Fort Miami (Indiana)
The fort was sacked and burned to the ground. In Summer 1749, a force of French and Indians under Captain Pierre Blainville rebuilt the fort and this second fort survived the French and Indian War, but it was attacked in 1752, and two soldiers from the French garrison were caught outside the fort and killed. In November 1760, at the close of the French and Indian War, the British soon lost control of the fort in 1763, during Pontiacs Rebellion, and the fort was destroyed by the Indians. The British refortified the town, and the trading post again became successful and it was sacked in 1780 by a force under Augustin de La Balme, a French cavalry officer who came to the new United States of America to assist with the American Revolutionary War. The force raided the stores, but was destroyed by Miami Chief Little Turtle. The coalition at Kekionga remained true to their British allies even after the area was ceded to the United States at the close of the war and it therefore became a target of American armies, leading to several noteworthy Indian victories now known as the Northwest Indian War.
One such battle, Hardins Defeat, occurred within sight of the fort, the Northwest Indian War ended with the Battle of Fallen Timbers, where General Anthony Wayne finally achieved an American victory. The fort was occupied by forces under Gen. Wayne in 1794, and rechristened Fort Wayne. The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians, outpost in the Wilderness, Fort Wayne, 1706-1828. Allen County, Fort Wayne Historical Society
In the 18th century, Great Britain and the France disputed for control of this region. The French had claimed it in the 17th century as part of New France and this activity stimulated the development of the eastern parts of the eventual National Road by private investors. Most of the territory and its successors was settled by emigrants passing through the Cumberland Narrows, the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7,1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution, the territory included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. It covered all of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan. The area covered more than 260,000 square miles, European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders.
French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin. The French exercised control from widely separate posts in the region, France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. This action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act, Britain annexed the region to the Province of Quebec in order to provide a civil government, the prohibition of settlement west of the Appalachians remained, contributing to the American Revolution. In February 1779, George Rogers Clark of the Virginia Militia captured Kaskaskia, the Old Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, and northwest of the Ohio River.
It covered all of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan. The area covered more than 260,000 square miles and was a significant addition to the United States, several states had competing claims on the territory. As a concession in order to obtain ratification, these states ceded their claims on the territory to the government, New York in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts. So the majority of the territory became public land owned by the U. S. government and Connecticut reserved the land of two areas to use as compensation to military veterans, The Virginia Military District and the Connecticut Western Reserve. In this way, the United States included territory and people outside any of the states, Thomas Jeffersons Land Ordinance of 1784 was the first organization of the territory by the United States. Some older French communities property claims based on systems of long
Granville is a former town in Wayne Township, Tippecanoe County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. They platted the town to contain 153 lots, a square and several streets, with such names as Lafayette, Wabash. This plat is still in effect, with the lots and streets still visible in the countys GIS, in 1850 the towns name was changed to Weaton, after the local Wea Indians. They had been mostly removed west of the Mississippi River by treaties with the United States government, the name was changed back to Granville. The town flourished as a center on the canal until the mid-1850s. With the decline of traffic, the towns economy declined sharply. By 1878 Granville had virtually ceased to exist, Granville is located at 40°24′25″ N, 87°01′53″ W in Wayne Township, and has an elevation of approximately 550 feet
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network. The Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley, cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. Almost all dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century. A number of traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular, structures were usually constructed atop such mounds. The adoption and use of shells as tempering agents in their shell tempered pottery.
Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity. The development of institutionalized social inequality, a centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one. The beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, called the Southern Cult and this is the belief system of the Mississippians as we know it. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, the SECC was frequently tied in to ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing system or stone architecture, the Mississippi stage is usually divided into three or more chronological periods. Each period is an historical distinction varying regionally.
At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or later, the Mississippi period should not be confused with the Mississippian culture. The Mississippi period is the stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society. The Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life, different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the part of the state. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites, some of the prominent examples are the Sugar Loaf Mound. In historic times, prominent local native groups were the Shawnee, the first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. Later on, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana, several years later, France lost the French and Indian War, and as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec and it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.
Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon. The first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, with thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28,1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians. The exact location of Juchereaus trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, the post was a success, in the first two years, the traders collected over 13,000 buffalo hides. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned, the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile, the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was officially established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area. The Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, de Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, and the overland Buffalo Trace.
