The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
Pasha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system granted to governors, generals and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, was one of the highest titles in the 20th century Kingdom of Egypt. According to Etymonline, pasha is derived from the earlier "basha", itself from Turkish "baş/bash", itself from Old Persian pati- "master", the root of the Persian word shah. According to the Oxford Online Dictionary, the word has its origins in the mid-17th century, was formed as a result of the combination of the Pahlavi words pati- "lord", shah. According to Josef W. Meri and Jere L. Bacharach, the word is "more than derived from the Persian Padishah"; the same view is held by Nicholas Ostler, who mentions that the word was formed as a shortening of the Persian word Padishah. According to etymologist Sevan Nişanyan, the word is derived from Turkish beşe, cognate with Persian baççe.
Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/, the word was spelled başa still in the 15th century. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b"; the English forms bashaw, bucha etc. general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval Latin and Italian word bassa. Due to the Ottoman presence in the Arab World, the title became used in Arabic, though pronounced basha due to the absence of the /p/ sound in Arabic. Within the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman Sultan had the right to bestow the title of Pasha, it was through this custom that the title came to be used in Egypt, conquered by the Ottomans in 1517. The rise to power in Egypt in 1805 by Muhammad Ali, an Albanian military commander established Egypt as a de facto independent state, however, it still owed technical fealty to the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, Muhammad Ali harboured ambitions of supplanting the Osman Dynasty in Constantinople, sought to style his Egyptian realm as a successor sultanate to the Ottoman Empire.
As such, he bore the title of Pasha, in addition to the official title of Wāli, the self-declared title of Khedive. His successors to the Egyptian and Sudanese throne, Abbas, Sa'id, Isma'il inherited these titles, with Pasha, Wāli ceasing to be used in 1867, when the Ottoman Sultan, Abdülaziz recognised Isma'il as Khedive; the title Pasha appears to have applied to military commanders and only high ranking family of the Sultans, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour. It was part of the official style of the Kapudan Pasha. Pashas below Khedives and Viziers. Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of horse-tails or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief; the following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha: The Vizier-i-Azam Mushir Ferik Liva The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapı Palace.
If a Pasha governed a provincial territory, it could be called a pashaluk after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. eyalet, vilayet/walayah. Both Beylerbeys and valis/wālis were entitled to the style of Pasha; the word pashalik designated any province or other jurisdiction of a Pasha, such as the Pasha or Bashaw of Tripoli. Ottoman and Egyptian authorities conferred the title upon both Muslims and Christians without distinction, they frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the Ottoman Empire, or of the Egyptian Khedivate, e.g. Hobart Pasha. In an Egyptian context, the Abaza Family is known as "the family of the pashas" for having produced the largest number of nobles holding this title under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was noted in Egyptian media as one of the main "families that rule Egypt" to this day, as "deeply rooted in Egyptian society and… in the history of the country." As an honorific, the title Pasha was an aristocratic title and could be hereditary or non-hereditary, stipulated in the "Firman" issued by the Sultan carrying the imperial seal "Tughra".
The title did not bestow rank or title to the wife nor was any religious leader elevated to the title. In contrast to western nobility titles, where the title is added before the given name, Ottoman titles followed the given name. In contacts with foreign emissaries and representatives, holders of the title Pasha were referred to as "Your Excellency"; the sons of a Pasha were styled Pasha-zade, which means just that. In modern Egyptian and Levantine Arabic, it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord" by older people. Among Egyptians born since the
Pasha of Tripoli
Pasha of Tripoli is a title, held by many rulers of Tripoli in Ottoman Tripolitania. The Ottoman Empire ruled the territory for most time from the Siege of Tripoli in 1551 until the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911, at the onset of the Italo-Turkish War. For continuation after Italian conquest, see: List of colonial governors of Italian Tripolitania and List of colonial governors of Italian Cyrenaica Ottoman Tripolitania Italian Libya List of Governors-General of Italian Libya Italian Tripolitania List of colonial governors of Italian Tripolitania Italian Cyrenaica List of colonial governors of Italian Cyrenaica World Statesmen – Libya
Gafsa called Capsa in Latin, is the capital of Gafsa Governorate of Tunisia. It lends its Latin name to the Mesolithic Capsian culture. With a population of 105,264, Gafsa is the 9th-largest Tunisian city. Gafsa is the capital of the southwest of Tunisia and is both a historical oasis and home to the mining industry of Tunisia; the city had 111,170 inhabitants at the 2014 census, under the ruling of Malek Necibi. The city lies 369 km by road southwest of Tunis, its geographical coordinates are 34°25′N 8°47′E. Excavations at prehistoric sites in the Gafsa area have yielded artefacts and skeletal remains associated with the Capsian culture; this Mesolithic civilisation has been radiocarbon dated to between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE. The associated ancient population, known as the Snail eaters, are known for their extensive middens of snail shells, they are believed to be the ancestors of the modern Berbers. The city of Capsa belonged to King Jugurtha, it was captured by Gaius Marius in 106 BC and destroyed, but became a Roman colonia, was an important city of Roman Africa near the Fossatum Africae.
