MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Cold wave (music)
Cold wave was a music movement that emerged in France and Belgium in the late 1970s. Characterized by its irreverent, detached tone and minimal use of electronic instruments, the scene came as a result of punk bands who acquired affordable portable synthesizers such as the Korg MS-20, it is an early synonym for what would be termed "dark wave", "goth", "deathrock". In years, "cold wave" has become subsumed under the retrospective labels "minimal wave" or "minimal synth"; the term "cold wave" appeared in the 26 November 1977 issue of UK weekly music paper, Sounds: the caption of its picture-cover, showing Kraftwerk's Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider was "New musick: The cold wave". That year, Kraftwerk had released Trans-Europe Express; the term was repeated the following week in Sounds by journalist Vivien Goldman, in an article about Siouxsie and the Banshees. In 1977, Siouxsie and the Banshees described their music as "cold, machine-like and passionate at the same time" and Sounds magazine prophecised about the band: "Listen to the cold wave roar from the'70s into the'80s".
Another scene of French and Belgian musicians, dubbed "cold wave", emerged in the early 1980s. According to Vice, the most notable acts were Marquis de Sade, Asylum Party, Twilight Ritual. Wierd Records is credited with establishing interest in the style in the United States, while The Liberty Snake Club did a great deal to popularize it within the United Kingdom; the Tigersushi Records compilation So Young but So Cold, compiled by Ivan Smagghe, is one document of the scene
Michel Gondry is a French film director and producer. He is noted for his inventive visual style and distinctive manipulation of mise en scène, he won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay as one of the writers of the 2004 film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. His other films include the surrealistic science fantasy comedy The Science of Sleep, the comedy Be Kind Rewind, the superhero action comedy The Green Hornet, the drama The We and the I, the romantic science fantasy tragedy Mood Indigo, he is well known for his music video collaborations with Donald Fagen, Radiohead, Björk, The Chemical Brothers and The White Stripes. Gondry was born in Versailles, he is the grandson of inventor Constant Martin. Gondry's vision and career began with his emphasis on emotion. Much of his inspiration, came from the film Le voyage en ballon, he stated: "When I watch this movie, I dream I'm flying and I do stories where people are flying. I think it's directly influencing."His career as a filmmaker began with creating music videos for the French rock band Oui Oui, in which he served as a drummer.
The style of his videos for Oui Oui caught the attention of music artist Björk, who asked him to direct the video for her song "Human Behaviour". The collaboration proved long-lasting, with Gondry directing a total of eight music videos for Björk. Other artists who have collaborated with Gondry on more than one occasion include Daft Punk, The White Stripes, The Chemical Brothers, The Vines, Steriogram and Beck. Gondry's video for Lucas Secon's "Lucas with the Lid Off" was nominated in the Best Music Video category at the 37th Grammy Awards. Gondry has created numerous television commercials, he pioneered the "bullet time" technique adapted in The Matrix in the 1996 "Smarienberg" commercial for Smirnoff vodka, as well as directing a trio of inventive holiday-themed advertisements for clothing retailer Gap. Gondry, along with directors Spike Jonze and David Fincher, is representative of the influx of music video directors into feature film. Gondry made his feature film debut in 2001 with Human Nature.
His second film, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, was released in 2004 and received favorable reviews, becoming one of the most critically acclaimed films of the year. Eternal Sunshine utilizes many of the image manipulation techniques that Gondry had experimented with in his music videos. Gondry won an Academy Award alongside Kaufman and Pierre Bismuth for the screenplay of Eternal Sunshine; the style of Gondry's music videos relies on videography and camera tricks which play with frames of reference. Gondry directed the musical documentary Dave Chappelle's Block Party which followed comedian Dave Chappelle as he attempted to hold a large, free concert in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, his following film, The Science of Sleep, hit theaters in September 2006. This film stars Mexican actor Gael García Bernal, marked a return to the fantastical, surreal techniques he employed in Eternal Sunshine. According to the Guinness World Records 2004, Gondry's Levi's 501 Jeans "Drugstore" spot holds the record for "Most awards won by a TV commercial".
