Outgassing is the release of a gas, dissolved, frozen, or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and evaporation, as well as desorption, seepage from cracks or internal volumes, gaseous products of slow chemical reactions. Boiling is thought of as a separate phenomenon from outgassing because it consists of a phase transition of a liquid into a vapor of the same substance. Outgassing is a challenge to maintaining clean high-vacuum environments. NASA and ESA maintain lists of materials with low-outgassing properties suitable for use in spacecraft, as outgassing products can condense onto optical elements, thermal radiators, or solar cells and obscure them. Materials not considered absorbent can release enough light-weight molecules to interfere with industrial or scientific vacuum processes. Moisture, sealants and adhesives are the most common sources, but metals and glasses can release gases from cracks or impurities; the rate of outgassing increases at higher temperatures because the vapor pressure and rate of chemical reaction increases.
For most solid materials, the method of manufacture and preparation can reduce the level of outgassing significantly. Cleaning of surfaces, or heating of individual components or the entire assembly can drive off volatiles. NASA's Stardust spaceprobe suffered reduced image quality due to an unknown contaminant that had condensed on the CCD sensor of the navigation camera. A similar problem affected the Cassini spaceprobe's Narrow Angle Camera, but was corrected by heating the system to 4 °C. A comprehensive characterisation of outgassing effects using mass spectrometers could be obtained for ESA's Rosetta spacecraft. Natural outgassing is commonplace in comets. Outgassing is a possible source of many tenuous atmospheres of terrestrial moons. Many materials are volatile relative to the extreme vacuum of outer space, may evaporate or boil at ambient temperature. Materials on the lunar surface have outgassed and been blown away by solar winds long ago, but volatile materials may remain at depth; the lunar atmosphere originates from outgassing of warm material below the surface.
Once released, gases always are less dense than the surrounding rocks and sand and seep toward the surface. Explosive eruptions of volcanoes result from water or other volatiles outgassed from magma being trapped, for example by a lava dome. At the Earth's tectonic divergent boundaries where new crust is being created and carbon dioxide are some of the volatiles being outgassed from mantle magma. Outgassing can be significant if it collects in a closed environment where air is stagnant or recirculated. For example, new car smell consists of outgassed chemicals released by heat in a closed automobile. A nearly odorless material such as wood may build up a strong smell if kept in a closed box for months. There is some concern that plasticizers and solvents released from many industrial products plastics, may be harmful to human health. Long-term exposure to solvent vapors can cause chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy. Outgassing toxic gases are of great concern in the design of submarines and space stations, which must have self-contained recirculated atmospheres.
The outgassing of small pockets of air near the surface of setting concrete can lead to permanent holes in the structure that may compromise its structural integrity. 1986 Lake Nyos Disaster Materials for use in vacuum Volatile organic compound Outgassing Data for Selecting Spacecraft Materials Online ESA Outgassing Data for Spacecraft Materials according to ECSS-Q-70-02
Pineda is a former village in Brevard County, United States The original settlement was near the FEC track at the west end of Anderson Way Two developers, E. C. and Anna Dearborn began to survey the area. Their recorded plat, "Plat of the Town of Pineda," showed hundreds of subdivided house lots; the main street, Pineda Avenue, was renamed Suntree Blvd. One early land speculator in Pineda was John Aspinwall. Today Aspinwall Street continues to bears his name. Many large land owners surrounded early Pineda, including the Duda family, Parrot family, Haskins, C. J. Hart, the Stewart family; the Pineda Causeway, named after this place, carries 4 lanes of State Road 404 1.8 miles south of the former village. It is located at the intersection of Suntree Boulevard and U. S. Route 1 east of Suntree and the Florida East Coast Railroad. There is a park here. At the junction of Suntree Boulevard and U. S. Route 1, this 10 acres community river park is situated on the shore of the Indian River Lagoon. Listed in State of Florida Great Florida Birding Trail—Waders, Shorebirds.
Pineda is located at 28°13′47″N 80°40′16″W.. The village has 33 homes, including eight riverfront homes; the residential streets are: Third Street, Aspinwall Avenue, Gannet Plaza Avenue, Friendship Place, Ernest Sand Road, 2nd Street, Turner Road, Byham Road. Bonaventure, Florida Indian River.
Nocturno is a studio album from Puerto Rican singer Roy Brown with the band Radio Pirata. The album was released under Brown's label Discos Lara-Yarí in 1991. Nocturno was recorded at Horizon Music Studios in Puerto Rico. Roy Brown was accompanied by the group Radio Pirata, led by Rucco Gandía. Gandía himself contributed the song "Mujer sola". Although the backing vocals appears the names of singers Lunna & Ex Menudo Ray Reyes, both of them were substituted by Gilda Gónzalez & Raül Reyes who became Radio Pirata’s Lead Vocalist; the album features the fifth Roy Brown song based on a poem by Luis Palés Matos, the third based on a poem by Clemente Soto Vélez. There's a song written by Puerto Rican writer Pedro Cabiya; the song "La borrachera de Charles Baudelaire" is based on the writings of the French poet of the same name. All tracks are written by Roy Brown, except where noted