Roman cisterns are still evident in the city ruinsThe Vandals conquered the Roman city and ruled it until the death of Genseric. The Berbers occupied it, making it the capital of a Romano-Berber kingdom until subjected to Byzantium under Justinian I, he made Capsa the capital of the province of Byzacena. The Duke of Byzacena resided there. In 540, the Byzantine governor general Solomon built a new city wall, naming the city Justiniana Capsa; the Arab army of Oqba Ibn Nafi conquered Gafsa in 688, in spite of resistance from the Berbers. After the Arab conquest, Capsa started to lose importance, replaced by Muslim-founded Kairouan. Historians such as Camps and Laverde consider Gafsa the place in North Africa where African Romance last survived, until the 13th century, as a spoken language. Al Yacoubi reports that this time its inhabitants were considered Romanized Berber and Al-Idrissi says they continued to speak an African Latin and part of them remained faithful to the Christian religion. Gafsa ASM Extant documents give the names of a few of the bishops of Capsa.
In the 3rd century, Donatulus took part in the council that Saint Cyprian convoked in Carthage in 256 to discuss the problem of the lapsi. In the 4th century, at the Council of Carthage, Fortunatianus of Capsa was present, mentioned as the first among the bishops of Byzacena. A Donatist bishop of Capsa called Quintasius was at the council held at Cabarsussi in 393 by a breakaway group of Donatists led by Maximianus. In the 5th century, at the joint Council of Carthage attended by Catholics and Donatists and Morcelli say Capsa was represented by the Donatist Donatianus, that it had no Catholic bishop. According to the more recent Mesnage, Donatianus was instead the Donatist bishop of Capsus in Numidia, Capsa in Byzacena was represented by the Catholic Fortunatus and the Donatist Celer, whom the earlier sources attributed to Capsus. All three sources agree in attributing to Capsa the Vindemialis, one of the Catholic bishops whom Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484 and exiled. However, the latest editions of the Roman Martyrology, which commemorates Vindemialis on 2 May, call him bishop of Capsus in Numidia.
Capsa still had resident bishops at the end of the 9th century, being mentioned in a Notitia Episcopatuum of Leo VI the Wise. But a community may have lasted until the early 12th centuryNo longer a residential bishopric, Capsa is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Phosphate mines were discovered as early as 1886, Gafsa today is home to one of the largest mines of phosphate in the world. In the Second World War, Gafsa suffered heavy bombardment from both the German and Italian side and the Allies. Part of its Kasbah was destroyed. On 27 January 1980, a group of dissidents armed and trained by Libya occupied the city to contest the régime of Habib Bourguiba. 48 people were killed in the battles. The Gafsa region has had an active political voice throughout its history, various events there have shaped its political developments in the various phases of modern Tunisia. In 2008, Gafsa was the center of riots directed against the government of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; the government was swift and brutal in its suppression of the uprising, but this movement has since been credited with sowing the first seeds of the Jasmine Revolution that removed Zine El Abidine Ben Ali from power three years igniting the Arab Spring across much of North Africa and the Middle East.
