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Ottoman weapons

Military forces of the Ottoman Empire used a variety of weapons throughout the centuries. The armoury in Topkapı Palace has a large collection; the Yatagan makes its appearance in the second half of the 16th century, is an infantry weapon in which the hilt is made of bone or ivory and the pommel is flared. Its short curved blade is sharp on one edge and comes to a fine point; this form continues unchanged until the end of the 19th century. The yatagan sword was used in both the Ottoman army and navy for the Janissaries as they were signature weapon for the corps; the Ottoman cavalry sabre or kilij is the Ottoman variant of the Turko-Mongol sabre originating in Central Asia. It is designed for the mounted close combat preferred by the Turkish and Mamluke troops, it was a one-handed saber with a slight curvature enough to thrust effectively. A consists of a blade, grooved, a hilt and scabbard, its basic form is illustrated by the sword of Sultan Mehmed II, with its curved blade that thickens at the back.

During the reigns of Sultan Bayezid and Suleiman I, the Turkish sword attained its classic form, becoming shorter and straighter. There are three kinds of recurve bow: war and long-range bows. All three types were made of four materials: wood, horn and adhesive. A grip is located at the center of each bow, they are decorated in lacquer technique. The shaft of arrows was made of the head of iron, brass, or bone. At the end of the arrow are feathers to stabilise flight and knotted nock to hold the arrow against the bowstring. Maces were blunt force weapons used for crushing blows against the enemy; these weapons were effective against armored troops, were smooth or had 3-12 flanges or blades protruding from the top of the weapon. The start of the use of artillery in the Ottoman Army is not definite. One of the arguments is that the Ottomans used cannons in the Battles of Kosovo and Nukap and most by the 1420s; however the other argument states that field guns entered service shortly after the Battle of Varna and more used in the Second Battle of Kosovo.

The Balkans was used by the Ottomans as both a human and technical source concerning the advancement and the use of their artillery pieces. Bosnia and Serbia along with Italy and Germany was an important cog for the Ottoman Army. Specialist ‘topcu’ or artillery units were formed of Christians. In the siege of Baghdad where the Ottomans retook the city from the Persians, gunners of European descent served on the lines. Although the payroll registry records were not good at keeping up with the number of gunners because the comrades of those deceased collected the money on their behalf; the table below gives us a clear view of the trends. The Size of the Ottoman Artillery Corps 1514-1769 One of the greatest advancements in Ottoman fire arms came in the reign of Beyazid II who improved the design of field artillery pieces and many other firearms ranging from muskets to ‘tufeks’. To add to this the 16th century brought the latest technical advancements in gun making to the Ottomans. Archival evidence supports the notion that the Ottoman artillery was famous for the size of its cannon, their number.

These bombards were a product of specialised study in the production of'giant guns' known as castle smashers'kale-kob'. Although such weapons being used in sieges. Accuracy was achieved by using wadded shots wrapped in sheepskin with ready-measured stacks of powder. Unlike the European powder, the Ottoman powder is thought to be better for upon firing; the most famous battle in which these bronze'bombards' were used is at the siege of Constantinople in 1453. The bombards weighed 19 tons, took 200 men and sixty oxen to emplace, could fire just seven times a day; the Fall of Constantinople was "the first event of supreme importance whose result was determined by the use of artillery", when the huge bronze cannons of Mehmed II breached the city's walls, ending the Byzantine Empire, according to Sir Charles Oman. The most used gun is known as a battering gun; this gun fired 0.15–2.5 kg shots in weight. These guns were used more in fortresses. Small-calibre bronze pieces were used on galleons and river boats.

However, most riverboats had an armoury of cast-iron guns. The ` balyemez' was a long-range cannon which fired shots weighing 31 -- 74 kg. ‘Şahalaz’ was light cannon used on riverboats, was a cast iron cannon firing 0.5 kg shots. ‘Şayha’ was a gun of various sizes used predominantly on riverboats in the Danube. It weighed between 74 kg; the 16th and 17th centuries gave rise to other types of cannons which the Ottomans used, such as the‘Saçma topu’ and the ‘Ağaç topu’. The ammunition used by the bronze bombards were stone balls 1 meter in diameter and weighing 4


Electromerism is a type of isomerism between a pair of molecules differing in the way electrons are distributed among the atoms and the connecting chemical bonds. In some literature electromerism is equated to valence tautomerism, a term reserved for tautomerism involving reconnecting chemical bonds. One group of electromers are excited electronic states but isomerism is limited to ground state molecules. Another group of electromers are called redox isomers: metal ions that can exchange their oxidation state with their ligands. One of the first instances was a cobalt bis complex described by Buchanan and Pierpont in 1980 with a cobalt complex in chemical equilibrium with the cobalt complex. Ligands found are based on dioxolenes, phenoxyl radicals and polychlorotriphenylmethyl radicals. Metalloporphyrins have been studied. A set of electromers not requiring redox-active ligands have been described as well as a set without a metal