The commercial was never aired in North America because of the suggestive content involving purchasing latex condoms. He declined. In September 2006, Gondry made his debut as an installation artist at Deitch Projects in New York City's SoHo gallery district; the show, called "The Science of Sleep: An Exhibition of Sculpture and Pathological Creepy Little Gifts" featured props from his film, The Science of Sleep, as well as film clips and a selection of gifts that the artist had given to women he was interested in, many of them former or current collaborators, Karen Baird, Kishu Chand, Dorothy Barrick and Lauri Faggioni. A leitmotif of the film is a'Disastrology' calendar, his brother Olivier "Twist" Gondry is a television commercial and music video director creating videos for bands such as The Stills, Hot Hot Heat, Daft Punk and The Vines. Michel's son Paul Gondry is an artist and film director as well. Gondry was an Artist in Residence at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005 and 2006.
Directing the music video for the Paul McCartney song "Dance Tonight", in which Gondry makes a cameo appearance. Gondry directed "Unnatural Love", the fifth episode in season two of HBO's Flight of the Conchords. Interior Design one third of the 2008 anthology film Tokyo! was next for Gondry. Interior Design was based on the comic book "Cecil and Jordan in New York" by Gabrielle Bell but was adapted from New York City to Tokyo for the film. In 2009, The Thorn in the Heart, another feature documentary, was released, it is about Michel's aunt Suzette and her son Jean-Yves. In 2011, Gondry directed The Green Hornet, a superhero film by Sony starring Seth Rogen, Jay Chou and Christoph Waltz. In 2011, he was the head of the jury for the short film competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, his film The We and the I was selected to be screened in the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. On 3 January 2013, Gondry released his latest animated short Haircut Mouse on his official Vimeo channel.
In February 2013, Gondry released a hand-drawn animated documentary on fam
Chacun Tout Le Monde
"Chacun Tout Le Monde" is the first album released by French pop group Oui Oui on Eurobond Records in 1989. It was released on 12" vinyl under the YABA Music and Just'In Distribution labels, is out of print. Personnel include Étienne Charry Michel Gondry Nicolas Dufournet and Gilles Chapat Tracks one and two, "Les Cailloux" and "Ma Maison," were both made into music videos by drummer and filmmaker Michel Gondry, though the version of "Ma Maison" used for the video differs markedly from the LP version; the cover art features marionette caricatures of the four band members, is the same visual style used in the music video for the first track, "Les Cailloux." The marionettes and art were created by Frédérique Petit and Fabrice Moireau, was photographed by Jean-Louise Leibovitch. The concept was by Oui Oui-Le Village. SIDE A "Les cailloux" – 2:37 "Ma maison" – 2:02 "Toc toc" – 2:56 "Les géants des bois" – 3:02 "Derrière leur nez" – 2:24 "La croisière" – 2:03 "Il mâchait" – 3:28 "Serrons les coudes" – 2:07SIDE B "Partir à L'aube" – 3:04 "Un loup sous le lit" – 3:38 "Mac pichney" – 2:08 "Petit mimosa" – 2:06 "Plum pudding" – 3:12 "Où vont les poussières" – 3:12 "Ils n'maiment plus" – 2:34 "Bonne nuit" – 1:38 Primary band Étienne Charry – Lead guitar, Lead vocals Michel Gondry – Drums and percussion Nicolas Dufournet – Bass guitar Gilles Chapat – KeyboardsSecondary players Catherine Arnoux-Bruno Lhuissier – Violins Carlos Dourthe – Violoncello Marie-Noëlle Gondry – Flute Jean-Louise Bompoint – Bugle, vibraphone Grand Magasin – Choruses Frédérique Petit – Piano Abraham Sirinix – Trombone Twist – Trumpet Anne-Marie, Francis et Luca – Claps "Oui Oui ·· Un joyeaux noel, Junior et sa voix d'or, Bolide" at director-file.com
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.9 kilometres from the centre of Paris and is in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in the region of Île-de-France. The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres was signed, for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Sèvres is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, 10.5 km to the west of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, with an eastern edge by the River Seine. The commune borders the Île Seguin, an island in the River Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt, adjoining Sèvres. Situation of Sèvres The area of the commune is 391 hectares; the altitude varies between 27–171 metres. Work at Sèvres, including for the construction of the expressway, permitted an update of interesting fossils in different geological layers. For example, in chalk, some types of sea urchins, belemnite beaks and oysters were found.
