Téboursouk is a town and commune in the Béja Governorate, Tunisia. It is located at 36° 27′ 26″N, 009° 14′ 54″E. In 2004 it had a total population of 10,987, of 22,115 inhabitants in 2014; the town is part of the governorate of Béja, it constitutes a municipality. Located at the foot of the Téboursouk Mountains in the Tunisian ridge, the city is built half-way up a hill at 400 m above sea level, it overlooks olive groves in the valley of Wadi Khalled. Téboursouk is located on the territory of the Berber tribe of the Bejaoua, near the Drid tribe, at the northern end of the Haut-Tell. Located 4.6 km away are the ruins of the Roman city of Dougga. During the Roman Empire, Teboursouc was known as "Tubursico-Bure", was in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis; the ruins of ancient Thubursicum Bure are a large Byzantine enclosure of pentagonal form, erected under the reign of Justin II, whose northern front encompasses a Roman gate and cemetery. The Roman city was considered a municipium; the city obtained the statute of municipality in 1904 under the French protectorate and the status of chief town of delegation at the independence of Tunisia.
In 2004, the municipality celebrated the centenary of its creation. During Roman and Byzantine times the city was the seat of a Catholic diocese, the suffragan of Archdiocese of Carthage. There are four documented bishops of Teboursouk. Servus Dei is mentioned by Augustine of Hippo in his Contra Cresconio around 404 and he had as a competitor the Donatist Bishop, who according to the testimony of Augustine, was deposed by Primianus because "Cyprian, was caught in a brothel. At the conference of Carthage of 411, between Catholic bishops and Donatists the same Servus Dei, was joined by the Donatist bishop Donato, who had replaced the now disgraced Cyprian. Bishop Reparato attended the Council of Carthage. Today Tubursico-Bure survives as titular bishopric and the current titular bishop is Mykhaylo Bubniy, Exarch Archbishop of Odessa. List of cities in Tunisia
Aryanah or Ariana is a coastal city in north-eastern Tunisia, part the agglomeration of Tunis called "Grand Tunis". It is located at the north of Tunis city center, around 36°51′45″N 10°11′44″E, it is the capital of the country's eighth largest city. The city's name seems to date back to the period of the Vandal kingdom in Africa: the Vandals, in fact, were of Arian faith, it could be a reference to Persian settlers from the Islamic invasion of the Maghreb as Persians reffer to themselves as "Aryan". The city's origins date back to the Zirid dynasty. Under the Hafsid sultan Muhammad I al-Mustansir Ariana became the residence of the Sephardi Jews and Muslim Andalusians, who sought refuge in Tunisia in the thirteenth century. In Aryanah, the climate is temperate. In winter there is much more rainfall than in summer; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Csa. The average annual temperature in Aryanah is 18.0 °C. About 449 mm of precipitation falls annually
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, as well as their make-up, physical properties, life forms, the processes by which they form and change over time. The term speleology is sometimes applied to the recreational activity of exploring caves, but this is more properly known as caving or potholing, or by the uncommon American term spelunking. Speleology and caving are connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. Speleology is a cross-disciplinary field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex, evolving systems. Prior to the mid-nineteenth century the scientific value of caves was considered only in its contribution to other branches of science, cave studies were considered part of the larger disciplines of geography, geology or archaeology. Little cave-specific study was undertaken prior to the work of Édouard-Alfred Martel, the'father of modern speleology', who through his extensive and well-publicised cave explorations introduced in France the concept of speleology as a distinct area of study.
In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to cave science in the world. The growth of speleology is directly linked with that of the sport of caving, both because of the stimulation of public interest and awareness, the fact that most speleological field-work has been conducted by sport cavers; the creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave. Cave maps, called surveys, can be used to compare caves to each other by length and volume, may reveal clues on speleogenesis, provide a spatial reference for further scientific study, assist visitors with route-finding. Caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, not distinct from surface habitats. However, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology. Cave environments fall into three general categories: Endogeanthe parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, root protrusion.
Parahypogeanthe threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight. Hypogeanor "true" cave environments; these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be entirely isolated. Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, but chemical energy liberated from limestone and other minerals by chemoautotrophic bacteria. Cave organisms fall into three basic classes: There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason; some may be troglophobes, which cannot survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by etc.. The two factors that limit cave ecologies are energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is always available in forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, caves are poor habitats in comparison with wet areas on the surface.
The majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, the majority of, deposited by bats. Other sources are mentioned above. Cave ecosystems are fragile; because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities. Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome. National Speleological Society The Virtual Cave, an online guide to speleothems Biospeleology.