Paul Kester

Paul Kester was an American playwright and novelist. He was the younger brother of journalist Vaughan Kester and a cousin of the literary editor and critic William Dean Howells. Kester was born in some 30 miles north of Columbus at Delaware, Ohio, he was the younger of two sons raised by Harriet Kester. His father was traveling salesman, mother an art teacher who in 1882 helped found the Cleveland School of Art. Kester was educated at private schools where he excelled in the dramatic arts, his first success came in January 1892 with Countess Roudine, which premiered in Philadelphia at the Chestnut Street Theatre and opened a week at the Union Square Theatre in New York City. Countess Roudine was a collaborative effort written with the actress Minnie Maddern Fiske. In 1896 his adaptation of Edward Bulwer-Lytton's Eugene Aram was produced by Walker Whiteside's company and in 1902 with George Middleton adapted the George W. Cable Southern romance The Cavalier, staged at the Criterion Theatre with Julia Marlowe.

Actress Annie Russell produced and starred in his 1906 Quaker tale Friend Hannah, written with the help of his brother, Vaughan. Kester worked on nearly 30 plays over his career, his most successful Broadway effort was The Woman of Bronze, which ran for 252 performances between September 1920 and April 1921 at Manhattan's Frazee Theatre. He authored a number of books, with His Own Country most the more popular. Described as shy and diffident, Kester preferred country life to that of the city. In 1902, with his brother, he renovated Woodlawn Plantation in Northern Virginia. Five years the two acquired nearby Gunston Hall, where Vaughan Kester died in 1911. A few years Kester and his mother relocated to Belmont, an estate near Alexandria, today part of the campus of St. Stephen's & St. Agnes School. Kester spent his final years at a small community near Peekskill, New York, he died there in 1933 at a victim of thrombosis. At the time the closest surviving member of his family was the mezzo-soprano opera singer Florence Wickham, a cousin.

He is buried in the graveyard at Pohick Church, once the parish church of Gunston Hall, as is his mother. Kester's Broadway credits are recorded at the Internet Broadway Database. Countess Roudine – January 13, 1892 – Union Square Theatre – Helena Modjeska Eugene Aram –1896 tour – Walker Whiteside Sweet Nell of Old Drury – August 30, 1900 – Haymarket TheatreJulia Neilson – January 1, 1901 Knickerbocker TheatreAda Rehan When Knighthood Was in Flower – January 14, 1901 – Criterion Theatre – Julia Marlowe The Cavalier – December 8, 1902 – Criterion Theatre – Julia Marlowe Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall December 14, 1903 – New York TheatreBertha Galland Don Quixote – January 27, 1908 – Lyric TheatreE. H. Sothern Beverly's Balance – Apr 12, 1915 – Lyric Theatre – Margaret Anglin The Woman of Bronze – September 7, 1920 – Frazee Theatre – Margaret Anglin Lady Dedlock – December 31, 1928 – Ambassador Theatre – Margaret Anglin Tom Sawyer – December 25, 1931 – Alvin Theatre, Clifford Adams and Preston Dawson, Jr.

More information is available in the Paul Kester Papers at the New York Public Library. Tales of the Real Gypsy His Own Country Conservative Democracy Diana Dauntless The Course of True Love Kester spoke of his novel His Own Country in the aftermath of World War I: The Race problem is always with us, as my story deals in a serious way with its more serious aspects, I do not think it can be untimely. New phases of this great problem come up from day to day – but the problem itself is as old as history – likely it will remain a problem to the end of history. Racial differences and the prejudices resulting from them have always confronted practical statesmen; the old method of dealing with them was by subjugation, or extermination. Such methods are now obsolete. Better ones must be found. Understanding must precede intelligent action along any lines, my reason – I would better say my justification – for writing His Own Country has been my hope and belief that it would bring some little considered phases of this menacing and mighty problem more before the minds of readers who live remote from it, yet whose consent is necessary, as it should be in a democracy, to any adjustment of settlement of living conditions where the races are existing side by side.

