The Solomonic dynasty, known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire. Its members claim patrilineal descent from King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, tradition asserts that the Queen gave birth to Menelik I after her biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. The Solomonic dynasty was a bastion of Judaism and of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity and it is considered to have ruled Ethiopia in the 10th century BC. Yekuno Amlak I re-established the dynasty, tracing his ancestry to the last Solomonic King of Axum, the Dynasty re-established itself on 10 Nehasé1262 EC when Yekuno Amlak overthrew the last ruler of the Zagwe dynasty. Yekuno Amlak claimed direct male descent from the old Axumite royal house that the Zagwes had replaced on the throne. Menelik II, and his daughter Zewditu I, would be the last Ethiopian monarchs who could claim uninterrupted direct male descent from Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba. The Solomonic Dynasty continued to rule Ethiopia with few interruptions until 1974, the royal family is currently non-regnant.
Members of the family in Ethiopia at the time of the 1974 revolution were imprisoned, some were executed, in 1976, ten great grandchildren of Haile Selassie I were extracted from Ethiopia in an undertaking detailed in a book by Jodie Collins titled Code Word, Catherine. The women of the dynasty were released by the regime from prison in 1989, several members were allowed to leave the country in mid 1990, and the rest left in 1991 upon the fall of the Communist Regime. Many members of the Imperial family have returned to live in Ethiopia. During much of the existence, its effective realm was the northwestern quadrant of present-day Ethiopia. The Empire expanded and contracted over the centuries, sometimes incorporating parts of modern-day Sudan and South Sudan, in the modern era, the Imperial dynasty has several cadet branches. The Tigrean Cadet branch traces its lineage to the main Solomonic line of Emperors through at least two female links, the more recent link was through Woizero Aster Iyasu.
The Shewan line was next on the Imperial throne with the coronation of Menelik II, previously Menelik King of Shewa, Haile Selassies reign lasted until 1974, when the dynasty was removed from power. His grandson Prince Zera Yacob is his heir and therefore the current head of the imperial dynasty. The Shewan branch has several sub-branches, most notably the Selalle line established by Menelik IIs uncle Ras Darge, the oldest junior cadet branch of the Solomonic Dynasty is the Gojjam branch which traces its ancestry to Woizero Romanework, daughter of Naod and sister of Dawit II. The Imperial Coat of arms was adopted by Haile Selassie I, and is held by his direct heir in the male line, Prince Zera Yacob. The arms are composed of an Imperial Throne flanked by two angels, one holding a sword and a pair of scales, the holding the Imperial scepter
Aksumite currency was coinage produced and used within the Kingdom of Aksum centered in present-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. It was issued and circulated from the reign of King Endubis around AD270 until it began its decline in the first half of the 7th century. During the succeeding period, Mogadishu currency, minted by the Sultanate of Mogadishu, was the most widely circulated currency in the Horn of Africa. Aksums currency served as a vessel of propaganda demonstrating the kingdoms wealth and it facilitated the Red Sea trade on which it thrived. The coinage has proved invaluable in providing a chronology of Aksumite kings due to the lack of extensive archaeological work in the area. Though the issuing of minted coins didnt begin until around 270, though Aksumite coins are indigenous in design and creation, some outside influences encouraging the use of coins is undeniable. By the time coins were first minted in Aksum, there was trade with Romans on the Red Sea. Despite these influences, the coins were of indigenous design.
Aksumite currency were first minted in the stages of the growth of the empire. The minting of coins began around 270, beginning with the reign of Endubis, gold seems to have been acquired from a number of sources. Gold probably came from Sasu, as well as more nearby Ethiopian sources, a gold trade from the southern areas of Ethiopia such as the medieval province/kingdom of Innarya has been attested from the 6th century and continued through James Bruces day. Gold came from more northerly sources such as Gojjam, Beja lands, however, a recent gold exploration assay in Eritrea has found significant gold deposits at Emba Derho, and deposits are attested at Zara in central-western Eritrea. While local sources of gold are attested during the Aksumite era, no mention of silver mines in the region exist until the 15th and 16th centuries. Though silver was imported as attested by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, given the preponderance of silver coins, furthermore, a significant number of the silver coins contain gold inlays, which would have been unnecessary if silver were so rare that it had to be mainly imported.
