Bristol is a municipality in the Outaouais region, part of the Pontiac Regional County Municipality, Canada. It is located on the north shore of Lac des Chats across from Ontario, its settlements include Bristol Village, Bristol Mines, Bristol Ridge, Doherty, Maple Ridge, Maryland, McKee, Norway Bay, Weirstead. Bristol Township shown on the Gale and Duberger Map of 1795, was created in 1834, it was named after the City of Bristol in south-west England, known for its port facilities. The first settlers came from England and Ireland, followed on by settlers from Germany and Poland. In 1845, a post office was established, in 1855, the township municipality was created together with the neighbouring hamlet of Norway Bay, an area, now a sought-after resort location on the Ottawa River, its first mayor was William Craig and the mayor as of November 2009 is Brent Orr. Canada's first horse-drawn railroad was in the Bristol area, it was operated by the Union Forwarding Company, ran from Pontiac Village to Union Village until 1886.
From 1872 to 1894, iron ore was first mined. In 1956, a new open pit iron ore mine and processing facilities were built, employing up to 300 people; this was the first iron ore pelletizing plant built in Quebec. It closed in 1976. On April 24, 2004, the Township Municipality of Bristol was changed to Municipality of Bristol. Languages: English as first language: 80% French as first language: 19% Other as first language: 1%Due to the fact that many visitors come to Norway Bay in the summers, these statistics may change. Norway Bay is a popular summer destination with hundreds of cottages and two hotels catering to tourists. Located here is McLellan Park with a public beach and wharf on the Ottawa River. During the months of June and August, Norway Bay is considered home to hundreds of families. At the wharf, there are swimming lessons, at the beach there are kayak and canoe adventures. Norway Bay has grown the past decade due to the many opportunities it brings to all ages. Other outdoor activities include cycling on the Cycloparc PPJ trail, golfing on the local golf course, boating and hiking.
In the winter, snowmobiling can be done on local trails, on top of the frozen river, if temperatures permit. List of municipalities in Quebec
Kitigan Zibi is a First Nations reserve of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation, an Algonquin band. It is situated at the confluence of the Désert and Gatineau Rivers, borders south-west on the Town of Maniwaki in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. Having a total area of 183.9 square kilometres, it is the largest Algonquin Nation in Canada, in both area and population. Present in the reserve are grocery and hardware supermarkets, gas station and secondary schools with a library accessible to the whole community, gift shops, a community radio station, a day-care, a community hall, a health centre, a police department, a youth centre, a wildlife centre, an educational and cultural centre. Kitigàn means "garden" or "cultivated land." Since Algonquins were not farmers, it may be that, in this case, this name originated as a reference to a clearing made by the Hudson's Bay Company for the establishment of its post and the adjoining garden. The reserve is bounded by the Eagle River along its west side, by the Desert River on the north side, the Gatineau River on the east side.
Most of its development is near Highway 105, while forest still covers much of the reserve. It is home to 13 fresh water lakes with areas in excess of 250,000 square metres and 29 smaller lakes and streams located throughout the territory. Fish species found within these waters are walleye, bass, carp and fresh water sturgeon. Mammals found within the reserve include beaver, fisher, mink, bobcat, cougar, black bear and moose; the history of the reserve is linked to that of the Town of Maniwaki, which developed concurrently. In the first half of the 19th century, Algonquins of the mission at Lake of Two Mountains, under the leadership of Chief Pakinawatik, came to the area of the Désert River. Shortly after in 1832, the Hudson's Bay Company followed them and installed a trading post at the mouth of this river. A decade Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate established the mission of Notre-Dame-du-Desert and, from 1849, they demanded of the authorities the demarcation of a township in order to establish a reserve for the Algonquins.
Chief Pakinawatik, along with other leaders, journeyed by canoe on three separate occasions to Upper Canada and negotiated the terms for the setting aside of the reserve land. The township limits were given the name of Maniwaki by the Oblates at this time. In Algonquin language, the place was identified as Kitigànsìpì or Kitigàn Zìbì, meaning "Garden River."Legally established in 1851, the reserve was demarcated in 1853. In the decree implementing it, the reserve was called "Manawaki" and "River Desert"; the name "Kitigan Zibi" came to replace the other two on September 24, 1994, when the band council gave this title to the reserve. Because of land claim settlements in the late 1990s, small portions of land of the Town of Maniwaki were added to Kitigan Zibi; the federal government concluded 18 March 2019 an agreement to pay the Kitigan Zibi community $116 million, settling 29 claims for Indian reserve land appropriated between 1873 and 1917 for the town site of Maniwaki. The same community filed in December 2016 a claim in Ontario Superior Court, claiming it never surrendered and still owns the land in Ottawa on which Parliament of Canada stands.
Concerned about the disinterest of its youth in their own language, the community has decided to reintroduce the teaching of the Algonquin language in school. As of September 2012, the registered population of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation is 2,988 members, of whom 1,560 live on the Kitigan Zibi reserve, 28 live on another reserve or crown land, 1,400 live off reserve. Canada Census data before 2001: Population in 1996: 969 Population in 1991: 563 Languages: English as first language: 66% French as first language: 13% Other as first language: 21% Chief Antoine Pakinawatik - 1854-1874 Chief Peter Tenasco - 1874-1884, 1890–1896 Chief Simon Odjick - 1884-1890 Chief Louizon Commanda - 1896-1899 Chief John Tenasco - 1899-1911 Chief Michael Commanda - 1911-1917 Chief John Cayer - 1917-1920 Chief John B. Chabot - 1920-1924, 1939–1951 Chief Vincent Odjick - 1927-1933 Chief Patrick Brascoupe - 1933-1936 Chief Abraham McDougall - 1936-1939 Chief William Commanda - 1951-1970 Chief Ernest McGregor - 1970-1976 Chief Jean Guy Whiteduck - 1976-2006 Chief Stephen McGregor - 2006-2008 Chief Gilbert Whiteduck - 2008-2015 Chief Jean-Guy Whiteduck - 2015-present day The Kitigan Zibi Pow Wow is held annually, on the first weekend of June.
