Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard. Skateboarding can be considered an activity, an art form. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many throughout the years. A2009 report found that the market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed specifically for use by skateboarders, Freestyle BMXers, aggressive skaters, and very recently, scooters. However, skateboarding has become controversial in areas in which the activity, although illegal, has damaged curbs, steps, plazas, the first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose, the boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today.
An American WAC, Betty Magnuson, reported seeing French children in the Montmartre section of Paris riding on boards with roller skate wheels attached to them in late 1944. Skateboarding, as we know it, was born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s. This was called sidewalk surfing - a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became highly popular, No one knows who made the first board, it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at around the same time. The first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, the shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was originally denoted sidewalk surfing and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, one of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makahas founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California.
Some of these same teams of skateboarders were featured on a show called Surfs Up in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards. As the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, john Severson who published the magazine wrote in his first editorial, The magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975. The first broadcast of a skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were two original disciplines during competitions, flatland freestyle & slalom downhill racing. One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. Some of the well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time included Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward
Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts
The Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts is an art museum in Lausanne, Switzerland. The museum was created by initiative in 1841, and private funds still help acquisitions with gifts. In 2014, the museum conserved around 10000 artworks, a part of them retrace a general history of art since ancien Egypt, but the biggest part concerns art from the end of the XVIIIe to post-impressionism. The reputation of the museum is due to five great collections and contemporary art collections includes works by Marcel Broodthaers, Rolf Iseli, Tadeusz Kantor, Charles Rollier, Daniel Spoerri or Maria Elena Vieira da Silva. Expressive figuration is widely present with Günther Brus, Luciano Castelli, Miriam Cahn, Martin Disler, Leiko Ikemura, Arnulf Rainer, Klaudia Schifferle, list of art museums Official website Page on the website of the City of Lausanne
Rolex Learning Center
The Rolex Learning Centre is the campus hub and library for the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, in Lausanne, Switzerland. Designed by the winners of 2010 Pritzker Prize, Japanese-duo SANAA, kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, partners of the Tokyo-based design firm SANAA, were selected as the lead architects in EPFLs international competition of December 2004. The team was selected among famous architects and even some Pritzker Prize Laureates such as Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Jean Nouvel, Herzog & de Meuron, the construction took place between 2007 and 2009. It cost 110 million Swiss francs and was funded by the Swiss government as well as by private sponsors, the building opened on 22 February 2010 and was inaugurated on 27 May 2010. Part of the 2014 film Love Is the Perfect Crime was filmed at the EPFL Learning Centre and University Library of Lausanne Lausanne campus Official website EPFL Library Learning Centre construction blog Photo documentation of the construction EPFL Learning Centre on YouTube
A rack railway is a steep grade railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail and this allows the trains to operate on steep grades above around 7 to 10%, which is the maximum for friction-based rail. Most rack railways are mountain railways, although a few are transit railways or tramways built to overcome a steep gradient in an urban environment. The first cog railway was the Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds in West Yorkshire, England, UK, where the first commercially successful steam locomotive and this used a rack and pinion system designed and patented in 1811 by John Blenkinsop. The first mountain cog railway was the Mount Washington Cog Railway in the US state of New Hampshire, the track was completed to reach the summit of Mount Washington in 1869. The first mountain railway in continental Europe was the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn on Mount Rigi in Switzerland. A number of different rack systems have been developed, the majority of rack railways use the Abt system.
Blenkinsops system remained in use for 25 years on the Middleton Railway, Rack systems place the rack rail halfway between the running rails, with the exception of some early Morgan rack installations. The first successful rack railway in the US was the Mount Washington Cog Railway, the first public trial of the Marsh rack on Mount Washington was made on August 29,1866, when only one quarter of a mile of track had been completed. The Mount Washington railway opened to the public on August 14,1868, the Riggenbach rack system was invented by Niklaus Riggenbach working at about the same time as, but independently from Marsh. Riggenbach was granted a French patent in 1863 based on a model which he used to interest potential Swiss backers. During this time, the Swiss Consul to the United States visited Marshs Mount Washington Cog Railway, eager to boost tourism in Switzerland, the government commissioned Riggenbach to build a rack railway up Rigi Mountain. Following the construction of a locomotive and test track in a quarry near Bern.
The Riggenbach system is similar in design to the Marsh system and it uses a ladder rack, formed of steel plates or channels connected by round or square rods at regular intervals. The Riggenbach system suffers from the problem that its fixed ladder rack is more complex, following the success of the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn, Riggenbach established the Maschinenfabrik der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Bergbahnen - a company that produced rack locomotives to his design. The Strub rack system was invented by Emil Strub in 1896 and it uses a rolled flat-bottom rail with rack teeth machined into the head approximately 100 mm apart. Safety jaws fitted to the locomotive engage with the underside of the head to prevent derailments, strubs US Patent, granted in 1898, includes details of how the rack rail is integrated with the mechanism of a turnout. The best-known use of the Strub system is on the Jungfraubahn in Switzerland and it is the simplest rack system to maintain and has become increasingly popular
The Beau-Rivage Palace is a historical luxury hotel in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is located in Ouchy, on the shores of Lake Léman, the hotel opened in 1861 and the current main building was constructed in Art Déco and neo-baroque style in 1908. It is registered in the Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance, the Beau-Rivage Palace is owned by the well known Swiss Sandoz family, founders of Sandoz AG, now Novartis. On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed at the Beau-Rivage Palace, the final press conference, on 2 April 2015, was held at the EPFL Learning Centre. List of cultural property of national significance in Switzerland, Vaud Lausanne Palace Official website
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’