De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe and he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, and started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations. The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the town of Fulton. His settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor, Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes
The Beaver Wars—also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars—encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in eastern North America. During the 17th century, the Beaver Wars were battles for economic welfare throughout the St. Lawrence, the wars were between the Iroquois trying to take control of the fur trade from the Hurons, the northern Algonquians, and their French allies. From medieval times, Europeans had obtained furs from Russia and Scandinavia, the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tribes of the western Great Lakes region. They were a confederation of five nations—Mohawk, Onondaga, each of these Native American nations has beliefs in tribal sovereignty and a collective body called a league. These nations had a supralevel affirmation in the sovereignty of the two leagues between Onondaga and New York, government officials in Washington DC and Ottawa recognized the Iroquois sovereignty only in existence of individual tribal governments.
The Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, mobilized against the largely Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Great Lakes region, the Iroquois were armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, the Algonquian were backed by the French, their chief trading partner. The wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the history of North America and they pushed some eastern tribes to the west of the Mississippi River, or southward into the Carolinas. The Iroquois gained control of the Ohio Valley lands as hunting ground, the Ohio Country and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan had become virtually empty of Native people as refugees fled westward to escape the Iroquois warriors. Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were disrupted by these wars. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance was a component of the English expansion. The English used the Iroquois conquests as a claim to the old Northwest Territory, the expeditions of French explorer Jacques Cartier in the 1540s made the first written records of the Native Americans in North America.
French explorers and fishermen had traded in the region near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River estuary a decade before for valuable furs. Cartier recorded an ongoing war between the Stadaconans and another known as the Toudaman, who had destroyed one of their forts the previous year. Wars and politics in Europe distracted French efforts at colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley until the beginning of the 17th century, when the French returned to the area, they found the sites of both Stadacona and Hochelaga abandoned, completely destroyed by an unknown enemy. When the French returned, they found no inhabitants in this part of the river valley. The Iroquois and the Iroquoian-speaking Huron used it as hunting ground and this was perhaps in response to the formation of the League of the Iroquois. Before 1603, Champlain had formed an alliance against the Iroquois. He decided that the French would not trade firearms to the Iroquois and he had a commercial rationale, the northern Natives provided the French with valuable furs and the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, interfered with that trade
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, the historic Erie, Wyandot, and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, the most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin. The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, other spellings occurring in the earliest sources include Erocoise, Hyroquoise, Iriquois, Iroquaes and Yroquois. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that the Charlevoix etymology was dubious, Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa they who smoke or Cayuga iakwai a bear. Hewitt responded to Hales etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages, a more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M.
Day in 1968, who elaborates upon an earlier etymology given by Charles Arnaud in 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning terrible man, Day proposes a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning a man, an Iroquois, as the origin of this term. More recently, Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for Iroquois. g and he proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil to kill, ko, and a. He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as the killer people, a different term, Haudenosaunee, is the designation more commonly used by the Iroquois to refer to themselves. It is preferred by scholars of Native American history who consider the name Iroquois to be derogatory in origin. An alternate designation, Ganonsyoni, is encountered as well. More transparently, the Iroquois confederacy is referred to simply as the Six Nations.
The history of the Iroquois Confederacy goes back to its formation by the Peacemaker in 1142, each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct language and function in the League. Iroquois influence extended into present-day Canada, westward along the Great Lakes, the League is governed by a Grand Council, an assembly of fifty chiefs or sachems, each representing one of the clans of one of the nations. The original Iroquois League or Five Nations, occupied areas of present-day New York State up to the St. Lawrence River, west of the Hudson River. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, in or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlement
The National Map
The National Map is a collaborative effort of the United States Geological Survey and other federal and local agencies to improve and deliver topographic information for the United States. The National Map is part of the USGS National Geospatial Program, the geographic information available includes orthoimagery, geographic names, boundaries, transportation and land cover. The National Map is accessible via the Web, as products and services and its uses range from recreation to scientific analysis to emergency response. In addition, the National Map is foundational to implementation of the U. S. Department of the Interior Geospatial Modernization Blueprint, the USGS utilizes data from The National Map Corps, which consists of volunteers who devote some of their time to provide cartographic information on structures. The National Map is the replacement for the USGS topographic map program. S. Department of the Interior GeoSPARQL webapp for selected data sets
From the dam near Huntington, Indiana, to its terminus at the Ohio River, the Wabash flows freely for 411 miles. Its watershed drains most of Indiana, the Wabash is the state river of Indiana, and subject of the state song On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away by Paul Dresser. As the Laurentide ice sheet began to retreat from present day Northern Indiana, the eastern or Erie Lobe sat atop and behind the Fort Wayne Moraine. Meltwater from the glacier fed into two streams, which became the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers. Their combined discharge was probably the source of water for the proglacial Wabash River system. Around 11,000 years ago the waters of Lake Maumee became deep enough that it breached a sag or weak spot in the Fort Wayne Moraine. This caused a catastrophic draining of the lake which in turn scoured a 1 to 2 mi wide valley known as the Wabash-Erie Channel or sluiceway, the Little River flows through this channel and U. S.24 traverses it between Fort Wayne and Huntington. The valley is the largest topographical feature in Allen County, when the ice melted completely from the region, new outlets for Lake Maumees water opened up at elevations lower than the Wabash-Erie Channel.