I want to go home To the dull old town With the shaded streets And the open square And the hill And the flatsAnd the house I love And the paths I know - I want to go home. If I can't go back To the happy days, Yet I can live Where their shadows lie, Under the trees And over the grass -I want to be there Where the joy was once. Oh, I want to go home, I want to go home. Works by or about Paul Kester at Internet Archive Paul Kester at the Internet Broadway Database Three Mark Twain Plays by Paul Kester

Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin

The conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin refers to the conservation-restoration and enduring preservation of the Shroud of Turin to avoid further damage and contamination. Since 1578 the Shroud has been kept in the Royal Chapel of Turin Cathedral, it is stored under the laminated bulletproof glass of an airtight case, filled with chemically-neutral gasses. The temperature and humidity controlled-case is filled with argon and oxygen to prevent chemical changes, the Shroud itself is kept on an aluminum support sliding on runners and stored flat within the case; when the Shroud is not on public display, the case is closed. During the last centuries, the Shroud has been publicly exhibited a limited number of times on special occasions. 18th century4 May 1722. 4 May 1737: to celebrate the marriage of Charles Emmanuel III, Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia. 29 June 1750: to celebrate the marriage of Victor Amadeus III Prince of Sardinia. 15 October 1775: to celebrate the marriage of Charles Emmanuel IV Prince of Sardinia.19th century20 May 1814: to celebrate the return of Victor Emmanuel I, King of Sardinia, to Turin.

21 May 1815: requested by Pope Pius VII to mark the restoration of the Papal States. 4 January 1822: to celebrate the accession of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia. 4 May 1842: to celebrate the marriage of Victor Emmanuel II Duke of Savoy. 24–27 April 1868: to celebrate the marriage of Humbert I, King of Italy. 25 May–2 June 1898: to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Turin Cathedral and 50th anniversary of Italy's Statuto Albertino constitution. Secondo Pia took the first photograph of the Shroud.20th century3–24 May 1931: to celebrate the marriage of Umberto II Prince of Piedmont. The Shroud is photographed for the second time. 24 September–15 October 1933: requested by Pope Pius XI to mark the nineteenth centenary of the Resurrection. 26 August–8 October 1978: to commemorate the fourth centenary of Turin’s custody of the Shroud. 18 April–14 June 1998: to commemorate the centenary of the first photograph of the Shroud by Secondo Pia. 12 August–22 October 2000: to commemorate the Jubilee anniversary of the birth of Jesus.21st century 10–23 May 2010: first public exhibition of the Shroud after its restoration in 2002 19 April–24 June 2015: to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of John Bosco.

8–12 August 2018: in preparation for the Synod on Young People On 4 December 1532, the Shroud sustained a fire, which burned out several holes in the fabric. In the spring of 1534, the Poor Clare Nuns patched the holes and placed a backing Holland cloth on the reverse. On 11 April 1997, the Turin Cathedral sustained another fire, but the Shroud survived unscathed. By that time the Shroud stayed within the three walls of plate glass each 11 feet long and 6.5 feet high. The fireman Mario Trematore decided to use a sledgehammer against the bulletproof glass to rescue the relic, he caused the 39mm thick material to shatter and another fireman arrived to help Trematore. When asked how he managed to break the glass, Trematore replied: "The bulletproof glass can stop bullets, but it cannot stop the strength of values represented by the symbol inside it. With only a hammer and our hands, we broke the glass". During the 2002 restoration, conducted by the Commission for the Conservation of the Shroud between 20 June and 22 July, thirty triangular patches, sewn by nuns in 1534, as well as the Holland cloth, were removed.

The pre-1516/pre-1192 L-shaped burn holes, called "poker holes" and mentioned in the 12th century Hungarian Pray Codex, have remained. The 2002 restoration has been criticized as causing damage to the Shroud; because of dehydration, which might have been involved in the image formation, the Shroud was not recommended to be stored in vacuum. As the minor changes of temperature can enhance the pressure and mechanical stress, the Shroud's case was made climate-controlled. An electron microscope investigation of the dust and pollens removed from the Shroud during the 1978 examination has revealed that some species of mites are resident on the cloth. Lichenothelia and arachnids in one of the tape samples have been observed; as the Shroud was rolled and unrolled for display throughout the centuries, it sustained a repeated abrasion of the charred edges to the areas holed in the fire. The low magnification images of the blood areas show an extensive abrasion of this type. To reduce the stress of gravity the Shroud was suggested being in horizontal display.

To minimize possible cosmic ray exposure, it was suggested that the plane of the cloth be aligned perpendicular to the ground. American researcher Alan D. Adler, confirming the presence of bilirubin on the fabric, noted that it is not light-stable and may change the color under any light. According to Adler, since the image fibers are at or near saturation while the surrounding cloth is not, the latter will get darker until the image first becomes a silhouette and finally vanishes. Fringe theories about the Shroud of Turin History of the Shroud of Turin Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin


Lamniconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. In the latest classification of the family Conidae by Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P. Lamniconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus da Motta, 1991 represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Lamniconus from Conus in the following ways: Genus Conus sensu stricto Linnaeus, 1758Shell characters The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum; the shoulder of the shell is nodulose and the protoconch is multispiral. Markings include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars. Radular tooth The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, lacks a basal spur.