The Kitigan Zibi Cultural Centre has a number of exhibits, cultural artifacts and photographs relating to the Algonquin culture and history. A living museum, Mawandoseg Kitigan Zibi, is dedicated to traditional Anishinaabeg way of life. Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council - Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg community page
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
L'Ange-Gardien, Outaouais, Quebec
L'Ange-Gardien is a municipality in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. It constitutes the easternmost part of Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais Regional County Municipality, north of the Buckingham Sector of the City of Gatineau; the municipality straddles both sides of the Du Lièvre River. The following communities and villages are within its boundaries: Glen Almond Neilon Ribot In 1861, a parish municipality was formed and named L'Ange-Gardien. In 1869, a post office serving the parish and village was established. In 1881, it was formed into a parish municipality. In 1915 the village of Angers was separated from L'Ange-Gardien. On January 1, 1975 L'Ange-Gardien, Masson, Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette, Buckingham-South-East, Buckingham-South-West were merged to form the City of Buckingham, but because of adverse public reaction, this merger did not last long. On January 1, 1980 the former municipalities of West Buckingham, Buckingham Township, L'Ange-Gardien Parish were reorganized into the Municipality of L'Ange-Gardien.
Population trend: Population in 2011: 5051 Population in 2006: 4348 Population in 2001: 3610 2001 to 2006 population change: 20.4% Population in 1996: 3521 Population in 1991: 2815Private dwellings: 1775 Languages: English as first language: 16% French as first language: 82% English and French as first language: 1% Other as first language: 1% List of municipalities in Quebec Media related to L'Ange-Gardien, Quebec at Wikimedia Commons
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
Rapid Lake, Quebec
Rapid Lake is a First Nation reserve on the western shore of Cabonga Reservoir in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. It belongs to the Algonquins of Barrière Lake of the Algonquin Nation; the reserve is an enclave within the Lac-Pythonga unorganized territory and in the middle of the La Vérendrye Wildlife Reserve. It is accessible by a short road from Quebec Route 117 80 kilometres north of Grand-Remous. In recent years, the community has been troubled by poor living conditions, financial difficulties, governance disputes, school closure, protests; the Algonquin have long lived following a traditional nomadic life. Evidence has been found of Algonquin presence at Lake Barrière on the Ottawa River from the 18th century. Not until 1851 did the Hudson's Bay Company establish a trading post first at the former Lake Cabonga; when this post burned down in 1873, it was replaced by a new post on Lake Barrière in 1874, identified as Mitakanabikong or Mitchikanabikong, as Barrière from 1876 on. On September 7, 1961, the Rapid Lake Reserve was formed when the Government of Quebec transferred control and administration of 69 acres in the geographic township of Émard to the Government of Canada.
It took its name from the former Rapide Lake, submerged below the waters of Cabonga Reservoir, created in 1929. Despite these lands being reserved for use by the Algonquins, they continued to visit the site at Barrière Lake about 30 kilometres north because of their historic ties to it. Today, many families continue to go to Barrière Lake to practice traditional activities. In 1995, because of a leadership dispute, some families left the reserve and settled on Jean-Peré Lake, not far to the south in La Vérendrye Park. Another result was that the traditional oral rules for leadership selection were codified in writing for the first time in 1996. However, leadership disputes arose again in 2006 when two separate band councils were selected by separate Elder Councils, embroiling the community in legal proceedings and governance disputes until today. On October 6, 2008, seventy-five members of the Barrière Lake Algonquins set up a roadblock on Highway 117, demanding that the federal and provincial governments honour a resource-sharing agreement signed twenty years earlier.
This protest was repeated a month on November 19. Both protests disrupted traffic for hours by dragging logs onto the road, ending with police confrontation. There is one school on the reserve, Rapid Lake School, with classes for pre-kindergarten to Secondary grade 3. Since 1995, the school is under the jurisdiction of the Band Council, that can tailor the school's curriculum to local cultural realities in accordance with provincial standards. In addition to recognized provincial programs, the school teaches the Algonquin language. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada - Algonquins of Barriere Lake
Val-des-Monts is a municipality in the Outaouais region of Quebec, located about 40 kilometres north of Ottawa, Ontario. It has a population of 10,625 residents. Formed in 1974 by the merger of the towns of Perkins, Saint-Pierre-de-Wakefield and Poltimore, it consists of farms and mountainous forests. Many of its residents commute to Gatineau for work. Due to its numerous lakes, recreational opportunities and cottages its population is boosted during weekends and holidays by visitors from nearby Ottawa and Gatineau; the largest of the town's many lakes is Lac McGregor followed by Lac Saint-Pierre and Lac Grand, which are all popular among cottagers. Most of the people in Val-des-Monts live in the village of Perkins. Our Shepherd Lutheran Church is a Christian church of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Val-des-Monts. On June 23, 2010, at 1:41 p.m. ET, a magnitude 5.0 earthquake hit Val-des-Monts. The earthquake was felt as far as Montreal and Cleveland. List of municipalities in Quebec Municipality of Val-des-Monts Website Affaires Municipales et Regions Quebec Statistics Canada Elections Canada Results - 39th General Election Director General of Quebec Elections Official Transport Quebec Road Map