In 2014, a lake appeared around 25 kilometers from the town. The cause of the lake's formation is unknown. Gafsa – Ksar International Airport is located in the city. El Kawafel Sportives de Gafsa is the main football club of Gafsa. Radio stations: Radio Gafsa | Frequencies: 87.8 FM, 93.5 FM and 91.8 FM, Mines FM or Sawt Elmanajem | Frequencies: 90.9 FMand other government and private Tunisian radios broadcast in Gafsa as Shems FM, RTCI, Youth Radio, Culture Radio and the National Radio. Gafsa is twinned with: Naples, Italy Palma de Mallorca, Spain Gafsa has a hot desert climate. African Romance Capsian culture Gafsa – The Historical Oasis History of Roman Capsa
The Hafsids were a Tunisian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya from 1229 to 1574. The dynasty was named after Muhammad bin Abu Hafs leader from the Masmuda tribe of Morocco, he was appointed governor of Ifriqiya by Muhammad an-Nasir, Caliph of the Almohad empire between 1198-1213. The Banu Hafs, were a powerful group amongst the Almohads, his original name was "Fesga Oumzal", which changed to "Abu Hafs Omar ibn Yahya al-Hentati" since it was a tradition of Ibn Tumart to rename his close companions once they had adhered to his religious teachings. The Hafsids as governors on behalf of the Almohads faced constant threats from Banu Ghaniya who were descendants of Almoravid princes which the Almohads had defeated and replaced as a ruling dynasty; the Hafsids were Ifriqiya governors of the Almohads until 1229. After the split of the Hafsids from the Almohads under Abu Zakariya, Abu Zakariya organised the administration in Ifriqiya and built Tunis up as the economic and cultural centre of the empire.
At the same time, many Muslims from Al-Andalus fleeing the Spanish Reconquista of Castile and Aragon were absorbed. He conquered the Kingdom of Tlemcen in 1242 and made the Abdalwadids his vassals, his successor Muhammad I al-Mustansir took the title of Caliph. He extended the boundaries of his State by subjugating the central Maghreb, going so far as to impose his overlordship over the Kingdom of Tlemcen, northern Morocco and the Nasrids of Granada Spain; the Hafsids become independent in 1264. The successor of Abû Zakariya' Yahya, Abu' Abd Allah Muhammad al-Mustansir, proclaimed himself Caliph in 1256 and continued the policies of his father, it was during his reign. After landing at Carthage, the King died of dysentery in the middle of his army decimated by disease in 1270. In the 14th century the empire underwent a temporary decline. Although the Hafsids succeeded for a time in subjugating the empire of the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen, between 1347 and 1357 they were twice conquered by the Merinids of Morocco.
The Abdalwadids however could not defeat the Bedouin. During the same period plague epidemics caused a considerable fall in population, further weakening the empire. Under the Hafsids, commerce with Christian Europe grew however piracy against Christian shipping grew as well during the rule of Abd al-Aziz II. In 1429, the Hafsids attacked the island of Malta, took 3000 slaves although they did not conquer the island; the profits were used for a great mosque building programme. However, piracy provoked retaliation from Aragon and Venice, which several times attacked Tunisian coastal cities. Under Utman the Hafsids reached their zenith, as the caravan trade through the Sahara and with Egypt was developed, as well as sea trade with Venice and Aragon; the Bedouins and the cities of the empire became independent, leaving the Hafsids in control of only Tunis and Constantine. In the 16th century the Hafsids became caught up in the power struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire-supported Corsairs.
The Ottomans conquered Tunis in 1534 and held it for one year, driving out the Hafsid ruler Muley Hassan. A year Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain seized Tunis, drove the Ottomans out and restored Muley Hassan as a Hapsburg tributary. Due to the Ottoman threat, the Hafsids were vassals of Spain after 1535; the Ottomans again held it for four years. Don Juan of Austria recaptured it in 1573; the Ottomans reconquered Tunis in 1574, Muhammad IV, the last Caliph of the Hafsids, was brought to Constantinople and was subsequently executed due to his collaboration with Spain and the desire of the Ottoman Sultan to take the title of Caliph as he now controlled Mecca and Medina. The Hafsid lineage survived the Ottoman massacre by a branch of the family being taken to the Canary Island of Tenerife by the Spanish. Abd al-Wahid Abd-Allah Abu Zakariya Muhammad I al-Mustansir Yahya II al-Watiq Ibrahim I Abd al-Aziz I Ibn Abi Umara Abu Hafs Umar I Muhammad I Abu Bakr I Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani Muhammad II Abu Bakr II Abu Hafs Umar II Ahmad I Ibrahim II Abu al-Baqa Khalid Ahmad II Abd al-Aziz II Muhammad III Uthman Abu Zakariya Yahya II Abd al-Mu'min Abu Yahya Zakariya Muhammad IV Muhammad V Ahmad III Ottoman conquest Muhammad VI Almohad Caliphate List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
Kingdom of Libya
The Kingdom of Libya called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic. Under the constitution of October 1951, the federal monarchy of Libya was headed by King Idris as chief of state, with succession to his designated male heirs. Substantial political power resided with the king; the executive arm of the government consisted of a prime minister and Council of Ministers designated by the king but responsible to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of a bicameral legislature. The Senate, or upper house, consisted of eight representatives from each of the three provinces. Half of the senators were nominated by the king, who had the right to veto legislation and to dissolve the lower house. Local autonomy in the provinces was exercised through provincial legislatures. Tripoli and Benghazi served alternately as the national capital.
