Siege of Tripoli (1551)
The Siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottomans besieged and vanquished the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established a fort in Tripoli in 1510, the siege culminated in a six-day bombardment and the surrender of the city on 15 August. The city was under the command of Father Gaspard de Vallier, the Ottomans had a base since 1531 in the city of Tajura,20 kilometers to the east, where Khayr al-Din had been based. The Ottomans encircled the fort, and established 3 batteries of 12 guns each, soon the soldiers in the fort mutinied, and negotiation for surrender started. The city was captured on 15 August 1551 by Sinan Pasha after six days of bombardment, the Knights, many of them French, were returned to Malta upon the intervention of the French ambassador, and shipped onboard his galleys, while the mercenaries were enslaved. Murād Agha, the Ottoman commander of Tajura since 1536, was named as the Pashalik of the city, Nicolas de Villegagnon, the future explorer of Brazil, was present at the siege of Tripoli in 1551, and wrote an account about it in 1553.
From Malta, dAramon wrote a letter about his intervention to Henry II, the role of dAramon was widely criticized by Charles V and Julius III on suspicion that he had encouraged the Ottomans to take the city. In any instance, dAramon had a relationship with the Ottomans. Upon his return to Malta, Gaspard de Vallier was heavily criticized by the Grand Master Juan de Homedes y Coscon who wished to all the blame for the defeat on him. He was brought in front of a tribunal, and stripped from the habit and he had been however staunchly defended by Nicolas de Villegagnon, who exposed the duplicity of de Homedes. The siege was the first step of the all-out Italian War of 1551–1559 in the European theater, in 1553, Dragut was nominated commander of Tripoli by Suleiman, making the city an important center for piratical raids in the Mediterranean and the capital of the Ottoman province of Tripolitania. In a famous attack from Tripoli, in 1558, Dragut attacked Reggio, in 1560, a powerful naval force was sent to recapture Tripoli, but that force was defeated in the Battle of Djerba.
Franco-Ottoman alliance Timeline of Maltese history List of Ottoman sieges and landings Battle of Tripoli 2011
Invasion of Corsica (1553)
The Invasion of Corsica of 1553 occurred when French and Corsican exile forces combined to capture the island of Corsica from the Genoese. The island had been administered since 1453 by the Genoese Bank of Saint George, the invasion of Corsica was accomplished for the benefit of France. The island had strategic importance, as it was located on the sea route between Spain and Italy, which was vital for the Holy Roman Empire. The French king Henry II had entered into a war with the Habsburg Emperor Charles V in 1551. The Ottomans, accompanied by the French ambassador Gabriel de Luetz dAramon, had defeated a Genoese fleet under Andrea Doria in the Battle of Ponza the previous year in 1552. On 1 February 1553, a new Franco-Ottoman treaty of alliance, the Ottoman admirals Turgut and Koja Sinan, together with a French squadron under Baron Paulin de la Garde, raided the coasts of Naples, Sicily and Corsica. The island of Corsica was occupied by the Genoese at the time, the Ottoman fleet supported the French by ferrying the French troops of Parma under Marshal Paul de Thermes from Siennese Maremma to Corsica.
The French were supported by Corsican exiles under Sampiero Corso, the invasion had not been explicitly approved beforehand by the French king however. Bastia was captured on 24 August 1553, and Paulin de la Garde arrived in front of Saint-Florent on 26 August. With only Calvi remaining to be captured, the Ottomans, loaded with spoils, decided to leave the blockade at the end of September, with the Ottoman fleet gone for the winter and the French fleet having returned to Marseilles, the occupation of Corsica was jeopardised. Only 5,000 old soldiers remained on the island, together with the Corsican insurgents. Henry II started negotiations with Genoa in November, but Genoa sent a force of 15,000 men with the fleet of Andrea Doria, an Ottoman fleet sailed in the Mediterranean under Dragut but was too late, and only sailed the coast of Naples before returning to Constantinople. The French only obtained the cooperations of galliots from Algiers, by 1555 the French had been cleared from most of the coastal cities and Doria left, but many areas remained under French control.