The ostriches are a family, Struthionidae, of flightless birds. The two extant species of ostrich are the common ostrich and Somali ostrich, both in the genus Struthio, which contains several species known from Holocene fossils such as the Asian ostrich; the common ostrich is the more widespread of the two living species, is the largest living bird species. Other ostriches are among the largest bird species ever. Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene and Oligocene fossils may belong to the family. Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis and rheas. Traditionally, the order Struthioniformes contained all the ratites. However, recent genetic analysis has found that the group is not monophyletic, as it is paraphyletic with respect to the tinamous, so the ostriches are classified as the only members of the order; the earliest fossils of ostrich-like birds are Paleocene taxa from Europe.
Palaeotis and Remiornis from the Middle Eocene and unspecified ratite remains are known from the Eocene and Oligocene of Europe and Africa. These may have been early relatives of the ostriches, but their status is questionable, they may in fact represent multiple lineages of flightless paleognaths; the African Eremopezus, when not considered a basal secretarybird or shoebill, is sometimes considered an ostrich relative or an "aepyornithid-like" taxon. Apart from these enigmatic birds, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio, which are known from the Early Miocene onwards. Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material. While the relationship of the African fossil species is comparatively straightforward, a large number of Asian species of ostriches have been described from fragmentary remains, their interrelationships and how they relate to the African ostriches are confusing.
In China, ostriches are known to have become extinct only around or after the end of the last ice age. Ostriches have co-existed with another lineage of the eogruids. Though Olson 1985 classified these birds as stem-ostriches, they are otherwise universally considered to be related to cranes, any similarities being the result of convergent evolution. Competition from ostriches has been suggested to have caused the extinction of the eogruids, though this has never been tested and both groups do co-exist in some sites. Order Struthioniformes Latham 1790 Family Struthionidae Vigors 1825 Genus?†Palaeotis Lambrecht 1928 †P. weigelti Lambrecht 1928 Genus?†Remiornis Lemoine, 1881 †Remiornis heberti Lemoine, 1881 Genus?†Eremopezus Andrews, 1904 †Eremopezus eocaenus Andrews, 1904 Genus Struthio Linnaeus 1758?†S. anderssoni Lowe 1931?†S. barbarus Arambourg 1979?†S. daberasensis Pickford, Senut & Dauphin 1995?†S. epoasticus Bonaparte?†S. kakesiensis Harrison & Msuya 2005?†S. karingarabensis Senut, Dauphin & Pickford 1998 †S. chersonensis Brandt 1873 †S. asiaticus Brodkorb 1863 †S. coppensi Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1996 †S. dmanisensis Burchak-Abramovich & Vekua 1990 †S. mongolicus †S. oldawayi Lowe 1933 †S. transcaucasicus Burchak-Abramovich & Vekua 1971 †S. wimani Lowe 1931 S. molybdophanes Reichenow 1883 S. camelus Linnaeus 1758 S. c. australis †S. c. syriacus Rothschild 1919 S. c. camelus Linnaeus 1758 S. c. massaicus Today ostriches are only found natively in the wild in Africa, where they occur in a range of open arid and semi-arid habitats such as savannas and the Sahel, both north and south of the equatorial forest zone.
The Somali ostrich occurs in the Horn of Africa, having evolved isolated from the common ostrich by the geographic barrier of the East African Rift. In some areas, the common ostrich's Masai subspecies occurs alongside the Somali ostrich, but they are kept from interbreeding by behavioral and ecological differences; the Arabian ostriches in Asia Minor and Arabia were hunted to extinction by the middle of the 20th century, in Israel attempts to introduce North African ostriches to fill their ecological role have failed. Escaped common ostriches in Australia have established feral populations
Aousja spelled Ousja or Aousdja is a small town and commune located in Ghar El Melh district in the Bizerte Governorate of northern Tunisia, between El Alia and Ras Jebel, 48 kilometers north of Tunis. As of 2014 it had a population of 5126 inhabitants.60% of the male population of Aousja works in the culture of potatoes, their average salary being about 180 dinars per month. Since 1998 a potato festival has been held annually in July, to the producer of the largest potato is awarded. Furthermore, 35% of women work in the textile industry, their salary average is about 100 dinars per month
Raoued is a town and commune in the Ariana Governorate, Tunisia. As of 2014 it had a total population of 84,312. List of cities in Tunisia Official Website
El Mourouj is a town and commune in the southern suburbs of Tunis in the Ben Arous Governorate, Tunisia. It became a commune in 1991, it has 104 538 inhabitants as of 2014, making it the most populous commune in the Ben Arous Governorate. List of cities in Tunisia