While the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers continued to flow through the channel, now a low-lying, probably marshy bit of terrain lay in between. It is not known for certain when, but at some point in the distant past the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers jumped their banks and flooded the marshy ground of the Fort Wayne Outlet. The discharge of this flood was enough to cut across the outlet. This meant that when the waters receded, the sluiceway was permanently abandoned by the two rivers. As a result of capturing both, the Maumee was converted from a minor creek to a large river. Once again, river waters flowed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, following this event, the branch of the Wabash River that originates along the Wabash Moraine near Bluffton became the systems main course and source. For part of its course the Wabash follows the path of the pre-glacial Teays River, the name Wabash is an English spelling of the French name for the river, Ouabache. French traders named the river after the Miami-Illinois word for the river, waapaahšiiki, meaning it shines white, pure white, the Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone.
The Wabash was first mapped by French explorers to the Mississippi, although the Wabash is today considered a tributary of the Ohio, the Ohio was considered a tributary of the Wabash until the mid-18th century. This is because the French traders traveled north and south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash, it served as a vital trade route for North American-French trade
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex, the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its influence on other contemporary. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, the Adena culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthingtons early 19th-century estate called Adena, in Chillicothe, Ohio. Lasting traces of Adena culture are seen in their substantial earthworks. At one point, Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, and these mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These mounds were built using hundreds of thousands of full of specially selected and graded earth.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena mounds were built as part of burial ritual. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their burial was performed. Before the construction of the mounds, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, the mound would be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new mound. After a series of repetitions, mound/mortuary/mound/mortuary, a quite prominent earthwork would remain, in the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial mounds. Adena mounds stood in isolation from domestic living areas, although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena, motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures.
Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, and many objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, all told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs. The Adena carved stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick
Evonik Industries is an industrial corporation headquartered in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, one of the worlds leading specialty chemicals companies, owned by RAG Foundation. It was created on 12 September 2007 as a result of restructuring of the mining, Evonik Industries united the business areas of chemicals and real estate of RAG, while mining operations continue to be carried out by RAG. Since then, the energy and real estate business areas have been divested, with no share being held in the former and its specialty chemicals business generates around 80% of sales in areas in which it holds leading market positions. Evonik Industries employs about 33,000 people and carries out activities in more than 100 countries, the operating activities are organized into six business units which are a part of the chemicals business area. Evonik is the sponsor of German football club Borussia Dortmund. Historically, Evonik Industries businesses were part of RAG activities, the idea of splitting the company was put forward in 2005.
The background of this idea was that RAGs core business of mining is carried out under government contract in Germany. As the first step, RAG’s shareholders sold their shares to RAG foundation to split RAG, the Foundation was established on 10 July 2007, and Evonik Industries was created on 12 September 2007. The original plan foresaw the IPO of Evonik Industries in the first half of 2008, this plan was postponed until mid-2010 at the earliest, and the RAG Foundation started to look for strategic investors, while still holding on to the plans for a midterm IPO. In June 2008, the equity firm CVC Capital Partners bought a stake of 25. 01% in the company. Among many other private equity investors who bid for the stake, the IPO, by now planned for fall of 2011, was once again postponed in September 2011, this time citing the current state of financial and capital markets and their prospects. RAG Foundation had planned for Evonik’s IPO to take place in 2012, Evonik shares have been traded on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange since 25 April 2013.
Prior to the IPO the company had given institutional investors the opportunity to acquire around 14% of the shares for €2 billion, in 1998, Degussa instructed the American historian Peter Hayes to clarify the company history during the Third Reich. Furthermore, gold fillings, which had been forcefully removed from the mouths of concentration-camp inmates, had been processed by Degussa. Therefore, the work on the memorial was interrupted to clarify the situation, in November 2003, the trustees decided to finish the building with the involvement of Degussa. Evonik divested its former holdings in the areas of energy and real estate, the Chemicals Business Area of Evonik emerged from Evonik Degussa GmbH based in Essen, Germany. It employs about 34,000 people and is one of the worlds largest producers of specialty chemicals and it includes six business units, Advanced Intermediates, Consumer Specialties, Coatings & Additives, Inorganic Materials, Health & Nutrition and Performance Polymers. Degussa was acquired by RAG in 2006 and its latest acquisition is the Tippecanoe Labs plant site at Lafayette, Indiana from Eli Lilly on 1 January 2010