Tarzan the Terrible
Tarzan the Terrible is a novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the eighth in his series of books about the title character Tarzan. It was first published as a serial in the pulp magazine Argosy All-Story Weekly in the issues for February 12, 19, 26 and March 5, 12, 19, 26, 1921. McClurg, its setting, Pal-ul-don, is one of the more realized "lost civilizations" in Burroughs' Tarzan stories. The novel contains a map of the place as well as a glossary of its inhabitants' language. Two months have passed since the conclusion of the previous novel, Tarzan the Untamed, in which Tarzan spent many months wandering about Africa wreaking vengeance upon those who he believed brutally murdered Jane. At the end of that novel Tarzan learns that her death was a ruse, that she had not been killed at all. In attempting to track Jane, Tarzan has come to a hidden valley called Pal-ul-don filled with dinosaurs, notably the savage Triceratops-like Gryfs, unlike their prehistoric counterparts, are omnivorous and stand 20 feet tall at the shoulder.
The lost valley is home to two different adversarial races of tailed human-looking creatures: the hairless and white skinned, city-dwelling Ho-don and the hairy and black-skinned, hill-dwelling Waz-don. Tarzan befriends a Ho-don warrior, the Waz-don chief, actuating some uncustomary relations. In this new world Tarzan becomes a captive but so impresses his captors with his accomplishments and skills that they name him "Tarzan-Jad-Guru". Having been brought there by her German captor, it turns out Jane is being held captive in Pal-ul-don, she becomes a center-piece in a religious power struggle that consumes much of the novel until she escapes, after which her German captor becomes dependent on her due to his own lack of jungle survival skills. With the aid of his native allies, Tarzan continues to pursue his beloved, going through an extended series of fights and escapes to do so. In the end success seems beyond his ability to achieve, until in the final chapter he and Jane are saved by their son Korak, searching for Tarzan just as Tarzan has been searching for Jane.
The book has been adapted into comic form by Gold Key Comics in Tarzan #166-167, with a script by Gaylord DuBois and art by Russ Manning. Bleiler, Everett; the Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 68. ERBzine.com Illustrated Bibliography entry for Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan the Terrible Text of the novel at Project Gutenberg Tarzan the Terrible public domain audiobook at LibriVox Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project page for Tarzan the Terrible Geography of Pal-ul-Don Pal-ul-don in ERBzine by Rick Johnson Formatted epub version of the book on edgar-rice-burroughs-ebooks.blogspot.com
The People That Time Forgot (novel)
The People That Time Forgot is a fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the second of his Caspak trilogy. The sequence was first published in Blue Book Magazine as a three-part serial in the issues for September and November 1918, with The People That Time Forgot forming the second installment; the complete trilogy was combined for publication in book form under the title of The Land That Time Forgot by A. C. McClurg in June 1924. Beginning with the Ace Books editions of the 1960s, the three segments have been issued as separate short novels; the People That Time Forgot is a direct sequel to The Land That Time Forgot and continues the lost world saga begun in the earlier story. Burroughs continues the revelation of his lost world's unique biological system, only hinted at in the previous installment, in which the slow progress of evolution in the world outside is recapitulated as a matter of individual metamorphosis; this system forms a thematic element serving to unite the three otherwise rather loosely linked Caspak stories.
The novel begins with the organization of an expedition to rescue Bowen J. Tyler, Lys La Rue, the other castaways marooned on the large Antarctic island of Caprona, whose tropical interior, known to its inhabitants as Caspak, is home to prehistoric fauna of all eras. Tyler's recovered manuscript detailing their ordeal is delivered to his family, the relief effort is put together by Tom Billings, secretary of the Tyler shipbuilding business; the expedition's ship, the Toreador, locates Caprona, while the bulk of the crew attempts to scale the encircling cliffs Billings flies over them in an aircraft. Billings' plane is forced down in the interior of Caspak, he saves a native girl named Ajor from a large cat and a group of ape-men, undertakes to accompany her back to her people, the human Galus, while she educates him in the language and mysteries of the island. They travel north, encountering various creatures of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, as well as additional primitive subhuman races.
They pass through the lands of the Neanderthal Bo-lu and the more advanced Sto-lu, who are cowed by gunfire. But in the country of the Band-lu he is taken captive, despairs until rescued in turn by Ajor, they resume their journey, re-encountering and befriending Tomar, a Band-lu newly become Kro-lu. Tomar and his mate So-al are the first examples Billings has seen of Caspakian evolutionary metamorphosis in action. After an interlude in which Ajor's back story is related the new friends separate. Billings and Ajor enter Kro-lu territory and save Chal-az, a Kro-lu warrior, from a group of Band-lu. Visiting the Kro-lu village as his guest, they are parted again when Billings is attacked through the machinations of the chief Du-seen, who has designs on Ajor, they escape individually. Du-seen goes after Ajor with some of his warriors. Billings tames an ancestral horse, with the aid of which he rescues Ajor from Du-seen. Pursued, they resign themselves to death, but are relieved by a force consisting of Bowen Tyler, Galu warriors, the rescue crew from the Toreador, which had scaled the cliffs and entered Caspak after Billings' ill-fated airplane flight.