Geographical distribution These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Feeding habits These species eat other gastropods including cones. Subgenus Lamniconus da Motta, 1991Shell characters The shell is turbinate to elongate conical in shape; the protoconch is paucispiral. The spire is concave in cross section; the shell is ornamented with nodules which die out early in the postnuclear whorls. The anal notch is deep; the periostracum is tufted, the operculum is small. Radular tooth The anterior section of the radular tooth is equal in length with the posterior section, the blade is long and covers most of the anterior section. A basal spur is present, the barb is short; the radular tooth has serrations, an internal terminating cusp. Geographical distribution The species in this genus occur in the occur in the West Atlantic region. Feeding habits These cone snails are presumed to be vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete worms, based upon the radular tooth morphology; this list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species list.

Species within the genus Lamniconus include: Lamniconus carcellesi: synonym of Conus carcellesi Martins, 1945 represented as Conus carcellesi Martins, 1945 Lamniconus clerii: synonym of Conus clerii Reeve, 1844 Lamniconus lemniscatus: synonym of Conus lemniscatus Reeve, 1849 Lamniconus patriceae Petuch & R. F. Myers, 2014: synonym of Conus patriceae Lamniconus tostesi: synonym of Conus tostesi Petuch, 1986 represented as Conus tostesi Petuch, 1986 Lamniconus xanthocinctus: synonym of Conus xanthocinctus Petuch, 1986 Kohn A. A.. Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press and London. Monteiro A.. The Cone Collector 1: 1-28. Berschauer D.. Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54 Puillandre N. Meyer C. P. Bouchet P. and Olivera B. M. Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex, Zoologica Scripta 40 350-363. To World Register of Marine Species Conidae setting forth the genera recognized therein

Claudette Ortiz

Claudette Ortiz is an American singer and actress, most famous as the female in the R&B group City High. Ortiz was a castmate in TV One's reality series R&B Divas: Los Angeles. Claudette Ortiz is of Puerto Rican descent, she was born in Willingboro, New Jersey on July 21, 1981; the group began with Pardlo signing on as a solo artist. However, soon Pardlo's high school friend Toby and the producers decided that it should be a two-man group featured on the album. Soon after the two-man group began to work on their album the group became successful. In order to stand out, the producers decided to add a female member, they chose another group member from their high school. During production, all three members did writing on the songs; the trio focused on trying to make lyrics that told a story, Toby noting that he got some inspiration for writing songs that tell stories from country music. A large amount of the songs are based on real-life experiences the trio has experienced, such as "What Would You Do?".

The group recorded "What Would You Do?" two years prior to the release of album, as it was featured in the Eddie Murphy film Life. It was not formally released, until 2001; the group disbanded in 2003. In November 2002, Ortiz appeared on the episode Kids. In 2006, Ortiz released, she was featured on Wyclef Jean's track "Dance Like This" on the Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights soundtrack. Other artists she has worked with include Ja Rule and Mase. Claudette worked with producers, Pharrell, So Klassik, Noize Trip, & Jerry Wonda for her postponed debut album around 2014. "I've been working in between my kids. I was on Interscope but they didn't like the material. I'd just been waiting for her to get stronger. She'll be 2 in April. So I'm back working... Anton Marchand is managing me and I'm in talks with an independent label... I'm about to go hard and I'm excited! I feel good, I'm happy, I'm single... I've been in a relationship most of my adult life... I'm not dating. I'm just enjoying delving into myself.

Learning more about me and focusing on my kids. As of July 10, 2013, Ortiz is a castmate in TV One's reality show R&B Divas: Los Angeles featuring Chante Moore, Michel'le, Lil' Mo, Dawn Robinson, Kelly Price, she has released her new song "Reciprocation" on her website As of March 27, 2015, Ortiz will be starring in Tyler Perry's new stage play Madea on the Run. She has landed a recurring role as Claudia on Tyler Perry's If Loving You Is Wrong. In an interview Ortiz spoke about her daughter and how she did not know the guy reported by the media as her daughter's father. "So hold on… you don’t know that guy, being reported as your daughter’s father?" Claudette Ortiz: "No I don’t know who that is. I saw a rumor on Wikipedia a while back saying I was dating him and had a child by him… I was in the studio with Bryan Michael Cox and we were laughing about it… I wasn’t pregnant with my daughter yet… I don’t know that guy and never met him. My daughter's father is just a normal hard working business man.

He's not in the industry."In 2013, Ortiz was contemplating joining the U. S. Air Force Reserves, when she was contacted by TV One's producer Phil Thornton to do R&B Divas: LA, she relocated her family from New Jersey to partake in the series. List of Puerto Ricans Claudette Ortiz on IMDb