local djouads. Several regions of the country thus only recognised the authority of Algiers. Throughout its history, they formed numerous revolts, tribal fiefs or sultanates that fought with the regency for control. Before 1830, out of the 516 political units, a total of 200 principalities or tribes were considered independent because they controlled over 60% of the territory in Algeria and refused to pay taxes to Algiers. From 1496, the Spanish conquered numerous possessions on the North African coast, captured since 1496: Melilla, Mers El Kébir, Bougie, Algiers, Shershell and Tenes. Around the same time, the Ottoman privateer brothers Oruç and Hayreddin—both known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or "Red Beard"—were operating off Tunisia under the Hafsids. In 1516, Oruç moved his base of operations to Algiers and asked for the protection of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, but was killed in 1518 during his invasion of the Kingdom of Tlemcen.
Hayreddin succeeded him as military commander of Algiers. Oruç, Hayreddin Barbarossa's brother, captured Algiers in 1516, apart from the Spanish Peñón of Algiers. Following the death of Oruç in 1518 at the hand of the Spanish in the Fall of Tlemcen, Barbarossa requested the assistance of the Ottoman Empire, in exchange for acknowledging Ottoman authority in his dominions. Before Ottoman help could arrive, the Spanish retook the city of Algiers in 1519. Barbarossa recaptured the city definitively in 1525, in 1529 the Spanish Peñon in the capture of Algiers. Hayreddin Barbarossa established the military basis of the regency; the Ottomans provided a supporting garrison of 2,000 Turkish troops with artillery. He left Hasan Agha in command as his deputy when he had to leave for Constantinople in 1533; the son of Barbarossa, Hasan Pashan was in 1544, when his father retired, the first governor of the Regency to be directly appointed by the Ottoman Empire. He took the title of beylerbey. Algiers became a base in the war against Spain, in the Ottoman conflicts with Morocco.
Beylerbeys continued to be nominated for unlimited tenures until 1587. After Spain had sent an embassy to Constantinople in 1578 to negotiate a truce, leading to a formal peace in August 1580, the Regency of Algiers was a formal Ottoman territory, rather than just a military base in the war against Spain. At this time, the Ottoman Empire set up a regular Ottoman administration in Algiers and its dependencies, headed by Pashas, with 3 year terms to help considate Ottoman power in the Maghreb. Despite the end of formal hostilities with Spain in 1580, attacks on Christian and Catholic shipping, with slavery for the captured, became prevalent in Algiers, were the main industry and source of revenues of the Regency. In the early 17th century, Algiers became, along with other North African ports such as Tunis, one of the bases for Anglo-Turkish piracy. There were as many as 8,000 renegades in the city in 1634. Hayreddin Barbarossa is credited with tearing down the Peñón of Algiers and using the stone to build the inner harbor.
A contemporary letter states: "The infinity of goods, merchandise jewels and treasure taken by our English pirates daily from Christians and carried to Allarach and Tunis to the great enriching of Mores and Turks and impoverishing of Christians" Privateer and slavery of Christians originating from Algiers were a major problem throughout the centuries, leading to regular punitive expeditions by European powers. Spain, France, all led naval bombardments against Algiers. Abraham Duquesne fought the Barbary pirates in 1681 and bombarded Algiers between 1682 and 1683, to help Christian captives. In the mid-1700s Dano-Norwegian trade in the Mediterranean expanded. In order to protect the lucrative business against piracy, Denmark–Norway had secured a peace deal with the states of Barbary Coast, it involved paying an annual tribute to the individual rulers and additionally to the States. In 1766, Algiers had dey Baba Mohammed ben-Osman, he demanded that the annual payment made by Denmark-Norway should be increased, he should receive new gifts.