All are reunited in the Galu village, where Tyler and Lys La Rue have been formally married by the captain of the Toreador. Billings and Ajor desire to wed, but Ajor may not leave Caspak due to her status as cos-ata-lo – she was born a evolved Galu rather than attaining that form through metamorphosis, hence is treasured by her people. Billings elects to remain in Caspak to be with her. Tom Billings — The main hero of this story, he mounted a rescue party to find his lost friend Bowen Ajor — A beautiful Galu of the north of Caprona, she becomes Billings's love interest Du-seen — The main antagonist, an evil Galu who wants both Ajor and her father's throne for himself Tomar — A Band-lu Chieftain who becomes a Kro-lu along with his "she" So-al. So-al — Female Band-lu, Tomar's she Chal-az — A Kro-lu who befriends Tom and Ajor Ace — A Merychippus which Billings domesticates The copyright for this story has expired in the United States and, now resides in the public domain there; the text is available via Project Gutenberg.
The novel was adapted to film in 1977 under the direction of Kevin Connor by Britain's Amicus Productions. The movie was the third and last of Amicus' Burroughs adaptations, the others being The Land That Time Forgot, based on the first segment of the Caspak sequence, At the Earth's Core. All three films were distributed in the United States by American International Pictures. Text of the novel at Project Gutenberg Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project page for The People That Time Forgot The People That Time Forgot public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex called T. rex or colloquially T-Rex, is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods. Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, on what was an island continent known as Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus had a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 68 to 66 million years ago, it was the last known member of the tyrannosaurids, among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to its large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were short but unusually powerful for their size and had two clawed digits; the most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m in length though T. rex could grow to lengths of over 12.3 m, up to 3.66 meters tall at the hips, according to most modern estimates 8.4 metric tons to 14 metric tons in weight.
Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it is still among the largest known land predators and is estimated to have exerted the strongest bite force among all terrestrial animals. By far the largest carnivore in its environment, Tyrannosaurus rex was most an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs, armored herbivores like ceratopsians and ankylosaurs, sauropods; some experts have suggested the dinosaur was a scavenger. The question of whether Tyrannosaurus was an apex predator or a pure scavenger was among the longest debates in paleontology. Most paleontologists today accept that Tyrannosaurus was both a scavenger. More than 50 specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens; the abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including its life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits and potential speed of Tyrannosaurus rex are a few subjects of debate.
Its taxonomy is controversial, as some scientists consider Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to be a second Tyrannosaurus species while others maintain Tarbosaurus is a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus; as the archetypal theropod, Tyrannosaurus is one of the best-known dinosaurs since the 20th century, has been featured in film, postal stamps, many other media. Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time. One of the largest and the most complete specimen, nicknamed Sue, is located at the Field Museum of Natural History. Sue measured 12.8 meters long, was 3.66 meters tall at the hips, according to the most recent studies, using a variety of techniques, estimated to have weighed between 8.4 metric tons to 14 metric tons. A specimen nicknamed Scotty, located at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum, is reported to measure 13 m in length. Using a mass estimation technique that extrapolates from the circumference of the femur, Scotty was estimated as the largest known specimen at 8.8 metric tons in weight.
Not every adult Tyrannosaurus specimen recovered. Average adult mass estimates have varied over the years, from as low as 4.5 metric tons, to more than 7.2 metric tons, with most modern estimates ranging between 5.4 metric tons and 8.0 metric tons. The neck of Tyrannosaurus rex formed a natural S-shaped curve like that of other theropods, but was short and muscular to support the massive head; the forelimbs had only two clawed fingers, along with an additional small metacarpal representing the remnant of a third digit. In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod; the tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso and to provide space for massive locomotor muscles. To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollowed, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength; the largest known Tyrannosaurus rex skull measures up to 1.52 meters in length.
