Fender Precision Bass
The Precision Bass is a bass guitar manufactured by Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. In its standard, post-1957 configuration, the Precision Bass is a solid body, four-stringed instrument equipped with a single split-coil humbucking pickup and a one-piece, 20 fret maple neck with rosewood, pau ferro, or maple fingerboard, its prototype, designed by Leo Fender in 1950, was brought to market in 1951. It was the first electric bass to earn widespread attention and use, remaining among the best-selling and most-imitated electric basses with considerable effect on the sound of popular music; the double bass, as a large instrument, is regarded as physically cumbersome and difficult to transport compared with smaller instruments. It was becoming hard to hear in large bands or those that used amplified instruments, it requires specialised skills to play that are distinct from those required to play the guitar; the Precision Bass was designed to overcome these problems. The name "Precision" came from the use of frets to play in tune more than upon the fretless fingerboard of the double bass.
The electric bass however lacks the distinctive acoustic qualities of the double bass, offering a more solid, harder-edged sound with more sustain. The bass guitar became more dominant and transformed the beat and rhythm of pop music from jump blues and swing to rhythm and blues, rock and funk. Acceptance of the electric bass was helped by the endorsement of Elvis Presley's bass-player Bill Black. Black was beginning to use a Precision Bass during the filming of Jailhouse Rock. Fender delivered an early Precision to LA session bassist and arranger Shifty Henry. Monk Montgomery became the first jazz player to popularize the "Fender Bass" while playing with his brother, guitarist Wes Montgomery; the original Precision Bass of 1951 shared several of its design features with the six-string Telecaster guitar, the main difference being its double cutaway body. In 1954 the Precision Bass received contoured edges for comfort while otherwise retaining the existing Telecaster-like styling. In 1957 the headstock and pickguard were redesigned to resemble Fender's introduced Stratocaster guitar, a rounder neck heel replacing the original square shape.
A redesigned pickguard was made of a single layer of gold-anodized aluminum with 10 screwholes. At the same time the original single-coil pickup was replaced by the Precision split-coil design with staggered polepieces, connected in a humbucking mode. In 1959 a glued-on rosewood fingerboard featuring "clay"-style dot position markers replaced the 1-piece maple neck and remained standard until 1966/67, when the CBS-owned Fender companies began to offer a separate, laminated maple fingerboard capped on a maple neck. Rosewood fingerboards were made of a veneered, round-laminated piece of wood and pearloid dot markers replaced the "clay"-style inlays introduced in 1959. In 1960 the aluminum pickguard was replaced with a 13-screw celluloid design having 3 or 4 layers of black, white pearloid or brown "tortoise-shell"). In that same year the newly designed Fender Jazz Bass was released; the original Telecaster-derived design, with a few updates, was reintroduced in 1968 as the Telecaster Bass. Within a few years, however, it had evolved into a model distinctly different from the contemporary Precision Bass, alongside which it was marketed through 1979.
Two artist-designed models use the Telecaster Bass body style. Since 1969 the 1-piece maple neck option has been fitted to many Fender basses and the rosewood fretboard offered as alternative; some Precision Basses made in the 1970s were available with an unlined fretless rosewood, ebony or maple fingerboard, popularized by endorsees Sting and Tony Franklin. Fender offered a fretless P Bass in the mid-1990s as a part of the first-generation American Standard line but dropped this variant at the end of the 20th century. From 1980 to 1984 the Precision Bass was given a high-mass brass bridge; the Special featured a split-coil pickup with white covers, gold hardware, a 2-band EQ and an active/passive toggle switch. The Elite had one or two split-coil humbucking pickups, TBX tone circuit and a Schaller fine-tune bridge used on the Plus Series models of the early 1990s; some models stained ebony fretboard. Japanese models appeared in late 1984, with a smaller body shape and a modern C-shape maple neck with 22 medium-jumbo frets.
The 1980s and 1990s saw the introduction of the Precision Plus and Deluxe Plus basses in 1989 and 1991, featuring Lace Sensor pickups, fine-tuner bridges, 22-fret necks and passive or active electronics on certain models. The Custom Shop 40th Anniversary model of 1991 was a luxurious version of the Precision Plus Deluxe bass with gold hardware, a quilted maple top and an ebony fretboard with side dot position markers; the American Series Precision Bass was introduced in 2000 and discontinued in 2008. From 2003 the S-1 switching system allowed the pickup coils to be switched from series to parallel,offering a wider tonal range, but this was discontinued in 2008 with the second generation of American Standard Series instruments; the American Standard, American Deluxe, Highway One (featuring'70s styling, BadAss II brid
Jigsaw (The Shadows album)
Jigsaw is the sixth rock album by British instrumental group The Shadows, released in 1967 through EMI Records. Hank Marvin - Lead guitar and mandolin Bruce Welch - Rhythm guitar John Rostill - Bass guitar Brian Bennett - Drums and percussion Norrie Paramor - Producer The Shadows discography
Shadow Music is the fifth rock album by British instrumental group The Shadows, released in 1966 through EMI Records. Hank Marvin - Lead guitar and vocals Bruce Welch - Rhythm guitar and vocals John Rostill - Bass guitar and vocals Brian Bennett - Drums and pianoNorrie Paramor - Producer and orchestral accompaniment on "A Sigh" Dave Steen - photography The Shadows discography
The Sound of The Shadows
The Sound of The Shadows is the fourth rock album by British instrumental group The Shadows, released in July 1965 through EMI Records. The album was re-released by Capitol Records of Canada in stereo on 4 October 1965; the photograph for the alternative cover was taken outside EMI House in London in 1964, by staff photographer Tony Leigh. It was used as the inside cover of the Cliff Richard album Aladdin and His Wonderful Lamp. Hank Marvin - Lead guitar and vocals Bruce Welch - Rhythm guitar and vocals John Rostill - Bass guitar and vocals Brian Bennett - Drums and percussion Norrie Paramor - Producer and orchestral accompaniment on "Blue Sky, Blue Sea, Blue Me" and "The Windjammer" The Shadows discography
Shades of Rock
Shades of Rock is the eighth rock album by British instrumental group The Shadows, released in 1970 through Columbia. Hank Marvin - Lead and rhythm guitar John Rostill - Bass guitar Brian Bennett - Drums and percussion Alan Hawkshaw - Piano and electric piano Dave Richmond - Bass guitar Herbie Flowers - Bass guitar Brian Odgers - Bass guitar Cover Photo by Alan Wilmoth Peter Vince - Producer
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh