A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues in a single city or region. Film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases; some festivals focus on genre or subject matter. A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are annual events; some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film. The most prestigious film festivals in the world are considered to be Cannes and Venice; these festivals are sometimes called the "Big Three." The Toronto International Film Festival is North America's most popular festival in terms of attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world; the Venice Film Festival in Italy began in 1932, is the oldest film festival still running. Raindance Film Festival is the UK's largest celebration of independent film-making, takes place in London in October.
Mainland Europe's biggest independent film festival is ÉCU The European Independent Film Festival, that started in 2006 and takes place every spring in Paris, France. Edinburgh International Film Festival is the longest running festival in Great Britain. Australia's first and longest running film festival is the Melbourne International Film Festival, followed by the Sydney Film Festival. North America's first and longest running short film festival is the Yorkton Film Festival, established in 1947; the first film festival in the United States was the Columbus International Film & Video Festival known as The Chris Awards, held in 1953. According to the Film Arts Foundation in San Francisco, "The Chris Awards one of the most prestigious documentary, educational and informational competitions in the U. S, it was followed four years by the San Francisco International Film Festival, held in March 1957, which emphasized feature-length dramatic films. The festival played a major role in introducing foreign films to American audiences.
Films in the first year included Akira Kurosawa's Throne of Blood and Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali. Today, thousands of film festivals take place around the world—from high-profile festivals such as Sundance Film Festival and Slamdance Film Festival, to horror festivals such as Terror Film Festival, the Park City Film Music Festival, the first U. S. film festival dedicated to honoring music in film. Film Funding competitions such as Writers and Filmmakers were introduced when the cost of production could be lowered and internet technology allowed for the collaboration of film production. Although there are notable for-profit festivals such as SXSW, most festivals operate on a nonprofit membership-based model, with a combination of ticket sales, membership fees, corporate sponsorship constituting the majority of revenue. Unlike other arts nonprofits, film festivals receive few donations from the general public and are organized as nonprofit business associations instead of public charities.
Film industry members have significant curatorial input, corporate sponsors are given opportunities to promote their brand to festival audiences in exchange for cash contributions. Private parties to raise investments for film projects, constitute significant "fringe" events. Larger festivals maintain year-round staffs engaging in community and charitable projects outside festival season. While entries from established filmmakers are considered pluses by the organizers, most festivals require new or unknown filmmakers to pay an entry fee to have their works considered for screening; this is so in larger film festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, South by Southwest, Montreal World Film Festival, smaller "boutique" festivals such as the Miami International Film Festival, British Urban Film Festival in London and Mumbai Women's International Film Festival in India. On the other hand, some festivals—usually those accepting fewer films, not attracting as many "big names" in their audiences as do Sundance and Telluride—require no entry fee.
Rotterdam Film Festival, Mumbai Film Festival, many smaller film festivals in the United States, are examples. The Portland International Film Festival charges an entry fee, but waives it for filmmakers from the Northwestern United States, some others with regional focuses have similar approaches. Several film festival submission portal websites exist to streamline filmmakers' entries into multiple festivals, they provide databases of festival calls for entry and offer filmmakers a convenient "describe once, submit many" service. The core tradition of film festivals is competition, that is, the consideration of films with the intention of judging which are most deserving of various forms of recognition. In contrast to those films, some festivals may screen some films without treating them as part of the competition; the three most prestigious film festivals are considered to be Cannes, B
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of Northampton was 28,549. Northampton is known as an academic, artistic and countercultural hub, it features a large politically liberal community along with numerous alternative health and intellectual organizations. Based on U. S. Census demographics, election returns, other criteria, the website Epodunk rates Northampton as the most politically liberal medium-size city in the United States; the city has a high proportion of residents who identify as gay and lesbian, a high number of same-sex households, is a popular destination for the LGBT community. Northampton is part of the Pioneer Valley and is one of the northernmost cities in the Knowledge Corridor—a cross-state cultural and economic partnership with other Connecticut River Valley cities and towns. Northampton is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of western Massachusetts's two separate metropolitan areas.
It sits 19 miles north of the city of Springfield. Northampton is home to Smith College, Northampton High School, Smith Vocational and Agricultural High School, the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech. Northampton is known as "Norwottuck", or "Nonotuck", meaning "the midst of the river", named by its original Pocumtuc inhabitants. According to various accounts, Northampton was given its present name by John A. King, one of its original English settlers, or in King's honor, since it is supposed that he came to Massachusetts from Northampton, his birthplace; the Pocumtuc confederacy occupied the Connecticut River Valley from what is now southern Vermont and New Hampshire into northern Connecticut. The Pocumtuc tribes were Algonquian and traditionally allied with the Mahican confederacy to the west. By 1606 an ongoing struggle between the Mahican and Iroquois confederacies led to direct attacks on the Pocumtuc by the Iroquoian Mohawk nation; the Mahican confederacy had been defeated by 1628, limiting Pocumtuc access to trade routes to the west.
The area suffered a major smallpox epidemic in the 1630s following the arrival of Dutch traders in the Hudson Valley and English settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the previous two decades. It was in this context that the land making up the bulk of modern Northampton was sold to settlers from Springfield in 1653. On May 18, 1653, a petition for township was approved by the general court of Springfield. While some settlers visited the land in the fall of 1653, they waited till early spring 1654 to arrive and establish a permanent settlement; the situation in the region further deteriorated when the Mohawk people escalated hostilities against the Pocumtuc confederacy and other Algonquian tribes after 1655, forcing many of the plague-devastated Algonquian groups into defensive mergers. This coincided with a souring of relations between the Wampanoag and the Massachusetts Bay colonists leading to the expanded Algonquian alliance, which took part in King Philip's War. Northampton was part of the Equivalent Lands compromise.