Large fenestrae in the skull reduced weight, as in all carnivorous theropods. In other respects Tyrannosaurus's skull was different from those of large non-tyrannosaurid theropods, it was wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision. The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; these and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an powerful bite, which surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids. The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped, which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it increased the stresses on the front teeth; the teeth of Tyrannosaurus rex displayed marked heterodonty. The premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw were packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform and c
Tarzan at the Earth's Core
Tarzan at the Earth's Core is a novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, published in 1930, the thirteenth in his series of books about the title character Tarzan and the fourth in his series set in the interior world of Pellucidar. In response to a radio plea from Abner Perry, a scientist who with his friend David Innes has discovered the interior world of Pellucidar at the Earth's core, Jason Gridley launches an expedition to rescue Innes from the Korsars, the scourge of the internal seas, he enlists Tarzan, a fabulous airship is constructed to penetrate Pellucidar via the natural polar opening connecting the outer and inner worlds. The airship is crewed by Germans, with Tarzan's Waziri warriors under their chief Muviro along for the expedition. In Pellucidar Tarzan and Gridley are each separated from the main force of the expedition and must struggle for survival against the prehistoric creatures and peoples of the inner world. Gridley wins the love of the native cave-woman Jana, the Red Flower of Zoram.
Everyone is reunited, the party succeeds in rescuing Innes. As Tarzan and the others prepare to return home, Gridley decides to stay to search for Frederich Wilhelm Eric von Mendeldorf and von Horst, one last member of the expedition who remains lost; the book has been adapted into comic form by Gold Key Comics in Tarzan nos. 179-181, dated November 1969-January 1970, with a script by Gaylord DuBois and art by Doug Wildey. 1930 in science fiction Bleiler, Everett. The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 67. ERBzine.com Illustrated Bibliography entry for Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan at the Earth's Core Tarzan at the Earth's Core at Faded Page Free Ebook from Project Gutenberg of Australia Formatted epub version of the book on edgar-rice-burroughs-ebooks Blog Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project Page for Tarzan at the Earth's Core
Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar
Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar is a novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the fifth in his series of books about the title character Tarzan. It first appeared in the November and December issues of All-Story Cavalier Weekly in 1916, the first book publication was by McClurg in 1918. Tarzan returns to Opar, the source of the gold where a lost colony of fabled Atlantis is located, in order to make good on some financial reverses he has suffered. While Atlantis itself sank beneath the waves thousands of years ago, the workers of Opar continued to mine all of the gold, which means there is a rather huge stockpile but, now lost to the memory of the Oparians and only Tarzan knows its secret location. A greedy, outlawed Belgian army officer, Albert Werper, in the employ of a criminal Arab, secretly follows Tarzan to Opar. There, Tarzan loses his memory after being struck on the head by a falling rock in the treasure room during an earthquake. On encountering La, the high priestess, the servant of the Flaming God of Opar, and, very beautiful, Tarzan once again rejects her love which enrages her and she tries to have him killed.
In the meanwhile, Jane has been kidnapped by the Arab and wonders what is keeping her husband from once again coming to her rescue. A now amnesiac Tarzan and Werper escape from Opar, bearing away the sacrificial knife of Opar which La and some retainers set out to recover. There is counter intrigue the rest of the way. Burroughs' novel served as a partial basis of the silent film serial The Adventures of Tarzan; the book has been adapted into comic form on a number of occasions. Notable adaptations include those of Gold Key Comics in Tarzan nos. 159-161, dated May–September 1967, Marvel in Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle nos. 1-6, 8 and 10-11, dated June–November 1977 and January, March–April 1978. Talinum paniculatum is a native plant from West Indies and Central America and has common names of Flameflower and Jewels-of-Opar. Bleiler, Everett; the Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 67. ERBzine.com Illustrated ERB Bibliography: Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar Text of the novel at Project Gutenberg Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar public domain audiobook at LibriVox Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project page for Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar
Tarzan and the Golden Lion
Tarzan and the Golden Lion is an adventure novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the ninth in his series of books about the title character Tarzan. It was first published as a seven part serial in Argosy All-Story Weekly beginning in December 1922. C. McClurg & Co. on March 24, 1923. The story picks up with the Clayton family, Jane Porter and their son Korak, returning from their adventures in the previous novel. Along the way they find an orphaned lion cub. Flora Hawkes, a previous housemaid of the Clayton's had overheard of Tarzan's discovery of the treasure chamber in the lost city of Opar and had managed to copy his map to it, she concocted a plan to lead an expedition to collect the gold. As a contingency to discourage any local denizens from questioning them, she sought out and found a Tarzan look-alike named Esteban Miranda to accompany them. Two years passed since the Clayton family picked up their lion cub, making the year around 1935 and Tarzan would have been about 47 years old.
