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Outer ear

The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external portion of the ear, which consists of the auricle and the ear canal. It focuses it on the eardrum; the visible part is called the auricle known as the pinna in other animals. It is composed of a thin plate of yellow elastic cartilage, covered with integument, connected to the surrounding parts by ligaments and muscles. Many mammals can move the pinna in order to focus their hearing in a certain direction in much the same way that they can turn their eyes. Most humans do not have this ability. From the pinna, the sound waves move into the ear canal a simple tube running through to the middle ear; this tube leads inward from the bottom of the auricula and conducts the vibrations to the tympanic cavity and amplifies frequencies in the range 3 kHz to 12 kHz. The intrinsic muscles of the external ear are: The helicis major is a narrow vertical band situated upon the anterior margin of the helix, it arises below, from the spina helicis, is inserted into the anterior border of the helix, just where it is about to curve backward.

The helicis minor is an oblique fasciculus, covering the crus helicis. The tragicus is a flattened vertical band on the lateral surface of the tragus. Known as the mini lobe; the antitragicus arises from the outer part of the antitragus, is inserted into the cauda helicis and antihelix. The transverse muscle is placed on the cranial surface of the pinna, it consists of scattered fibers tendinous and muscular, extending from the eminentia conchae to the prominence corresponding with the scapha. The oblique muscle on the cranial surface, consists of a few fibers extending from the upper and back part of the concha to the convexity above it; the auricular muscles are the three muscles surrounding the auricula or outer ear: anterior auricular muscle superior auricular muscle posterior auricular muscleThe superior muscle is the largest of the three, followed by the posterior and the anterior. In some mammals these muscles can adjust the direction of the pinna. In humans these muscles possess little action.

The auricularis anterior draws the auricula upward. One consequence of the configuration of the outer ear is selectively to boost the sound pressure 30- to 100-fold for frequencies around 3 kHz; this amplification makes humans most sensitive to frequencies in this range — and explains why they are prone to acoustical injury and hearing loss near this frequency. Most human speech sounds are distributed in the bandwidth around 3 kHz. Malformations of the external ear can be a consequence of hereditary disease, or exposure to environmental factors such as radiation, infection; such defects include: A preauricular fistula, a long narrow tube near the tragus. This can be inherited as an autosomal recessive fashion and may suffer from chronic infection in life. Cosmetic defects, such as large ears, small ears. Malformation that may lead to functional impairment, such as atresia of the external auditory meatus or aplasia of the pinna, Genetic syndromes, which include: Konigsmark syndrome, characterised by small ears and atresia of the external auditory canal, causing conductive hearing loss and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Goldenhar syndrome, a combination of developmental abnormalities affecting the ears, bones of the skull, vertebra, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treacher Collins syndrome, characterised by dysplasia of the auricle, atresia of the bony part of the autiory canal, hypoplasia of the auditory ossicles and tympanic cavity, and'mixed' deafness, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Crouzon syndrome, characterised by bilateral atresia of the external auditory canal, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.. Malformations are treated with surgery, although artificial prostheses are sometimes used. Preauricular fistulas are not treated unless chronically inflamed. Cosmetic defects without functional impairment are repaired after ages 6–7. If malformations are accompanied by hearing loss amenable to correction the early use of hearing aids may prevent complete hearing loss; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1033 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy

Goga Ashkenazi

Goga Ashkenazi is a Kazakh businesswoman and socialite. She is the CEO of MunaiGaz Engineering Group, a Kazakh oil and gas conglomerate. Since 2012, she has been head of the fashion label Vionnet, based in Milan. Ashkenazi was born in Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, she was raised in Moscow, where her father, engineer Yerkin Berkaliev, was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party under Mikhail Gorbachev. Her mother, has degrees in both engineering and medicine, she has a sister, 10 years older. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, her family returned to Kazakhstan. Eager for their daughter to get a competitive education, her parents sent the 12-year-old Goga to boarding school in England, she first attended Buckswood Grange School in East Sussex followed by Stowe School, but was rusticated after being caught kissing a boy. She attended Rugby School, earning five A levels, she studied at Somerville College, graduating in 2001 with a degree in modern history and economics. After leaving Oxford, Ashkenazi worked at investment banking firms, including Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley in London and ABN AMRO in Hong Kong.