The Constitution was drafted under the auspices of the United Nations, was seen to include significant mechanisms for the protection of human rights. The document established an institutional apparatus that promoted transparency and safeguards against antidemocratic power accumulation. In particular, the Constitution envisioned mechanisms to guarantee accountability in the exercise of public functions and equality of all Libyan citizens before the law. At the time it was produced, it was received as a positive and forward-thinking model of good governance and balance of powers for the region. Several factors, rooted in Libya's history, affected the political development of the newly independent country, they reflected the differing political orientations of the provinces and the ambiguities inherent in Libya's monarchy. First, after the first Libyan general election, 1952, which were held on 19 February, political parties were abolished; the National Congress Party, which had campaigned against a federal form of government, was defeated throughout the country.
The party was outlawed, Bashir es Sadawi was deported. Second, provincial ties continued to be more important than national ones, the federal and provincial governments were in dispute over their respective spheres of authority. A third problem derived from the lack of a direct heir to the throne. To remedy this situation, Idris in 1953 designated his sixty-year-old brother to succeed him; when the original heir apparent died, the king appointed his nephew, Prince Hasan ar Rida, his successor. When a group of young officers and soldiers seized power under the leadership of Muammar Gaddafi on September 1, 1969, the Crown Prince, ruling the country on behalf of King Idris was imprisoned for two years and subsequently reduced to complete isolation during the following seven years under house arrest. Publicly humiliated by Gaddafi's circle, he suffered a stroke that led him to seek medical treatment in the UK in 1988, he travelled to Europe with his second son, Prince Mohammed El Hassan El Rida El Senussi, died in 1992 in London surrounded by his family.
When, on June 18, 1992, the last will of the late Crown Prince was read at a press conference at the presence of the press and of his five children, Prince Mohammed was formally appointed as the legitimate heir to the throne of Libya. In its foreign policy, the Kingdom of Libya was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States, of which it became a member in 1953; the government was in close alliance with the United States and United Kingdom. The U. S. supported the United Nations resolution providing for Libyan independence in 1951 and raised the status of its office at Tripoli from a consulate general to a legation. Libya opened a legation at Washington, D. C. in 1954. Both countries subsequently exchanged ambassadors. In 1953, Libya concluded a twenty-year treaty of friendship and alliance with the United Kingdom under which the latter received military bases in exchange for financial and military assistance; the next year and the United States signed an agreement under which the United States obtained military base rights, subject to renewal in 1970, in return for economic aid to Libya.
The most important of the United States installations in Libya was Wheelus Air Base, near Tripoli, considered a strategically valuable installation in the 1950s and early 1960s. Reservations set aside in the desert were used by British and American military aircraft based in Europe as practice firing ranges. Libya forged close ties with France, Greece and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955, but declined a Soviet offer of economic aid; as part of a broad assistance package, the UN Technical Assistance Board agreed to sponsor a technical aid program that emphasized the development of agriculture and education. The University of Libya was founded in 1955 by royal decree in Benghazi. Foreign powers, notably Britain and the United States, provided development aid. Steady economic improvement occurred, but the pace was slow, Libya remained a poor and underdeveloped country dependent on foreign aid; this situation changed and in June 1959 when research prospectors from Esso confirmed the location of major petroleum deposits at Zaltan in Cyrenaica.