Its territory was enlarged beyond the original settlement, but portions would be carved up into separate cities and municipalities. Southampton, for example, was incorporated in 1775 and included parts of the territories of modern Montgomery and Easthampton. Westhampton was incorporated in 1778 and Easthampton in 1809. A hamlet of Northampton, called Smith's Ferry, became separated from the rest of the city with the drawing of boundaries for Easthampton; because the village was separated by Mount Tom, the shortest path to from the downtown to this area was a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to flooding. This led to many services such as fire and police being provided by the city of Holyoke rather than Northampton's own municipal departments, after a number of negotiations between the two cities, Smith's Ferry was ceded to Holyoke in 1909 for a sum of $62,000. Congregational preacher and philosopher Jonathan Edwards was a leading figure in a 1734 Christian revival in Northampton.
In the winter of 1734 and the following spring it reached such intensity that it threatened the town's businesses. In the spring of 1735 the movement began to subside and a reaction set in, but the relapse was brief, the Northampton revival, which had spread through the Connecticut River Valley and whose fame had reached England and Scotland, was followed in 1739–1740 by the Great Awakening, under the leadership of Edwards. For this achievement, Edwards is considered one of the founders of evangelical Christianity, he is credited with being one of the primary inspirations for transcendentalism, because of passages like this: "That the works of nature are intended and contrived of God to signify and indigitate spiritual things is evident concerning the rainbow, by God's express revelation." Northampton hosted its own witch trials in the 1700s. Members of the Northampton community were present at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. On August 29, 1786, Daniel Shays and a group of Revolutionary War veterans stopped the civil court from sitting in Northampton, in an uprising known as Shays' Rebellion.
In 1805 a crowd of 15,000 gathered in Northampton to watch the executions of two Irishmen convicted of murder: Dominic Daley, 34, James Halligan, 27. The crowd, composed of New England Protestants of English ancestry, lit bonfires and expressed virulently anti-Irish and anti-Catholic sentiments; the trial evidence against Daley and Halligan was sparse, contrived, p
Academy of Music Theatre
The Academy of Music Theatre is located in and owned by the City of Northampton, which received the deed in 1892 from former owner and builder Edward H. R. Lyman, it was the first municipally owned theater in the United States. The Renaissance Revival style Academy of Music was designed by Hartford, architect William C. Brocklesby; the Academy of Music, Inc. is the operating entity for the building, it is an independent, not-for-profit, 501 charitable organization governed by a Board of Trustees. The Northampton Mayor and Smith College President serve on the board; the other board members are volunteers who have an interest in the performing arts, in the continued vitality of the City of Northampton, or who have special expertise related to the Academy’s operations. The theater is under the technical direction of Hugh Hall
Stuart Timmons was an American journalist, activist and award-winning author specializing in LGBT history based in Los Angeles, California. He was the author of The Trouble With Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement and the co-author of Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, Lipstick Lesbians with Lillian Faderman. Timmons was born on January 1957, in Cottagewood Hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he has two sisters and Emily Timmons, both in the SF Bay Area. While he was still a toddler, his family moved to Santa Barbara due to his father getting a new job. Timmons received his Bachelor of Arts in Film from the University of Los Angeles. While he was a student at UCLA, he co-founded the gay festival on campus with John Ramirez in 1979. Through his career Timmons wrote and edited for magazines, documentary films and non-fiction literature. While at UCLA, where he majored in film, his work as an activist impressed Mark Thompson, the senior editor of The Advocate, a national gay and lesbian news magazine.
Thompson hired Timmons as a journalist for the magazine. Timmons was the author of The Trouble With Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement, published in 1990. With lesbian historian Lillian Faderman, he co-authored Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, And Lipstick Lesbians, published in 2006. It chronicles the history of lesbians in Los Angeles since the late 1700s. Timmons served as the executive director of the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives and served on its board of directors. In 2007, he began developing walking tours of LGBTQ historic sites in Los Angeles, he finished tours of Downtown Los Angeles and Silver Lake, Los Angeles, but experienced a severe cerebellar stroke in January 2008 before he could complete his West Hollywood edition. With a grant from the City of West Hollywood, Los Angeles-based performance artist Jason Jenn help Timmons complete and produce the City of West Hollywood LGBTQ History Tour in celebration of the city's 30th Anniversary in 2015.
The walking tour was adapted into a self-guided mobile app. The walking tour included live performances of historical information including the talents of comedian Kristina Wong, Justin Sayer, he was a co-organizer of the dedication of the Mattachine Steps in Silver Lake named for the Mattachine Society on April 7, 2012, alongside Mark Thompson, Wes Joe, Mitch O'Farrell, Eric Garcetti. Timmons received a nomination for gay non-fiction from the American Library Association for his first book in 1990. For his book with Faderman, he received the Monette-Horwitz Award for LGBT Scholarship, the Lambda Literary Award, LGBT Non-Fiction and the Lambda Literary Award, LGBT Arts and Culture in 2007. Timmons was gay, he suffered a stroke in 2008 which diminished his cognitive function. Timmons died on January 28, 2017, at the Serrano North Convalescent Hospital in Hollywood, from cardiac arrest, at the age of 60. An intimate memorial was held at ONE National Lesbian Archives. Timmons, Stuart; the Trouble With Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement.
Boston, Massachusetts: Alyson Books. ISBN 9781555831752. OCLC 22274397. Faderman, Lillian. Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, Lipstick Lesbians. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465022885. OCLC 70707762. Hope Along the Wind: The Story of Harry Hay – co-writer and historical consultant. Official website of Stuart Timmons
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well