In 2003, Ashkenazi founded the MunaiGaz Engineering Group with Meruert. The company constructs compressor stations for gas pipelines and tunnelling operations for utility networks, gas turbine and diesel plants. Ashkenazi took over Vionnet in 2012, she says she spent a year in Italy studying art, design and the Italian language. Ashkenazi is on the board of Ivanhoe Mining Group. At age 23, she met and married American Stefan Ashkenazy, whose father Severyn Ashkenazy founded the L'Ermitage Hotel Group; the couple separated in 2004 and divorced in 2007, but she retained his last name, albeit with a different spelling due to a typo on her Russian passport. Her parents are both sworn atheists as members of the Communist Party, but her father is of Muslim background and Goga is Jewish through her maternal grandmother. Halachically Jewish, Goga notes, she says that in her purse she carries a page from a 1,200-year-old Torah. Ashkenazi had an extramarital affair with billionaire Timur Kulibayev, the son-in-law of the president of Kazakhstan.

She and Kulibayev have two sons: Adam, born in 2007 and Alan, born in 2012. She divides her time between Milan, where she works on Vionnet, London, where her children live, she is close friends with Prince Andrew, Duke of York, as well as banker Nat Rothschild, real estate developer Nick Candy, Duran Duran band member Nick Rhodes and Lord Edward Spencer-Churchill. Her first name, means diamond in Kazakh, while her sister Meruert's name means pearl. Profile at

Lithuanian Chronicles

The Lithuanian Chronicles, or Belarusian-Lithuanian Chronicles are three redactions of chronicles compiled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. All redactions were served the needs of Lithuanian patriotism; the first edition, compiled in the 1420s, glorified Vytautas the Great and supported his side in power struggles. The second redaction, prepared in the first half of the 16th century, started the myth of Lithuanian Roman origin: it gave a fanciful genealogy of Palemon, a noble from the Roman Empire who founded the Grand Duchy; this noble origin of Lithuanians was important in cultural rivalry with the Kingdom of Poland. The third redaction, known as the Bychowiec Chronicle, elaborated further on the legend, but provided some useful information about the second half of the 15th century; the three redactions, the first known historical accounts produced within the Grand Duchy, gave rise to the historiography of Lithuania. All medieval historians used these accounts, that survived in over 30 known manuscripts, as basis for their publications and some of the myths created in the chronicles persisted to the beginning of the 20th century.

The first or the short redaction was compiled sometime in the 1420s in Smolensk, when Vytautas the Great hoped to be crowned as King of Lithuania. This redaction included the earliest known historical account produced in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Dis ist Witoldes sache wedir Jagalan und Skargalan, a complaint and memorial written by Vytautas in 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War, it detailed his power struggles against cousins Jogaila and Skirgaila in 1379–1390 and supported his claims to his patrimony in Trakai and title of Grand Duke of Lithuania. Two translations of this document survive: Latin Origo regis Jagyelo et Witholdi ducum Lithuanie from the 15th century and Russian Litovskomu rodu pochinok from the 14th century; this document was expanded to include events up to 1396. It formed the backbone of the first chronicle; the first redaction survived only from manuscripts and compilations. The earliest known compilation was prepared in Smolensk around 1446 by bishop Gerasim and his clerk Timofei.

The compilation included a praise to Vytautas, written by Gerasim, a story about Podolia, written in 1431–1435 to support the Lithuanian claims against Poland in the Lithuanian Civil War, a description of power struggles between Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis, a short summary of Moscow's chronicles, latest events in Smolensk. The compilation did not survive in its original state, it is known from several manuscripts: Supraśl Manuscript, written in the middle of the 15th century and preserved in a 1519 copy found in the Supraśl Orthodox Monastery Avraamka or Vilnius Manuscript, written by a Smolensk monk named Avraamka in 1495 and found in a Vilnius library Uvarov or Slutsk Manuscript, written at the court of Olelkovich, prince of Slutsk and descendant of Gediminas, in the 15th century Academic Manuscript, written in the first half of the 16th century, found in Vologda, published in 1903, is incomplete Nikiforov Manuscript, belonged to the Holy Spirit Cathedral in Minsk and was published by Sergey Belokurov in 1898, is incomplete The second, more extensive, redaction was compiled in the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century.