Denmark–Norway refused the demands. Shortly after, Algerian pirates hijacked three Dano-Norwegian ships and allowed the crew to be sold as slave
Rock art of south Oran (Algeria)
The rock art of south Oran, are prehistoric engravings dating from the Neolithic period, which are found in the south of Oran Province, Algeria, in the Saharan Atlas Mountains, in the regions of Figuig, Ain Sefra, El-Bayadh and Tiaret. Comparable engravings have been described further east, around Djelfa and in the region of Constantine. Although in the past some archaeologists affirmed that these engravings derived from European Upper Paleolithic art, this theory is today definitively rejected. Less famous than the rock art at the Tassili n'Ajjer site, the South Oran engravings have however been the subject of study since 1863; the most important works are notably those of A. Pomel, Stéphane Gsell, G. B. M. Flamand, Leo Frobenius and Hugo Obermaier, l'Abbé Henri Breuil, L. Joleaud, Raymond Vaufrey. In 1955 and 1964 Henri Lhote had visits of several months to the region which allowed him to complete his former researches, to add hundreds of new descriptions and in 1970 to publish Les gravures rupestres du Sud-oranais in the series Mémoires du Centre de recherches anthropologiques préhistoriques et ethnographiques directed at Algiers by Mouloud Mammeri.
A notable part of the work was devoted to the engravings of the El-Bayadh region. For Henri Lhote the South Oran region constitutes one of the "three great centres of art of the antelope age" with Tassili and Fezzan. In this work Lhote tells that a hearth found at the "Station of Méandre", near to Brézina, had been dated to 3900 years B. C. without this figure being capable of "being attributed to a definite category of the engravings which ornament the'walls' of the station." The oldest of these engravings, on the other hand, show many affinities with those of Tassili which he proposes the minimum date of around 5000. There is therefore room, according to him, to "adopt it for the South-Oranian material until better information may be forthcoming." The region of El-Bayadh on WikiMapia. Figuig Ain Sefra El-Bayadh Aflou Tiaret Bou Saâda Djelfa Constantinois Taghit Tassili Fezzan A. Pomel, relying on identifications of animals which were disputed, is at the root of the position of some authors who think that the engravings belong to the Palaeolithic age.
Stéphane Gsell, on the other hand, considered the most ancient engravings showing antelope and elephants to be Neolithic, he distinguished from them the images of rams, which according to him reflect an Ancient Egyptian ritual, like the depictions of caballins he attributed to the historical period. The classification proposed by G. B. M. Flamand based on a study of techniques and patinas distinguished a first group of naturalistic engravings, a second, libyco-berber group and two late groups. For Hugo Obermaier there exist two sub-groups in the neolithic engravings, the older being of naturalistic style, the more recent of sub-naturalistic style; the cult of the ram with the sphere was, according to him, native to the populations of North Africa before having been adopted by the Egyptians. Henri Breuil for his part distinguished three stages. In Stage I, contemporary with the end of the Capsian, he places the large hartebeest with ringed horns, the elephants, the style-accomplished as well as large human figures.
Stage II, which he attributes to the Lower Neolithic, brings together the large ram of Bou Alem, the hartebeest, rhinoceros and other animals in less accomplished style. The ram, for him, had not yet been domesticated but only tamed, its cult is rather the origin than the reflex to the Egyptian belief. Stage III includes the figures in decadent style. Raymond Vaufrey, studying the industry of flint implements found at the foot of the engraved rocks, takes the naturalistic figures to the "Neolithic of the Capsian tradition" deriving from the Neolithic of Egypt, places them between 4200 and 2000 B. C; the ram, which he considers domesticated, is only a transposition of the Egyptian cult of Ammon and the representations of it cannot be older than 2200 B. C. For Henri Lhote however, there is no any archaeological argument which should cause one to separate the rams, supposed to be from the giant hartebeest, elephants or rhinoceros. Being like them of Neolithic age, they cannot derive from the Egyptian ram, need not on that account be considered as the ancestors of a cult of which the ram of Ammon would constitute a late sequel.