Further discoveries followed, commercial development was initiated by concession holders who returned 50 percent of their profits to the Libyan government in taxes. In the petroleum m
Italian Cyrenaica was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya, that existed from 1912 to 1934. It was part of the Italian North African territory conquered from the Ottoman Empire in 1911; the administrative capital was Benghazi. Italian Cyrenaica was formed in 1927, after it and Italian Tripolitania became independent colonial entities within Italian North Africa. In 1934, Italian Cyrenaica became part of Italian Libya. In the 1920s, Cyrenaica was the scene of fighting between Italian colonial forces and Libyan rebels who were fighting for independence from colonial rule. In 1931, the rebel independence leader Omar Mukhtar was executed. Fascist Italy maintained several concentration camps in Eastern Libya during the first phase of its occupation of that country; the colonial administration began in 1929 the nearly wholesale deportation of the people of the Jebel Akhdar to deny the rebels the support of the local population. The forced migration of more than 100,000 people ended in concentration camps in Suluq, El Magrun, Abyar and El Agheila where tens of thousands died in squalid conditions because of epidemics like the Spanish flu.
The concentration camps were dismantled after 1934, when the fascist regime obtained full control of the area and started a policy of assimilation of the local Arab community. This policy was so successful that in 1940 there were two colonial military divisions of Arab Libyans. In the late 1930s Cyrenaica was populated by more than 20,000 Italian colonists around the coast; as a consequence there was a large economic development effort in the second half of the 1930s. Italy carried out massive investment in the infrastructure of Libya. In Benghazi were created -for the first time in Cyrenaica's History- the first manufacturing installations: some industries were created in'Bengasi italiana' in the early 1930s, that included salt processing, oil refining, food processing, cement manufacturing, tanning and sponge and tuna fishing; the port of Benghazi nearby was created a modern Hospital. A new airport was built; the Italian aim was to drive the local population to the marginal land in the interior and to resettle the Italian population in the most fertile lands of Libya, but since 1938 the new governor Italo Balbo changed this policy in order to get the approval from the native population However the Italians did not provide the Libyans with adequate education until Balbo: the Italian population had 81 elementary schools in 1938, while the Libyans had 97.
In Cirenaica were founded -for the Italian colonists- the rural villages of Baracca, Oberdan, D’Annunzio and Battisti in 1938, successively Mameli and Filzi in 1939. For Libyan families were created in Cyrenaica the villages of Gedida-Nuova, Nahida-Risorta, Zahra- Fiorita and el-Fager-Alba; the Italians implemented major infrastructure projects in Italian Cyrenaica in the 1930s. A group of villages with all the needed communications for Italians and Libyans were established in coastal Cyrenaica during the 1930s. 1911: Beginning of the Italo-Turkish War. Italian conquest of Tobruk and Benghazi. 1912: Treaty of Lausanne ends the Italo-Turkish war. Ottoman empire ceded Cyrenaica. 1917-21: Series of agreements between Italians and Senussis, led by Sayyid Idris, resulted in the postponement of conflict. 1923: Italian governor, Luigi Bongiovanni declares the cancellation of treaties with Senussis, Italian forces occupy Ajdabiya, capital of the Senussi emirate, launching the reconquest of Cyrenaica. Senussi resistance led by Omar Mukhtar begins.
1925: Italo-Egyptian treaty defines the Cyrenaican -Egyptian border. 1926: Conquest of Al-Jaghbub. Winter 1927-8: Launching the "29th Parallel line operations", as a result of coordination between the governments of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, led to the conquest of gulf of Sidra, linking the two colonies. 1929: Pietro Badoglio becomes a unique governor of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. Beginning of Sidi Rhuma talks with Omar Mukhtar. 1931: Occupying of Kufra Oases, constructing the barbed wire on the Libyan-Egyptian border, the capture, the execution of Omar Mukhtar. 1932: Badoglio declares the end of Libyan resistance. 1934: Cyrenaica is incorporated in Colony of Libya. Chapin Metz, Hellen. Libya: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987. Sarti, Durand; the Ax within: Italian Fascism in Action. Modern Viewpoints. New York, 1974. List of colonial governors of Italian Cyrenaica Italian Libya Italian Libya Railways Italo-Libyans Italian concentration camps in Libya Jebel Akhdar Mountains Benghazi Province Derna Province