The Seine The Ru de Marivel 80 metres upstream of the Pont de Sèvres. The climate of île-de-France is oceanic; the popular observation stations for meteorology at Sèvres are Vélizy-Villacoublay airport. The climate in the departments of the small Parisian crown is characterised by sunshine and low precipitation; the following table allows a comparison of the île-de-France climate with that of some large French cities: The following table shows the monthly averages of temperature and precipitation for the station of Orly collected over the period 1961-1990: Sèvres is traversed from side to side by the RN 10, today downgraded and allowing connection of the city to Boulogne-Billancourt and Chaville. It is the starting point of the RN 118 at the level of the Pont de Sèvres. Sèvres presents a main traffic artery which supports important transit traffic at morning and evening peak hours; this allows preservation of its secondary residential purpose from suffering the negative effects of through traffic, on which the development zone 30 was under study, as early as 2007.
The city hall has, launched a reconsideration on these routes for sharing public spaces in favour of soft links and the use of public transit where they pass. Since November 2011, fifteen streets have two-way cycle lanes, they are the subject of ground markings and installation of specific signaling panels: Avenue de la Cristallerie Rue Brancas, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and Rue Bernard-Palissy Grande Rue, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and the Place Gabriel-Péri Rue du Docteur Gabriel-Ledermann, between the Rue de Rueil and Rue Jules Sandeau Rue Riocreux, between Place Pierre-Brossolette and Rue de Ville d'Avray Rue Brongniart Rue Léon Journault Rue Victor-Hugo Rue des Bas-Tillets between Rue Benoît Malon and the Rue de la Garenne Rue Albert Dammouse, between Rue Avice and the Stade des Fontaines turn Rue Rouget-de-l'Isle Rue Jules-Ferry Rue du Docteur Roux Rue Charles-Vaillant Rue Jean-Jaurès Rue des Verrières Bus routes 169, 171, 179, 426 of the RATP bus network, route 469 of the Établissement Transdev de Nanterre, route 45 in the Phébus bus network and at night by N61 and N145 of the Noctilien route network.
The city makes one minibus available to people with L'autre Bus. Sèvres is served by Sèvres-Rive-Gauche station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, it is served by Sèvres – Ville d'Avray station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. It is served by the Musée de Sèvres and Brimborion stations on Line 2 of the Tramway of Île-de-France which links Paris - Porte de Versailles and La Défense. INSEE has divided the commune into ten islets grouped for statistical information; the commune of Sèvres includes 16 quarters, named as follows: In the project planning and sustainable development approved 10 May 2007, the commune displays an ambition to maintain its population around its situation of early 2005. It has a commitment to offer every household in the commune the opportunity to live and grow in Sèvres, a stake in preserving its fabric of facilities and local businesses. Studies conducted in the context of the PLH show that by 2015, this would involve the construction of 40 homes per year to maintain the communal population.
In 2005, the commune had 24.5% of its total as social housing. These homes are located along the RD 910, around the city centre; the commune displays a desire to preserve this social mix by ensuring a diversity of different types of housing, under the framework of future construction operations. As such, it shows the will to maintain its social housing stock at around 25% of the total stock of main residences. On the other hand, private rental declined between 1990 and 1999. An effort in favour of this type of housing will be always sought in order to maintain the diversity of population profiles; some areas of the city are poorly provided with social housing, the development of this type of housing should allow a better balance across the commune. The main projects are: The reconstruction of the Croix Bosset school The development of links between the banks of the Seine, the city and woodlands by pedestrian openings designed to develop a frame of soft East/West links
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou shortened to Centre Pompidou and known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini, it houses a vast public library. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg, it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, was opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum; the sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile, 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a western proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power.
In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex; the Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury.
It was the first time in France. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics." It was the first major example of an'inside-out' building in architectural history, with its structural system, mechanical systems, circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. All of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, circulation elements and devices for safety are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness."
But two decades while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems; the Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city." The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs; the nearby Stravinsky Fountain, on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle.
The fountain opened in 1983. Video footage of the fountain appeared throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action; the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, skateboarding competitions. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, a complex administrative structure; when Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions, made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou; the Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decade