Silver may have obtained from the refinement of gold, which sometimes occurs naturally with silver in an alloy called electrum. Copper and bronze do not seem to have existed locally in the Aksumite empire, though the gold coins were certainly the most valuable issue, followed by the silver one, the exact relationship between the three issues is not known. The quality of the Aksumite coins were controlled, usually of high purity. For example, the lowest purity of gold recorded thus far for Aphilas is 90 percent, early issues were often very close to their theoretical weights, and some were even over. )However, the weight of the coins tended to decrease over time
Kaleb of Axum
Kaleb is perhaps the best-documented, if not best-known, King of Axum situated in modern-day Eritrea and North Ethiopia. Procopius of Caesarea calls him Hellestheaeus, a variant of his throne name Ella Atsbeha or Ella Asbeha. ”At Aksum, in inscription RIE191, in vocalized Gə‘əz, it is ካሌብ እለ አጽብሐ. He may be the Atsbeha or Asbeha of the Ethiopian legends of Abreha and Asbeha, after much fighting, Kalebs soldiers eventually routed Yusufs forces and killed the king, allowing Kaleb to appoint Sumuafa Ashawa, a native Christian, as his viceroy of Himyar. Axumite control of South Arabia continued until c.525 when Sumuafa Ashawa was deposed by Abraha, munro-Hay opines that by this expedition Axum overextended itself, and this final intervention across the Red Sea, was Aksums swan-song as a great power in the region. Ethiopian tradition states that Kaleb eventually abdicated his throne, gave his crown to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, historians who recount the events of King Kalebs reign include Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, and Tabari.
The relevance of this tradition for us is the association of the name of Kaleb with the evangelization of this interior province of Aksum. Besides several inscriptions bearing his name, Axum contains a pair of ruined structures, one said to be his tomb, the most recent excavation of this tomb was in 1973 by the British Institute in East Africa. The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates Kaleb as Saint Elesbaan, King of Ethiopia on 24 October /6 November. D, by Henry Wace Catholic Online, Saint Elesbaan Katolsk. no, Elesbaan
Kingdom of Aksum
The Kingdom of Aksum or Axum, known as the Aksumite Empire, was a Habasha trading nation in the modern-day area of Eritrea and the Tigray region of Ethiopia. It existed from approximately 100 AD to 940 AD, the Persian Prophet Mani regarded Axum as one of the four great powers of his time, alongside Persia and China. The Axumites erected a number of stelae, which served a religious purpose in pre-Christian times. One of these columns is the largest such structure in the world. In the 7th century, early Muslims from Mecca sought refuge from Quraysh persecution by travelling to the kingdom and its ancient capital, called Aksum, was in northern Ethiopia. The Kingdom used the name Ethiopia as early as the 4th century, tradition claims Axum as the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba. Aksum is mentioned in the 1st-century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world.
It states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was Zoskales and he is said to have been familiar with Greek literature. They cite evidence indicating that the Sabaean settlers resided in the region for more than a few decades. Over 95% of Aksum remains unexplored beneath the city and its surrounding area. The Kingdom of Aksum was an empire centered in Eritrea. It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD, according to the Book of Aksum, Aksums first capital, was built by Itiyopis, son of Cush. The capital was moved to Aksum in northern Ethiopia. The Kingdom used the name Ethiopia as early as the 4th century, the Empire of Aksum at its height at times extended across most of present-day Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The capital city of the empire was Aksum, now in northern Ethiopia, today a smaller community, the city of Aksum was once a bustling metropolis and economic center.
Two hills and two lie on the east and west expanses of the city, perhaps providing the initial impetus for settling this area. Along the hills and plain outside the city, the Aksumites had cemeteries with elaborate grave stones called stelae, other important cities included Yeha, Hawulti-Melazo, Matara and Qohaito, the last three of which are now in Eritrea. By the reign of Endubis in the late 3rd century, it had begun minting its own currency and was named by Mani as one of the four powers of his time along with Persia, Rome
Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast and Somalia to the east and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With nearly 100 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and it occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres, and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa. Some of the oldest evidence for modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from modern humans first set out for the Middle East. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era, tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history. During the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, many African nations adopted the colors of Ethiopias flag following their independence.
It was the first independent African member of the 20th-century League of Nations, Ethiopias ancient Geez script, known as Ethiopic, is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A slight majority of the population adheres to Christianity, while around a third follows Islam, the country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s, Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromiffa, Amhara and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nations Nilotic ethnic minorities.
Ethiopia is the place of origin for the coffee bean which originated from the place called Kefa and it is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile West and numerous rivers, and the worlds hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are Africas largest continuous mountain ranges, and Sof Omar Caves contain Africas largest cave, Ethiopia has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Ethiopia is one of the members of the UN, the Group of 24, the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia suffered from civil wars, the country has begun to recover recently however, and now has the largest economy in East Africa and Central Africa. According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia has the 42nd most powerful military in the world, the origin of the word Ethiopia is uncertain