In 1555, Jourdan des Ursins replaced de Thermes, and was named Gouverneur et lieutenant général du roi dans lîle de Corse, the Turkish fleet only stood by during the siege of Calvi, and contributed little. The same inactivity took place during the siege of Bastia, which had been retaken by the Genoese, the Turkish fleet sent to help was severely undermined by the plague and went home towing empty ships. The Ottoman fleet led the Ottoman invasion of the Balearic islands instead, suleiman would apologize in a letter to Henry at the end of the year 1558. The Franco-Ottoman military alliance is said to have reached its peak around 1553, finally, in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559 the French returned Corsica to Genoa. Franco-Ottoman alliance History of Corsica List of Ottoman sieges and landings Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, ISBN 0-521-29135-6 William Miller, The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927 Routledge,1966 ISBN 0-7146-1974-4
Siege of Vienna
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege signalled the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empires power and the extent of Ottoman expansion in central Europe. Thereafter,150 years of military tension and reciprocal attacks ensued, culminating in the Battle of Vienna of 1683. The inability of the Ottomans to capture Vienna in 1529 turned the tide against almost a century of conquest throughout eastern, the Ottoman Empire had previously annexed Central Hungary and established a vassal state in Transylvania in the wake of the Battle of Mohács. According to Arnold J. Toynbee, The failure of the first brought to a standstill the tide of Ottoman conquest which had been flooding up the Danube Valley for a century past. There is speculation by historians that Suleimans main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary. The decision to attack Vienna after such an interval in Suleimans European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary.
Other scholars theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a and his brother-in-law, Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, claimed the vacant Hungarian throne. Thus Hungary became divided into Royal Hungary and Ottoman Hungary up until 1700, Ferdinand set out to enforce his claim on Hungary and captured Buda in 1527, only to relinquish his hold on it in 1529 when an Ottoman counter-attack stripped Ferdinand of all his territorial gains. Estimates of Suleimans army vary widely from 120,000 to more than 300,000 men mentioned by various chroniclers, Suleiman launched his campaign on 10 May 1529 and faced numerous obstacles from the onset. Sickness and poor health became common among the janissaries, claiming many lives along the perilous journey, Suleiman arrived in Osijek on 6 August. The only resistance came at Pozsony, where the Turkish fleet was bombarded as it sailed up the Danube, as the Ottomans advanced towards Vienna, the citys population organised an ad-hoc resistance formed from local farmers and civilians determined to repel the inevitable attack.
The Ottoman army that arrived in late September had been depleted during the long advance into Austrian territory, leaving Suleiman short of camels. Many of his troops arrived at Vienna in a state of health after the tribulations of a long march through the thick of the European wet season. Of those fit to fight, a third were light cavalry, or Sipahis, three richly-dressed Austrian prisoners were dispatched as emissaries by the Sultan to negotiate the citys surrender, Salm sent three richly-dressed Muslims back without a response. More rain fell on 11 October, and with the Ottomans failing to make any breaches in the walls, in addition, Suleiman was facing critical shortages of supplies such as food and water, while casualties and desertions began taking a toll on his armys ranks. The janissaries began voicing their displeasure at the progression of events, the Sultan convened an official council on 12 October to deliberate the matter. It was decided to attempt one final, major assault on Vienna, extra rewards were offered to the troops
Great Turkish War
The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which lost large amounts of territory in Central Europe. The war was significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance. After Bohdan Khmelnytskys rebellion, when the Tsardom of Russia acquired parts of Eastern Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and their leader, Petro Doroshenko, wanted to connect the rest of Ukraine with the Ottoman Empire, starting a rebellion against Hetman John Sobieski. Sultan Mehmed IV, who knew that the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was weakened due to conflicts, attacked Kamianets-Podilskyi. The small Polish force resisted the Siege of Kamenets for two weeks but was forced to capitulate. The Polish Army was too small to resist the Ottoman invasion, after three months, the Poles were forced to sign the Treaty of Buchach in which they agreed to surrender Kamyanets-Podilsky, Podolia and to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan. When the news about the defeat and treaty terms reached Warsaw, the Sejm refused to pay the tribute and organized an army under Jan Sobieski, subsequently.
After King Michaels death in 1673, Jan Sobieski was elected king of Poland, he tried to defeat the Ottomans for four years. The war ended on 17 October 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno in which the Turks only retained control over Kamianets-Podilskyi and this Turkish attack led in 1676 to the beginning of the Russo-Turkish Wars. After a few years of peace, the Ottoman Empire attacked the Habsburg Empire, the Turks almost captured Vienna, but John III Sobieski led a Christian alliance that defeated them in the Battle of Vienna, stalling the Ottoman Empires hegemony in south-eastern Europe. A new Holy League was initiated by Pope Innocent XI and encompassed the Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second Battle of Mohács was a crushing defeat for the Sultan. The Turks were more successful on the Polish front and were able to retain Podolia during their battles with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, russias involvement marked the first time the country formally joined an alliance of European powers.