His Greystoke estate had become financially depleted due his support of the Allies war efforts and he concluded it was time to return to Opar for another withdrawal. Tarzan ended up in the hands of the Oparians. Queen La, who had come into disfavor with the high priest, felt she had nothing to lose by escaping with Tarzan through the only unguarded route—a path to the legendary valley of diamonds, from which no one had returned. There, Tarzan found a race of humans who were little better than animals in intelligence, being enslaved by a race of intelligent gorillas. With the help of his golden lion Jad-bal-ja, Tarzan used the natives to restore La to power. Before leaving he accepted a bag of diamonds for a reward. Meanwhile, Esteban Miranda convinced Tarzan's Waziri party to take the gold from Hawkes' party while most of them were out hunting, he buried the gold so he could retain it later. The real Tarzan confronted the imposter, who managed to pilfer Tarzan's bag of diamonds. Esteban Miranda was chased by Jad-balja, but escaped into a river.
Esteban Miranda was captured and permanently imprisoned by a local tribe. Tarzan was able to attain the gold and return with it; the novel was made into a motion picture in 1927. The book has been adapted into comic form by Gold Key Comics in Tarzan nos. 172-173, dated April–May 1969, with a script by Gaylord DuBois and art by Russ Manning. "Tarzan and the Golden Lion" was the basis for an episode of Filmation's animated Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle series. Here, the intelligent gorillas were depicted as a race of gorilla men called the Bolmangani where they fought with Tarzan when they were imprisoning a race of monkey people and some animals. Bleiler, Everett; the Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 67. Tarzan and the Golden Lion at Faded Page ERBzine.com Illustrated Bibliography entry for Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan and the Golden Lion Edgar Rice Burroughs Summary Project page for Tarzan and the Golden Lion Text of the novel at Project Gutenberg Australia Formatted epub version of the book on edgar-rice-burroughs-ebooks.blogspot.com
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation, genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. Evolution occurs when evolutionary processes such as natural selection and genetic drift act on this variation, resulting in certain characteristics becoming more common or rare within a population, it is this process of evolution that has given rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms and molecules. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-19th century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. Evolution by natural selection was first demonstrated by the observation that more offspring are produced than can survive.
This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1) traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology and behaviour, 2) different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction and 3) traits can be passed from generation to generation. Thus, in successive generations members of a population are more to be replaced by the progenies of parents with favourable characteristics that have enabled them to survive and reproduce in their respective environments. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics, which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation. All life on Earth shares a last universal common ancestor that lived 3.5–3.8 billion years ago. The fossil record includes a progression from early biogenic graphite, to microbial mat fossils, to fossilised multicellular organisms.
Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped by repeated formations of new species, changes within species and loss of species throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Morphological and biochemical traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, can be used to reconstruct phylogenetic trees. Evolutionary biologists have continued to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses as well as constructing theories based on evidence from the field or laboratory and on data generated by the methods of mathematical and theoretical biology, their discoveries have influenced not just the development of biology but numerous other scientific and industrial fields, including agriculture and computer science. The proposal that one type of organism could descend from another type goes back to some of the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, such as Anaximander and Empedocles; such proposals survived into Roman times. The poet and philosopher Lucretius followed Empedocles in his masterwork De rerum natura.
In contrast to these materialistic views, Aristotelianism considered all natural things as actualisations of fixed natural possibilities, known as forms. This was part of a medieval teleological understanding of nature in which all things have an intended role to play in a divine cosmic order. Variations of this idea became the standard understanding of the Middle Ages and were integrated into Christian learning, but Aristotle did not demand that real types of organisms always correspond one-for-one with exact metaphysical forms and gave examples of how new types of living things could come to be. In the 17th century, the new method of modern science rejected the Aristotelian approach, it sought explanations of natural phenomena in terms of physical laws that were the same for all visible things and that did not require the existence of any fixed natural categories or divine cosmic order. However, this new approach was slow to take root in the biological sciences, the last bastion of the concept of fixed natural types.
John Ray applied one of the more general terms for fixed natural types, "species," to plant and animal types, but he identified each type of living thing as a species and proposed that each species could be defined by the features that perpetuated themselves generation after generation. The biological classification introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1735 explicitly recognised the hierarchical nature of species relationships, but still viewed species as fixed according to a divine plan. Other naturalists of this time speculated on the evolutionary change of species over time according to natural laws. In 1751, Pierre Louis Maupertuis wrote of natural modifications occurring during reproduction and accumulating over many generations to produce new species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon suggested that species could degenerate into different organisms, Erasmus Darwin proposed that all warm-blooded animals could have descended from a single microorganism; the first full-fledged evolutionary scheme was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's "transmutation" theory of 1809, which envisaged spontaneous generation continually producing simple forms of life that developed greater complexity in parallel lineages with an inherent progressive tendency, postulated that on a local level, these lineages adapted to the environment by inheriting changes caused by their use or disuse in parents.
These ideas were cond