Henri Lhote distinguished seven series in the mural art of the South Oranian. 1. Large engravings of monumental naturalistic style, or Large-scale Hartebeest style. Beside the great hartebeest and rhinoceros, Lhote placed the numerous ostriches and antelopes, boars and panthers; the animals are represented in profile apart from the hartebeest, in relative profile. Lhote placed in this ensemble the human images. No human figure with animal head having been found, he observed that "the hartebeest ensembles of the Saharan Atlas differ from those of Tassili-n-Ajjer and of Fezzan where these figures are running; the author thinks that the domestication of the dog was achieved in this period and that the South Oranian presents the most ancient rock testimonies to it. This first stage includes the "mythic animals". All these engravings ar
The Zirid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya from 972 to 1148. Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader of the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate and the eponymous founder of the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids; the Zirids established their autonomy in Ifriqiya through military conquest until breaking with the Fatimids in the mid-11th century. The rule of the Zirid emirs opened the way to a period in North African history where political power was held by Berber dynasties such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid dynasty and Hafsid dynasty. Continuing their conquests to Fez and much of modern-day Morocco in 980, the Zirids encountered resistance from the local Zenata Berbers, who gave their allegiance to the Caliphate of Cordoba. Various Zirid branches did however rule the central Maghreb; this branch of the Zirids, at the beginning of the 11th century, following various family disputes, broke away as the Hammadids and took control of the territories of the central Maghreb.
The Zirids proper were designated as Badicides and occupied only Ifriqiyah between 1048 and 1148. Part of the dynasty fled to al-Andalus and founded, in 1019, the Taifa of Granada on the ruins of the Caliphate of Cordoba; the Zirids of Granada were again defeated by the expansion of the Almoravids, who annexed their kingdom in 1090, while the Badicides and the Hammadids remained independent. Following the recognition of the Sunni Muslim Abbasid Caliphate and the assertion of Ifriqiya and the Central Maghreb as independent kingdoms of Sunni obedience in 1048, the Fatimids masterminded the migration of the Hilalians to the Maghreb. In the 12th century, the Hilalian invasions combined with the attacks of the Normans of Sicily on the littoral weakened Zirid power; the Almohad caliphate conquered the central Maghreb and Ifriqiya in 1152, thus unifying the whole of the Maghreb and ending the Zirid dynasties. The Zirids were Sanhaja Berbers originating from the area of modern Algeria. In the 10th century this tribe served as vassals of the Fatimid Caliphate, defeating the Kharijite rebellion of Abu Yazid, under Ziri ibn Manad.
Ziri was installed as the governor of central Maghreb and founded the gubernatorial residence of Ashir south-east of Algiers, with Fatimid support. When the Fatimids moved their capital to Egypt in 972, Ziri's son Buluggin ibn Ziri was appointed viceroy of Ifriqiya; the removal of the fleet to Egypt made the retention of Kalbid Sicily impossible, while Algeria broke away under the governorship of Hammad ibn Buluggin, Buluggin's son. The relationship with their Fatimid overlords varied - in 1016 thousands of Shiites lost their lives in rebellions in Ifriqiya, the Fatimids encouraged the defection of Tripolitania from the Zirids, but the relationship remained close. In 1049 the Zirids broke away by adopting Sunni Islam and recognizing the Abbasids of Baghdad as rightful Caliphs, a move, popular with the urban Arabs of Kairouan; the Zirid period of Tunisia is considered a high point in its history, with agriculture, industry and learning, both religious and secular, all flourishing in their capital, Kairouan.
Management of the area by Zirid rulers was neglectful as the agricultural economy declined, prompting an increase in banditry among the rural population. When the Zirids renounced Shia Islam and recognized the Abbasid Caliphate in 1048, the Fatimids sent the Arab tribes of the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym to Ifriqiya; the Zirids were defeated, the land laid waste by the Bedouin conquerors. The resulting anarchy devastated the flourishing agriculture, the coastal towns assumed a new importance as conduits for maritime trade and bases for piracy against Christian shipping, as well as being the last holdout of the Zirids. After the loss of Kairouan the rule of the Zirids was limited to a coastal strip with Mahdia as the capital, while several Bedouin Emirates formed inland. Between 1146 and 1148 the Normans of Sicily conquered all the coastal towns, in 1152 the last Zirids in Algeria were superseded by the Almohad Caliphate; the Zirid period is a time of great economic prosperity. The departure of the Fatimids to Cairo, far from ending this prosperity, saw its amplification under the Zirid and Hammadid rulers.