This was the beginning of a series of Russo-Turkish Wars, which continued into the 20th century, as a result of the Crimean campaigns and Azov campaigns, Russia captured the key Ottoman fortress of Azov. Following the decisive Battle of Zenta in 1697 and lesser skirmishes, the Ottomans ceded most of Hungary and Slavonia to the Habsburg Empire while Podolia returned to Poland. Most of Dalmatia passed to Venice, along with the Morea, Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. In the first half of 1688, the Habsburg army, together with units of Serbian Militia, captured Gyula and Ineu from the Ottoman Empire. After Belgrade had been liberated from the Ottomans in 1688, Serbs from the territories in the south of Sava and Danube rivers began to join Serbian Militia units. However, with the rise of the Ottomans, during the 16th and early 17th centuries, they lost most of these, such as Cyprus and Euboea to the Turks
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Siege of Castelnuovo
Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, during the siege the Barbarossas army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmientos men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, the loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems, in 1538 the main danger to Christianity in Europe was the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The armies of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had been stopped at Vienna in 1529, Barbarossa captured the islands of Syros, Ios, Tinos, Kasos and besieged Corfu. The Italian cities of Otranto and Ugento and the fortress of Castro, in February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in creating a league which united the Papacy itself, the Republic of Venice, the Empire of Charles V, the Archduchy of Austria and the Knights of Malta.
The Allied fleet for the campaign was supposed to consist of 200 galleys and another 100 auxiliary ships, but only 130 galleys and an army of around 15,000 infantry, mostly Spaniards, were all that could be gathered. The commander of the army was unquestionably Hernando Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily, differences among the commanders of the fleet diminished its effectiveness against an experienced opponent like Barbarossa. This was seen in the Battle of Preveza, fought in the Gulf of Arta, but the Holy League fleet provided support to the land forces that landed on the Dalmatian coast and captured the town of Castelnuovo. This small town was a strategic fortress between the Venetian possessions of Cattaro and Ragusa in the known as Venetian Albania. Venice therefore claimed ownership of the city, but Charles V refused to cede it and this was the beginning of the end of the Holy League. The town of Castelnuovo was garrisoned with approximately 4,000 men, the main force was a tercio of Spanish veteran soldiers numbering about 3,500 men under the experienced Maestro de Campo Francisco Sarmiento de Mendoza y Manuel.
This tercio, named Tercio of Castelnuovo, was formed by 15 flags belonging to other tercios, among them the Old Tercio of Lombardy, dissolved the year before after a mutiny for lack of pay. The chaplain of Andrea Doria, named Jeremías, remained in Castelnuovo along with 40 clerics, the reason for the garrisons large size was that Castelnuovo was projected to be the beachhead for a great offensive against the heart of the Ottoman Empire. However, the fate of the troops who were in the fortress depended entirely on the support of the fleet, moreover, in a short time Venice withdrew from the Holy League after accepting a disadvantageous agreement with the Ottomans. Without Venetian ships, the Allied fleet had no chance to defeat the Ottoman fleet commanded by Barbarossa, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Barbarossa to reorganize and rearm his fleet during the winter months to have it ready for the battle in the spring of 1539. 10,000 infantry soldiers and 4,000 Janissaries were embarked aboard the warships to reinforce the troops of the galleys, meanwhile, used the peaceful months prior to the siege to improve the defenses of the town, repairing walls and bastions and building new fortifications.
In the event he could not do due to a lack of available means
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, better known as Piri Reis, was an Ottoman admiral and cartographer. He gained fame as a cartographer when a part of his first world map was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, Piri Reis map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer. In 1528, Piri Reis drew a world map, of which a small fragment still survives. According to his text, he had drawn his maps using about 20 foreign charts. For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis, the exact date of his birth is unknown. His fathers name was Hacı Mehmed Piri, the honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji in Piris and his fathers names indicate that they both had completed the Hajj by going to Mecca during the dedicated annual period. When his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gelibolu, by 1516, he was again at sea as a ship captain in the Ottoman fleet. He took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt, in 1524 he captained the ship that took the Ottoman Grand Vizier Pargalı İbrahim Pasha to Egypt.
In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the sack of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, and the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis attempted to capture the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, unsuccessfully. When the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast and he returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90. When he refused to support the Ottoman Vali of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis, Piri Reis is the author of the Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or Book of the Sea, one of the most famous cartographical works of the period.
The work was first published in 1521, and it was revised in 1524-1525 with additional information, the revised edition had a total of 434 pages containing 290 maps. Ptolemys Geographia had been translated in Turkish after an order of Mehmed II some decades before. Special emphasis is given to the discoveries in the New World by Christopher Columbus and those of Vasco da Gama and the other Portuguese seamen on their way to India, the second section is entirely composed of portolan charts and cruise guides