Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively, in all aspects, from Arabic and Persian and its speakers used the Ottoman Turkish alphabet for written communications. During the peak of Ottoman power, words of foreign origin in Turkish literature in the Ottoman empire outnumbered native Turkish words, with Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounting for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary in some texts. Ottoman Turkish was unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and to rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe, which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language; the Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman". Nominative and Indefinite accusative/objective): -∅, no suffix. گول‎ göl'the lake"a lake', چوربه‎ çorba'soup', گیجه‎ gece'night'. Genitive: suffix ڭ/نڭ‎ –ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. پاشانڭ‎ paşanıñ'of the pasha'. Definite accusative: suffix ى‎ –ı, -i: طاوشانى گترمش‎ ṭavşanı getürmiş'he/she brought the rabbit'.

The variant suffix –u, –ü does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, كولى‎ göli'the lake' vs. Modern Turkish gölü. Dative: Locative: suffix ده‎ –de, –da: مكتبده‎ mektebde'at school', قفصده‎ ḳafeṣde'in cage', باشده‎ başda'at a/the start', شهرده‎ şehirde'in town'; the variant suffix used in Modern Turkish –te, –ta does not occur. Ablative: Instrumental: suffix or postposition ايله‎ ile. Not counted as a grammatical case in modern grammars; the conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows: Ottoman Turkish was influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary; as in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact, evidenced by the Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin. The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the north-east of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes.

An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find. In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Persian incorporated into the text, it was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic. In a social and pragmatic sense, there were three variants of Ottoman Turkish: Fasih Türkçe: the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense. A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it.

Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras: Eski Osmanlı Türkçesi: the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century. It was identical with the Turkish used by Seljuk empire and Anatolian beyliks and was regarded as part of Eski Anadolu Türkçesi. Orta Osmanlı Türkçesi or Klasik Osmanlıca: the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat, it is the version of Ottoman Turkish. Yeni Osmanlı Türkçesi: the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature. In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents, it saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.

See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below. Speaking, Ottoman Turkish is the predecessor of modern Turkish. However, the standard Turkish of today is Türkiye Türkçesi as writ

Víctor Víctor Mesa

Víctor Víctor Mesa Ríos is a Cuban professional baseball outfielder in the Miami Marlins organization. Mesa played in the Cuban National Series for Matanzas from 2012 through 2017, for Industriales in the 2017-2018 season. Mesa played for the Cuban national team at the 2017 World Baseball Classic. Mesa and his younger brother, Víctor Mesa Jr. defected from Cuba in 2018. On October 22, 2018, Mesa and his brother Víctor Jr. signed with the Miami Marlins. Mesa received a $5.25 million signing bonus. He began 2019 with the Jupiter Hammerheads, was promoted to the Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp on July 30. Between the two levels, Mesa hit a combined.235/.274/.263/.537 with 0 home runs and 29 RBI. Following the 2019 season Mesa played for the Salt River Rafters of the Arizona Fall League, his father, Víctor Mesa, was the manager of Cuba at the 2013 World Baseball Classic and is a former player. His brother Víctor Mesa Jr. is an outfielder in the Miami organization. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference


In Norse mythology, Fensalir is a location where the goddess Frigg dwells. Fensalir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the location, including that the location may have some connection to religious practices involving springs, bogs, or swamps in Norse paganism, that it may be connected to the goddess Sága's watery location Sökkvabekkr. In the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, Frigg is described as weeping over her son Baldr's death in Fensalir; this stanza is absent in the Hauksbók manuscript of the poem. The portion of the stanza mentioning Fensalir foretells that vengeance will come for the death of Baldr and that: while Frigg wept in Fen Halls for Valhǫll's woe. In chapter 35 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, High tells Gangleri that Frigg is the highest among the ásynjur or Aesir, that "she has a dwelling called Fensalir and it is splendid."

In chapter 49, High says that when Loki witnessed that Baldr had gained invincibility due to the oath all things took not to harm him, Loki went to Fensalir appearing as a woman. In his disguise, Loki there asked Frigg. Frigg revealed; the disguised Loki asks if nothing can hurt Baldr, Frigg reveals that only mistletoe can, for it seemed to her too young to demand an oath from. After this, Loki disappears, subsequently engineers the death of Baldr with a mistletoe projectile. In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Fensalir receives a final mention. In chapter 19, ways to refer to Frigg are provided, including that Frigg may be referred to as "queen of Æsir and Asyniur, of Fulla and falcon form and Fensalir." In 1882, the German scholar Anton Edzardi proposed that Fensalir may point to religious practices involving springs. John Lindow comments that "I have no idea why Frigg should live in a boggy place, despite the old argument that there is an association with a cult situated at a spring." Rudolf Simek comments that Edzardi's theory "must remain unanswered."

In addition, Edzardi theorized a connection between Fensalir and a belief in folklore that particular swamps act as an entrance to the realm of Holda, whom he connects with Frigg. In a 19th-century work, Paul Henri Mallet and Walter Scott write that the "fen" element of Fensalir "may be made to sig the watery deep, or the sea." This etymology has resulted in theories that the name Fensalir may mean "Sea Halls" rather than "Fen Halls." In his 19th-century translation of the Poetic Edda, Henry Adams Bellows comments that "some scholars have regarded as a solar myth, calling her the sun-goddess, pointing out that her home in Fensalir symbolizes the daily setting of the sun beneath the ocean horizon."John Lindow says that due to similarity between the goddess Sága's Sökkvabekkr and Fensalir, the open drinking between Sága and Odin, the potential etymological basis for Sága being a seeress "have led most scholars to understand Sága as another name for Frigg." Stephan Grundy states that Sága and Sökkvabekkr may be by-forms of Frigg and Fensalir used for the purpose of composing alliterative verse.

Britt-Mari Näsström theorizes that "Frigg's role as a fertility goddess is revealed in the name of her abode, Fensalir ", that Frigg is the same as Sága, that both the names Fensalir and Sökkvabekkr "imply a goddes living in the water and recall the fertility goddess Nerthus."