Referring to the government of the Zirid Emir al-Mu'izz, the historian Ibn Khaldun describes: "It never seen by the Berbers of that country a kingdom more vast and more flourishing than his own." The northern regions produced wheat in large quantities, while the region of Sfax was a major hub of olive production and the cultivation of the date is an important part of the local economy in Biskra. Other crops such as sugar cane, cotton, sorghum and chickpea are grown; the breeding of horses and sheep was flourishing and fishing was active, providing plentiful food. The Mediterranean is an important part of the economy though it was, for a time, abandoned after the departure of the Fatimids when the priority of the Zirid Emirs turned to territorial and internal conflicts, their maritime policy enabled them to establish trade links, in particular for the importation of timber necessary for their fleet, enabled them to begin an alliance and close ties with the Kalbid Emirs of Sicily. They did, face blockade attempts by the Venetians and Normans who sought to reduce their wood supply and thus their dominance in the region.
The Arab chronicler Ibn Hawqal visited and described the city of Algiers under the Zirid er
The Almohad Caliphate was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century. The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains, they succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi conquered Marrakesh and declared himself Caliph. They extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus soon followed, all of Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172; the Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile and Navarre. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon afterwards, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively; the Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinids, in 1215.
The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribal confederation of the Atlas Mountains of southern Morocco. At the time and much of the rest of North Africa and Spain, was under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty. Early in his life, Ibn Tumart went to Spain to pursue his studies, thereafter to Baghdad to deepen them. In Baghdad, Ibn Tumart attached himself to the theological school of al-Ash'ari, came under the influence of the teacher al-Ghazali, he soon developed his own system. Ibn Tumart's main principle was a strict unitarianism, which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God as being incompatible with His unity, therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against, his followers would become known as the al-Muwahhidun. After his return to the Maghreb c.1117, Ibn Tumart spent some time in various Ifriqiyan cities and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity.
He laid the blame for the latitude on the ruling dynasty of the Almoravids, whom he accused of obscurantism and impiety. He opposed their sponsorship of the Maliki school of jurisprudence, which drew upon consensus and other sources beyond the Qur'an and Sunnah in their reasoning, an anathema to the stricter Zahirism favored by Ibn Tumart, his antics and fiery preaching led fed-up authorities to move him along from town to town. After being expelled from Bejaia, Ibn Tumart set up camp in Mellala, in the outskirts of the city, where he received his first disciples - notably, al-Bashir and Abd al-Mu'min. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers proceeded to Morocco, stopping first in Fez, where he engaged the Maliki scholars of the city in debate, he went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid emir `Ali ibn Yusuf, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled, after the manner of Berber women. After being expelled from Fez, he went to Marrakesh, where he tracked down the Almoravid emir Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque, challenged the emir, the leading scholars of the area, to a doctrinal debate.
After the debate, the scholars concluded that Ibn Tumart's views were blasphemous and the man dangerous, urged him to be put to death or imprisoned. But the emir decided to expel him from the city. Ibn Tumart took refuge among his own people, the Hargha, in his home village of Igiliz, in the Sous valley, he retreated to a nearby cave, lived out an ascetic lifestyle, coming out only to preach his program of puritan reform, attracting greater and greater crowds. At length, towards the end of Ramadan in late 1121, after a moving sermon, reviewing his failure to persuade the Almoravids to reform by argument, Ibn Tumart'revealed' himself as the true Mahdi, a divinely guided judge and lawgiver, was recognized as such by his audience; this was a declaration of war on the Almoravid state. On the advice of one of his followers, Omar Hintati, a prominent chieftain of the Hintata, Ibn Tumart abandoned his cave in 1122 and went up into the High Atlas, to organize the Almohad movement among the highland Masmuda tribes.
Besides his own tribe, the Hargha, Ibn Tumart secured the adherence of the Ganfisa, the Gadmiwa, the Hintata, the Haskura, the Hazraja to the Almohad cause. Around 1124, Ibn Tumart erected the ribat of Tinmel, in the valley of the Nfis in the High Atlas, an impregnable fortified complex, which would serve both as the spiritual center and military headquarters of the Almohad movement. For the first eight years, the Almohad rebellion was limited to a guerilla war along the peaks and ravines of the High Atlas, their principal damage was in rendering insecure the roads and mountain passes south of Marrakesh – threatening the route to all-important Sijilmassa, the gateway of the trans-Saharan trade. Unabl