The redaction traced back the foundations of the Lithuanian state to the 1st century, when legendary Palemon escaped from Roman Empire and settled at the mouth of Dubysa. He became the first ruler of Lithuania; this legendary part was followed by the revised first redaction, detailing the lineage of the Gediminids. Mindaugas, the first King of Lithuania crowned in 1253, other earlier attested dukes were skipped entirely; the elaborate story that Lithuanians were of noble Roman origins had no historical basis and was discarded by modern historians as nothing more than a myth. While many modern historians discount the text as useless, it can still provide useful bits and pieces of Lithuanian history as it incorporates many garbled fragments of earlier, now lost and chronicles; the mythical Palemon is a good evidence of political tensions and cultural ideology of the Lithuanian nobles in the 16th century. This myth served Lithuanian interests in conflicts with Russia. Poland in personal union with Lithuania, claimed that it brought civilization to this barbaric pagan land.

By creating fanciful genealogies, linking Lithuanians with noble Romans, the Lithuanian nobility could counter these claims and demand political independence. This redaction included dates and contained several independent stories that were cherished by 19th century nationalists: legends how Gediminas founded Vilnius because of his dreams of Iron Wolf, how Kęstutis took pagan priestess Birutė for his wife, how Vytautas lavishly treated his guests at the Conference of Lutsk in 1429, etc. Among them were some factual stories, including Algirdas' three sieges of Moscow; this format differed from other Slavic chronicles that tended to list inter-related events year-by-year. The second redaction considerably trimmed and fragmented parts about Ruthenia and Grand Duchy of Moscow; the chronicle was popular and copied. It shaped the political mentality of the Lithuanian nobility, formed the basis for the


Sannie Charlotte Carlson, better known by her various stage names including Whigfield, Naan, or Sannie, is a Danish singer and record producer. She is best known for her 1994 single "Saturday Night". Based in Italy at the time, Whigfield worked with Italian producer Larry Pignagnoli and "Saturday Night" entered the top five in Italy, her single "Another Day" managed to peak at number three in Italy as well. The singles "Another Day" and "Think of You" charted in a number of other markets, entering the top ten in the United Kingdom, Switzerland and her native Denmark, she competed in the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix 2018 with the song "Boys on Girls" but didn't qualify for the superfinal. Carlson was born in Denmark, she spent several years in Africa as a child before returning to her native country. Before singing Carlson studied music. Carlson played in a duo before she met the producer Larry Pignagnoli and took on the name "Whigfield" as a tribute to her school music teacher. Sannie Carlson's official website Whigfield's official website

Tanzam Highway

The Tanzam Highway leads from Lusaka in Zambia to Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. The highway was built from 1968 to 1973 in several stages and was intended to provide seaport access for Zambia and to expand the transport options for Zambia and the Zaire; the Tanzam Highway is paved. The road leads through mountainous areas to an altitude of over 2000 m, it starts in Dar es Salaam, the largest city of Tanzania, passes through the regions of Pwani, Morogoro and Mbeya. The highway crosses the Mikumi National Park between Morogoro. In Zambia it is part of the Great North Road and is marked T2. In the vicinity of Iringa, the highway passes by the site of a battle near Lula-Rugaro, where a monument commemorates the defeat of the German colonial troops on the Hehe on 17 August 1891. In Zambia, the Great North Road crosses the Kapiri Nakonde areas; the distance between Nakonde and Kapiri Mposhi is 832 km. Within Tanzania, the Tanzam Highway connects with four major routes: in Chalinze, the main road to Tanga and to Kilimanjaro and Nairobi in Morogoro, the road to Dodoma in the west to Mwanza and Kigoma in Makambako there is a road up to Songea, going on to Mtwara Uyole/Mbeya is on the road to Malawi through Tukuyu.

West from Makambako, Tanzam runs along the TAZARA Railway. During the apartheid era in South Africa and the civil wars in Angola and Mozambique, this highway, together with the TAZARA Railway, provided Zambia's the only safe access to a seaport, a prerequisite for the survival of the Zambian economy. Ian Singer, Arthur Steevens, Heather Chalcraft: The Great North Road. From Great North Road. Horizont, 1966

Naming and Necessity

Naming and Necessity is a 1980 book with the transcript of three lectures, given by the philosopher Saul Kripke, at Princeton University in 1970, in which he dealt with the debates of proper names in the philosophy of language. The transcript was brought out in 1972 in Semantics of Natural Language, edited by Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman. Among analytic philosophers and Necessity is considered one of the most important philosophical works of the twentieth century. Language is a primary concern of analytic philosophers the use of language to express concepts and to refer to individuals. In Naming and Necessity, Kripke considers several questions that are important within analytic philosophy: How do names refer to things in the world? Are all statements that can be known a priori true, are all statements that are known a posteriori contingently true? Do objects have any essential properties? What is the nature of identity? How do natural kind terms refer and what do they mean? Kripke's three lectures constitute an attack on descriptivist theories of proper names.

Kripke attributes variants of descriptivist theories to Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and John Searle, among others. According to descriptivist theories, proper names either are synonymous with descriptions, or have their reference determined by virtue of the name's being associated with a description or cluster of descriptions that an object uniquely satisfies. Kripke rejects both these kinds of descriptivism, he gives several examples purporting to render descriptivism implausible as a theory of how names get their reference determined. As an alternative, Kripke adumbrated a causal theory of reference, according to which a name refers to an object by virtue of a causal connection with the object as mediated through communities of speakers, he points out that proper names, in contrast to most descriptions, are rigid designators: A proper name refers to the named object in every possible world in which the object exists, while most descriptions designate different objects in different possible worlds.

For example,'Nixon' refers to the same person in every possible world in which Nixon exists, while'the person who won the United States presidential election of 1968' could refer to Nixon, Humphrey, or others in different possible worlds. Kripke raised the prospect of a posteriori necessities—facts that are true, though they can be known only through empirical investigation. Examples include "Hesperus is Phosphorus", "Cicero is Tully", "Water is H2O" and other identity claims where two names refer to the same object. Kripke gave an argument against identity materialism in the philosophy of mind, the view that every mental fact is identical with some physical fact. Kripke argued that the only way to defend this identity is as an a posteriori necessary identity, but that such an identity—e.g. Pain is C-fibers firing—could not be necessary, given the possibility of pain that has nothing to do with C-fibers firing. Similar arguments have been proposed by David Chalmers. Kripke delivered the John Locke lectures in philosophy at Oxford in 1973.

Titled Reference and Existence, they are in many respects a continuation of Naming and Necessity, deal with the subjects of fictional names and perceptual error. They have been published by Oxford University Press. Quentin Smith has claimed that some of the ideas in Naming and Necessity were first presented by Ruth Barcan Marcus. Kripke is alleged to have misunderstood Marcus' ideas during a 1969 lecture which he attended, arrived at similar conclusions. Marcus, has refused to publish the verbatim transcript of the lecture. Smith's view is controversial, several well-known scholars have subsequently offered detailed responses arguing that his account is mistaken. In the first lecture, Kripke introduced a schematic semi-formal version of the kind of "theory of naming" he was criticising, he began the second lecture by recapitulating the "theses" of this theory, together with the "noncircularity condition" he had discussed in closing the first lecture. The theses and condition had been written up on a board for all to see.

This text was reproduced, as quoted below, in the "lightly edited" transcript of 1980. To every name or designating expression'X', there corresponds a cluster of properties, namely the family of those properties φ such that A believes'φX'. One of the properties, or some conjointly, are believed by A to pick out some individual uniquely. If most, or a weighted most, of the φ's are satisfied by one unique object y y is the referent of'X'. If the vote yields no unique object,'X' does not refer; the statement,'If X exists X has most of the φ's' is known a priori by the speaker. The statement,'If X exists X has most of the φ's' expresses a necessary truth. For any successful theory, the account must not be circular; the properties which are used in the vote must not themselves involve the notion of reference in such a way that it is impossible to eliminate. Kripke's main goals in this first lecture are to explain and critique the existing philosophical opinions on the way that names work. In the mid-20th century, the most significant philosophical theory about the nature of names and naming was a theory of Gottlob Frege's, developed by Bertrand Russell, the descriptivist theory of names, w